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Encyclopedia > John Howard
The Hon John Howard
John Howard

Incumbent
Assumed office 
11 March 1996
Monarch Elizabeth II
Governor–General Michael Jeffery
Preceded by Paul Keating
Succeeded by Incumbent

Member of Parliament
for Bennelong
Incumbent
Assumed office 
18 May 1974
Preceded by John Cramer
Succeeded by Incumbent
Majority 41,735 (54.33%)

Born 26 July 1939 (1939-07-26) (age 68)
Flag of Australia Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Political party Liberal
Spouse Janette Howard
Occupation Solicitor

John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. He is the second-longest serving Australian Prime Minister after Sir Robert Menzies.[1] He is also the leader of the Liberal Party of Australia. The prefix The Honourable or The Honorable ( or formerly The Honble) is a title of quality attached to the names of certain classes of persons. ... Image File history File links John_Howard_May_2006. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... Legislative elections were held in Australia on July 11, 1987, between Prime Minister of Australia Bob Hawke, leader of the Australian Labor Party, Opposition Leader John Howard, leader of the Liberal Party of Australia, and National Party of Australia leader Ian Sinclair. ... Legislative elections were held in Australia on 2 March 1996. ... The next general election for the Parliament of Australia is expected to take place in November or early December 2007, although technically it can be held as late as 19 January 2008. ... For the ecclesiastical office, see Incumbent (ecclesiastical). ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Major-General Philip Michael Jeffery, AC, CVO, MC, GCL (born 12 December 1937) is the 24th Governor-General of Australia. ... Paul John Keating (born January 18, 1944), was an Australian politician and the 24th Prime Minister of Australia, serving as Prime Minister from 1991 to 1996. ... The Division of Bennelong is an Australian Electoral Division in New South Wales. ... For the ecclesiastical office, see Incumbent (ecclesiastical). ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A blonde haired, very skilled worker with a 70s look. ... For the ecclesiastical office, see Incumbent (ecclesiastical). ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Sydney Opera House on Sydney Harbour Sydney (pronounced ) is the most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of approximately 4. ... Capital Sydney Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Professor Marie Bashir Premier Morris Iemma (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 50  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $305,437 (1st)  - Product per capita  $45,153/person (4th) Population (End of March 2006)  - Population  6,817,100 (1st)  - Density  8. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Janette Howard (born 11 July 1944) is the wife of Australian Prime Minister John Howard. ... A solicitor is a type of lawyer in many common law jurisdictions, such as the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, but not the United States (in the United States the word has a quite different meaning—see below). ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, KT, AK, CH, FRS, QC (20 December 1894 – 15 May 1978), Australian politician, was the twelfth and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia, serving eighteen and a half years. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


John Howard's Liberal-National Party coalition won the general election of 2 March 1996, defeating Paul Keating's Labor government, and ending the longest period in history the coalition had been in opposition (13 years).[2] Howard was sworn in as Prime Minister on 11 March 1996.[2] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The National Party of Australia is an Australian conservative political party, which claims to represent rural voters. ... The Coalition in Australian politics refers to the grouping of two political parties that has existed in the form of a coalition agreement since 1922, with only brief breaks (e. ... Legislative elections were held in Australia on 2 March 1996. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Paul John Keating (born January 18, 1944), was an Australian politician and the 24th Prime Minister of Australia, serving as Prime Minister from 1991 to 1996. ... The Coalition in Australian politics refers to the grouping of two political parties that has existed in the form of a coalition agreement since 1922, with only brief breaks (e. ... The Opposition in Australia fulfils the same function as the official opposition in other Commonwealth of Nations monarchies. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


Howard's government was re-elected in the 1998, 2001 and 2004 elections. Howard is running for a fifth term at the upcoming 2007 election and will face the opposition Australian Labor Party led by Kevin Rudd. Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... Legislative elections were held in Australia on 9 October 2004. ... The next general election for the Parliament of Australia is expected to take place in November or early December 2007, although technically it can be held as late as 19 January 2008. ... The Opposition in Australia fulfils the same function as the official opposition in other Commonwealth of Nations monarchies. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Kevin Michael Rudd (born 21 September 1957), is the leader of the federal Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition in the Australian Parliament. ...


Prior to becoming Prime Minister, Howard served as Treasurer in the government led by Malcolm Fraser from 1977–1983[2] and was Leader of the Liberal Party (thus also Leader of the Coalition Opposition) from 1985–1989 through the 1987 federal election against Bob Hawke. He was elected again as Leader of the Opposition in 1995. A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The Department of the Treasury, Canberra The Australian Treasurer is the minister responsible for government expenditure and revenue raising. ... This article is about the former Prime Minister of Australia; for the Western Australian public servant, see Malcolm Fraser (surveyor). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Coalition in Australian politics refers to the grouping of two political parties that has existed in the form of a coalition agreement since 1922, with only brief breaks (e. ... Legislative elections were held in Australia on July 11, 1987, between Prime Minister of Australia Bob Hawke, leader of the Australian Labor Party, Opposition Leader John Howard, leader of the Liberal Party of Australia, and National Party of Australia leader Ian Sinclair. ... Robert James Lee (Bob) Hawke, AC (born 9 December 1929) is a former Australian trade union leader turned politician who became the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia. ...

Contents

Early life

John Howard is the youngest of four children, all sons, of Lyall Howard and Mona (nee Kell), an office worker. His parents were married in 1925 and their first son Stanley (later a solicitor and company director) was born in 1926, followed by Walter (1929), and Robert (Bob) (later an academic and member of the Labor Party) (1936). This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Howard grew up in the Sydney suburb of Earlwood. His father and his paternal grandfather, Walter Howard, were both veterans of the First AIF in World War I. They later ran a petrol station and mechanical workshop in Dulwich Hill, where John Howard worked as a boy. Lyall Howard died when John was sixteen, leaving his mother to take care of John (or "Jack" as he was known in the family) and his three brothers.[3] The Sydney Opera House on Sydney Harbour Sydney (pronounced ) is the most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of approximately 4. ... Earlwood is a suburb in the City of Canterbury in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... The First Australian Imperial Force (1st AIF) was the main expeditionary force of the Australian Army during World War I. It was formed from August 15, 1914, following Britains declaration of war on Germany. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Gasoline, as it is known in North America, or petrol, in many Commonwealth countries (sometimes also called motor spirit) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Dulwich Hill High School Gladstone Hotel, Dulwich Hill Dulwich Hill is a suburb in the Inner West of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. ...


Howard suffered from a hearing impairment in his youth, and this has left him with a slight speech impediment, something that he shares with namesake Winston Churchill.[4] It also influenced him in subtle ways, limiting his early academic performance; encouraging a reliance on an excellent memory; and in his mind ruling out becoming a barrister as a likely career.[5] Hearing impairment is a full or partial decrease in the ability to detect or understand sounds. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. ... // Artists impression of an English and Irish barrister A barrister is a lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions which employ a split profession (as opposed to a fused profession) in relation to legal representation. ...


Howard attended the publicly funded state schools Earlwood Primary School and Canterbury Boys' High School. Howard won a citizenship prize in his final year at Earlwood (presented by local politician Eric Willis), and subsequently represented his secondary school at debating as well as cricket and rugby.[6] In his final year at school he took part in a radio show hosted by Jack Davey, Give It a Go broadcast on the commercial radio station, 2GB, and a recording of the show survives.[7] After gaining his Leaving Certificate, he studied law at the University of Sydney. Howard joined the Liberal Party in 1957. Canterbury Boys High School (also known as CBHS in short) is a public high school for year 7 to 12 students situated in the suburb of Canterbury, New South Wales, Australia. ... Eric Archibald Willis (Born Murwillumbah, January 15, 1922; Died Sydney, May 10, 1999) was Premier of New South Wales, Australia from January 23, 1976 to May 14, 1976. ... Jack Andrew Davey was a New Zealand born star of Australian radio in the 1930s, 40s and 50s. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... The University of Sydney, established in Sydney in 1850, is the oldest university in Australia. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


Howard was a solicitor and held office in the New South Wales Liberal Party on the State Executive and as President of the Young Liberals (1962–64), the party youth organisation.[8] During this period Howard was a supporter of Australia's involvement in the Vietnam War, and he remains so today.[9] A solicitor is a type of lawyer in many common law jurisdictions, such as the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, but not the United States (in the United States the word has a quite different meaning—see below). ... Capital Sydney Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Professor Marie Bashir Premier Morris Iemma (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 50  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $305,437 (1st)  - Product per capita  $45,153/person (4th) Population (End of March 2006)  - Population  6,817,100 (1st)  - Density  8. ... The Young Liberal Movement, or the Young Liberals, is the youth-division of the Liberal Party of Australia, and membership is open to those between 16 and 30 years of age. ... Images on the back wall of the Vietnam Forces National Memorial, Canberra The Vietnam War was a conflict in which the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV, or North Vietnam) and its allies fought against the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, or South Vietnam) and its allies. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Member of Parliament

At the 1963 Federal Election, Howard acted as campaign manager in his local seat of Parkes for the successful candidacy of Tom Hughes who defeated the 20 year Labor incumbent. The Division of Parkes (1901-1969) was a former Australian Electoral Division in the state of New South Wales. ... Thomas Eyre Forrest Hughes (born 26 November 1926), Australian politician and lawyer, was a Liberal member of the Australian House of Representatives from 1963 to 1972, representing first the seat of Parkes and then (when Parkes was abolished in 1969) the seat of Berowra. ...


In 1967 with the support of party power brokers, John Carrick and Eric Willis, he was endorsed as candidate for the marginal suburban state seat of Drummoyne, held by the ALP. Howard's mother sold the family home in Earlwood and rented a house with him at Five Dock, a suburb within the electorate. At the election in February 1968, in which the incumbent state Liberal government was returned to office, Howard failed to defeat the sitting member, despite campaigning vigorously [10]. Howard and his mother subsequently returned to Earlwood, moving to a house on the same street where he grew up. Drummoyne is an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of New South Wales. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Howard continued living at home until 1971 when he married fellow Liberal Party member Janette Parker, with whom he now has three children. Janette, formerly an English teacher, has maintained a low profile during her husband's prime ministership, possibly in part due to health problems but also to her own expressed preference.[11][12] Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Janette Howard (born 11 July 1944) is the wife of Australian Prime Minister John Howard. ...


Howard's next attempt to enter parliament was at a Federal level and was successful. He was elected to the House of Representatives as the Member of Parliament for the Sydney suburban seat of Bennelong at the Federal election in May 1974. When Malcolm Fraser's government came to power in December 1975, Howard was appointed Minister for Business and Consumer Affairs, and in December 1977 he was appointed Treasurer at the age of 38, for which appointment he became known as "the boy Treasurer". In April 1982 he was elected Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party. Australian House of Representatives chamber Entrance to the House of Representatives The Australian House of Representatives is one of the two houses (chambers) of the Parliament of Australia. ... The Division of Bennelong is an Australian Electoral Division in New South Wales. ... A blonde haired, very skilled worker with a 70s look. ... This article is about the former Prime Minister of Australia; for the Western Australian public servant, see Malcolm Fraser (surveyor). ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


Record as Treasurer

As Treasurer, he was a strong adherent of monetarism, favouring cuts to personal income tax and business tax, lower government spending, the dismantling of the centralised wage-fixing system, the abolition of compulsory trade unionism and the privatization of government-owned enterprises, some of which have dominated his subsequent career. In 1982 Howard nearly resigned in protest at Fraser's big-spending pre-election budget. As Federal Treasurer, John Howard presided over a home lending rate peaking at 13.5% on 8 April 1982.[13][14] Monetarism is a set of views concerning the determination of national income and monetary economics. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... Government spending or government expenditure consists of government purchases, which can be financed by seigniorage (the creation of money for government funding, at a heavy price of high inflation and other possibly devastating consequences), taxes, or government borrowing. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A government corporation or government-owned corporation is a legal entity created by a government to exercise some of the powers of the government. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


Peter Costello commented in 2007, "The Howard treasurership was not a success in terms of interest rates and inflation... he had not been a great reformer." [15] Peter Howard Costello (born 14 August 1957), Australian politician, has been Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party since 1994, and Treasurer in the Australian government since 1996. ...


Opposition years (1983-1996)

Following Fraser's resignation, Howard contested the Liberal leadership, but was defeated by Andrew Peacock. He remained Deputy Leader and became Deputy Leader of the Opposition. Peacock was defeated by Hawke at the 1984 election, and although he had lost by less than most commentators expected, Peacock began to worry that Howard was planning to challenge for the leadership. In September 1985 he tried to remove Howard from the Deputy Leadership position, expecting him to challenge for the Leadership. The plan backfired when Howard stood again for the deputy's position, and won. This put Peacock in an untenable position and he resigned, leaving Howard to take the leadership unopposed.[16] Andrew Sharp Peacock AC (born 13 February 1939), Australian Liberal politician, was born in Melbourne, Victoria, the son of a wealthy company director. ... Legislative elections were held in Australia on December 1, 1984. ...


Howard said in 1986 that "the times will suit me."[17] In addition to his economic views, he became known as a strong social conservative, and was also sceptical of the promotion of multiculturalism at the expense of a shared national identity. In 1985, in an interview he gave with The Age published on 30 July, Howard stated that he (like Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher at the time - see History of South Africa in the apartheid era) was opposed to economic sanctions against the apartheid government of South Africa. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The multicultural national representation of the countries of origin at the student union of San Francisco City College. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 - June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC (born October 13, 1925), former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in office from 1979 to 1990. ... For the legal definition of apartheid, see Crime of apartheid. ... Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


Howard's chances of winning the 1987 election were destroyed when the arch-conservative Premier of Queensland, Sir Joh Bjelke-Petersen, launched a populist "Joh for Canberra" campaign, temporarily splitting and discrediting the conservative forces. Hawke won the 1987 election comfortably. Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Peter Beattie (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd)  - Product per capita  $40,170/person (6th) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  4,164,590 (3rd)  - Density  2. ... Sir Johannes Joh Bjelke-Petersen, KCMG (13 January 1911 – 23 April 2005), New Zealand-born Australian politician, was the longest-serving and longest-lived Premier of the state of Queensland. ... The Joh for Canberra or Joh for PM campaign was the 1987 attempt of the Queensland branch of the National Party of Australia to install Queensland Premier Joh Bjelke-Petersen as Prime Minister of Australia. ... Legislative elections were held in Australia on July 11, 1987, between Prime Minister of Australia Bob Hawke, leader of the Australian Labor Party, Opposition Leader John Howard, leader of the Liberal Party of Australia, and National Party of Australia leader Ian Sinclair. ...


In August, 1988, Howard created controversy with the following comment about Asian immigration into Australia: Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... World map showing the location of Asia. ...

"I do believe that if it is - in the eyes of some in the community - that it's too great, it would be in our immediate-term interest and supporting of social cohesion if it were slowed down a little, so the capacity of the community to absorb it was greater."[18]

In May 1989 Andrew Peacock launched a surprise leadership coup, ousting Howard as Liberal leader. Andrew Sharp Peacock AC (born 13 February 1939), Australian Liberal politician, was born in Melbourne, Victoria, the son of a wealthy company director. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


After a brief stint on the backbench, Howard returned to the Coalition front bench, but his leadership career seemed to be over, particularly when Peacock lost the 1990 election and the Liberals turned to a new, younger leader, Dr. John Hewson. Howard himself compared the possibility of a political comeback to "Lazarus with a triple bypass". A backbencher is a Member of Parliament or a legislature who does not hold governmental office and is not a Front Bench spokesperson in the Opposition. ... The Coalition in Australian politics refers to the grouping of two political parties that has existed in the form of a coalition agreement since 1922, with only brief breaks (e. ... In many parliaments and other similar assemblies, seating is typically arranged in banks or rows, with each political party or caucus grouped together. ... Legislative elections were held in Australia on March 24, 1990. ... Dr John Hewson Dr John Robert Hewson (born 28 October 1946), Australian Liberal politician and economist, was born in Sydney, New South Wales, the son of a working-class, politically conservative engineer. ... Resurrection of Lazarus by Juan de Flandes, around 1500 For other uses, see Lazarus (disambiguation). ... Cardiac surgery is surgery on the heart, typically to correct congenital heart disease or the complications of ischaemic heart disease or valve problems caused by endocarditis. ...


Howard was an enthusiastic supporter of Hewson's economic program, with a Goods and Services Tax (GST) as its centrepiece. After Hewson lost the "unloseable" 1993 election to Paul Keating, Howard unsuccessfully challenged Hewson for the leadership. In 1994, he was again passed over for the leadership, which went to Alexander Downer. Downer failed to dent Keating's dominance and in January 1995 he resigned as leader. The party's Deputy Leader, Peter Costello was unwilling to step up to the leadership, and Howard became leader for the second time. The GST (Goods and Services Tax) is a value added tax of 10% on most goods and services sold in Australia. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on March 13, 1993. ... Paul John Keating (born January 18, 1944), was an Australian politician and the 24th Prime Minister of Australia, serving as Prime Minister from 1991 to 1996. ... Alexander John Gosse Downer, MP (born 9 September 1951), Australian politician, became Foreign Minister of Australia in March 1996. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Peter Howard Costello (born 14 August 1957), Australian politician, has been Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party since 1994, and Treasurer in the Australian government since 1996. ...


Prime Minister

The 1996 election campaign

As Opposition Leader, Howard adopted a more pragmatic position than he had done during his first term in the leadership. He repudiated his earlier statements against Medicare and Asian immigration,[18] and in favour of a GST (saying he would "never ever" introduce a GST).[19] In a "small target" strategy, he attacked the "arrogance" and the "elitist" nature of Keating's "big picture" politics—issues like foreign relations with Asia, Australian republicanism, multiculturalism and reconciliation with indigenous Australians—which, Howard believed, were irrelevant to ordinary voters. He also promised workers would be no worse off under industrial relations changes.[20] Medicare is Australias publicly-funded, universal health scheme, providing affordable treatment by doctors and in public hospitals for all citizens and permanent residents except for those on Norfolk Island. ... The term is used to describe the interaction taking place among governments, when striving to establish mutual contacts, another word for diplomacy. ... Republicanism in Australia is the movement to change Australias status as a constitutional monarchy (a Commonwealth Realm) to a republican form of government (a Commonwealth republic). ... Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. ...


Howard won over many traditional Labor voters, sometimes called the "Howard battlers" (analogous to the Reagan Democrats), and scored a sweeping victory at the 1996 elections over Keating to become Prime Minister of Australia at the age of 56. The term Reagan Democrat is used by political commentators to denote traditionally Democratic voters, especially white working-class Northerners, who defected from their party to support President Ronald Reagan, in both the 1980 and 1984 elections. ... Legislative elections were held in Australia on 2 March 1996. ...


In the lead up to the 1996 election, Pauline Hanson, the Liberal candidate for Oxley in Queensland was disendorsed because of comments she made to The Queensland Times. Howard was slow to express views on Hanson; his initial public reaction was to comment that he thought it was good that the years of "political correctness" were finally over. Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Pauline Lee Hanson (née Seccombe; born May 27, 1954) is an Australian politician who was the leader of One Nation Party, a party with an anti-immigration, nativist platform. ... The Division of Oxley is an Australian Electoral Division in Queensland. ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ...


First term: 1996–1998

John Howard in the USA in 1997
John Howard in the USA in 1997

Howard and his cabinet immediately announced the previous government had left behind a 10 billion dollar "budget black hole" that necessitated considerable reduction in almost all areas of government expenditure.[21] Training and education programs developed under the Keating government were scrapped, infrastructure investment was scaled down, funding for indigenous bodies was reduced, and a system of "work for the dole" requiring social security seekers to engage in work was introduced. Download high resolution version (901x1362, 291 KB)Prime Minister of Australia, the Honorable John Howard meets with Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen at the Pentagon on June 27, 1997. ... Download high resolution version (901x1362, 291 KB)Prime Minister of Australia, the Honorable John Howard meets with Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen at the Pentagon on June 27, 1997. ... Work for the Dole is an Australian federal government programme that provides work experience to job seekers. ... Social security primarily refers to a field of social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment, families with children and others. ...


Prudent economic management remained the government's strongest claim throughout its term, and a prolonged period of economic growth remains an essential element in its popularity.[22] The government began a trend of budget surpluses which it maintained in most years, the exception being the 2001-2002 financial year where a cash deficit of $1.3 Billion was recorded [8]. By 2006 he had completely paid off the 96 billion dollar Commonwealth government net debt which was in place in 1996.


In 1996, Australia was stunned when 35 people were killed by Martin Bryant in the Port Arthur massacre. Howard responded by coordinating action by the state governments to heavily restrict the private ownership of semi-automatic rifles, semi-automatic shotguns and pump-action shotguns. This action and an accompanying "gun buy-back scheme" were popular. Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Martin John Bryant (born 7 May 1967) murdered 35 people and injured 37 others in the Port Arthur massacre, a killing spree in Tasmania in 1996. ... The current version of this article or section is written in an informal style and with a personally invested tone. ... The Parliaments of the Australian states and territories are legislative bodies within the federal framework of the Commonwealth of Australia. ... Walther P99, a semiautomatic pistol from the late 1990s A semi-automatic firearm is a gun that requires only a trigger pull for each round that is fired, unlike a single-action revolver, a pump-action firearm, a bolt-action firearm, or a lever-action firearm, which require the shooter... Semi-automatic shotguns are a subclass of shotgun that are able to fire a shell after every trigger pull, without any of the manual reloading typical in most shotgun designs. ... Pump action shotguns are a subclass of shotguns that are distinguished in the way in which spent shells are extracted and fresh ones are chambered. ...


The Howard government did not have a majority in the Senate, instead facing a situation where legislation had to be negotiated past either the Australian Democrats or the Independents. The Senate modified much of the Government's more controversial legislation, including the partial privatisation of the government-owned telecommunications company, Telstra; the modification of industrial relations laws to promulgate individual contracts; increases in university fees; large funding cuts in the 1996 and 1997 budgets; a 30% private health insurance rebate; and the Wik 10 Point Plan, giving extinguishment of native title on pastoral leases. Australian Senate chamber Entrance to the Senate The Senate is the upper of the two houses of the Parliament of Australia. ... The Australian Democrats, who are often known simply as The Democrats in Australia, are a progressive social liberal party. ... Telstra Corporation (ASX: TLS, NZX: TLS, NYSE: TLS) (formed from Telecom Australia) is an Australian telecommunications company under private ownership, holding a dominant position in landline telephone services, large share of mobile phone services, domestic consumer (including dial-up access and Broadband internet broadband cable modem, satellite and ADSL services... The field of labor relations looks at the relationship between management and workers, particularly groups of workers represented by a labor union. ... This is a list of universities and other higher education institutions in Australia. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ... It has been suggested that Health plan be merged into this article or section. ... The Native Title Amendment Act 1998 (Cth), also commonly referred to as the 10 Point Plan is an Australian law created by the John Howard led Liberal government in response to the 1996 Wik Decision by the High Court of Australia. ... Native title is a concept in the law of Australia that recognises the continued ownership of land by local Indigenous Australians. ... Pastoral Leases are agreements under the Commonwealth of Australia that allow for the use of Crown land by farmers, etc. ...


Howard had come to office promising to improve standards of integrity among ministers and politicians, introducing a strict "Code of Ministerial Conduct" at the start of his term. The strictness of his code was enforced when a succession of seven of his ministers (Jim Short, Geoff Prosser, John Sharp, David Jull, Brian Gibson, Bob Woods, and Peter McGauran) were required to resign following breaches of the code, concerning a variety of "travel rorts" (misuse of the ministerial travel allowance) and conflicts of interest between ministerial responsibilities and share ownership. Prosser had attempted to use his ministerial office to further his own business interests. Another two ministers (John Moore and Warwick Parer) were discovered to have breached the code. Jim Short is a stand-up comedian from San Francisco. ... Geoffrey Daniel Prosser (born 6 November 1948), Australian politician, has been a Liberal member of the Australian House of Representatives since July 1987, representing the Division of Forrest, Western Australia. ... John Randall Sharp (born 15 December 1954), Australian politician, is a former National Party member of the Australian House of Representatives representing the Divisions of Gilmore and Hume in New South Wales. ... David Jull David Francis Jull (born 4 October 1944), Australian politician, has been a Liberal member of the Australian House of Representatives since December 1975, representing the Division of Bowman, Queensland, 1975-83 and Fadden, Queensland, since 1984. ... Brian Francis Gibson (4 Nov 1936 - ) is an Australian politician and businessman who has held senior appointments in Australian companies and industry bodies. ... Hon Peter McGauran Peter John McGauran (born 16 November 1955), Australian politician, has been a National Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1983, representing the Division of Gippsland, Victoria. ... John Moore (born 16 November 1936), Australian politician, was a Liberal member of the Australian House of Representatives for over 25 years, and Defence Minister from 1998 to 2001. ... Warwick Raymond Parer (born 6 April 1936), Australian politician, was a Liberal member of the Australian Senate, representing the state of Queensland. ...


The 1998 election campaign

The 1998 election campaign was dominated by two issues. One was reform of the tax system, including the introduction of the Goods and Services Tax (GST; a broad-based value-added tax).[23] At the October 1998 election, the Liberal-National Coalition, suffered a large swing, largely driven by an opposition campaign against the Goods and Services Tax. Labor leader Kim Beazley won 51% of the national two-party preferred vote, but the Liberals ran an effective marginal electorate campaign and were returned with a comfortable majority in parliament. Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... The GST (Goods and Services Tax) is a value added tax of 10% on most goods and services sold in Australia. ... Value added tax (VAT) is a sales tax levied on the sale of goods and services. ... For Kim Beazleys father, Kim Beazley senior, see Kim Edward Beazley. ... This article deals with elections to the Australian Parliament. ... A political campaign is an effort to reach a certain political goal. ...


Although One Nation had previously surprised commentators with a resounding performance in the Queensland state election, its national campaign was poorly administered and One Nation failed to win any House of Representatives seats. An electoral redistribution had rendered Pauline Hanson's seat of Oxley unwinnable. She stood in neighbouring electorate of Blair but was defeated by the preferencing of both Liberal and Labor parties against her. During the campaign, Howard changed the Coalition's preferencing policy. The coalition had been heavily criticised for placing One Nation ahead of Labor on its how-to-vote cards at the Queensland election earlier in the year. Critics charged that this meant Howard was tacitly approving One Nation's policies towards Aborigines and immigration, which was viewed as xenoophobic. From the federal election onwards, One Nation was placed last on Coalition voting cards. Elections were held in the Australian state of Queensland on 13 June 1998 to elect the 89 members of the states Legislative Assembly. ... The Division of Blair is an Australian Electoral Division situated in southeast Queensland. ... This article deals with elections to the Australian Parliament. ...


Second term: 1998–2001

Despite Howard's essentially domestic focus, external issues intruded significantly into Howard's second term when the people of East Timor voted for independence in a United Nations sponsored referendum. Indonesian militia, covertly backed by Indonesian troops, began a brutal campaign of repression. After enormous public pressure, Howard (with bi-partisan support) broke with the long-standing Australian policy of unquestioning support for Indonesia, and Australia lead a peacekeeping/policing force to protect the inhabitants against pro-Indonesian militias, attracting praise domestically and in several countries, but angering some Indonesians and Islamists. A side effect of these actions was that Osama Bin Laden later called Australia a "crusader force", and that the Bali bombings were retribution for leading the action.[24][25][26][27][28] The United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) provided an interim civil administration and a peacekeeping mission in the territory of East Timor. ... Islamist is sometimes also used for a scholar who studies Islam and Muslim societies. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ...


John Howard's government also considered the issue of a national apology to Aboriginal Australians for their treatment by previous governments following the European settlement of the country. Howard refrained from making a national apology (although all State and Territory Governments did so) and instead personally expressed "deep sorrow" while maintaining that "Australians of this generation should not be required to accept guilt and blame for past actions and policies."[29]


The other major issue during Howard's second term was the implementation of the GST, replacing a range of taxes on specific goods with a flat rate on almost all goods and services. All GST revenue is distributed to the states. This was intended to give the States responsibility for their own finances and end the annual funding squabble between the States and the Federal Government. The Federal Government continues to determine the share of GST revenue received by each state.


Howard was only able to pass the GST legislation through the Senate after making a deal with Australian Democrats' leader Senator Meg Lees to exclude a number of items from the GST, most notably fresh food such as fruit and vegetables. This increased the complexity of the GST, which had already increased the frequency and detail of reporting required by small businesses. The Australian Democrats, who are often known simply as The Democrats in Australia, are a progressive social liberal party. ... Meg Lees Meg Heather Lees (born October 19, 1948) has been the founder and sole representative of the Australian Progressive Alliance in the Australian Senate since 2003, representing the state of South Australia. ...


As a partial offset for the GST, a $7,000 "first home buyers grant" was introduced in 2000.[30] The grant was paid at settlement, and Australian banks chose to count it towards a buyer's deposit, increasing the borrowing limit of applicants by approximately $70,000 and feeding a housing boom already sparked by world-wide low interest rates. 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although some of the resentment for the GST fell on the Democrats, the Howard government was trailing in the polls in 2001. The government lost a by-election in the normally safe electorate of Ryan in Queensland, and Labor governments were elected in all the states and territories (except South Australia, which fell to Labor in 2002). In response to the declining position at this time, a number of policy changes were made, including the abandonment of petrol excise indexation and increased government benefits to self-funded retirees. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The Division of Ryan is an Australian Electoral Division in Queensland. ... Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Peter Beattie (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd)  - Product per capita  $40,170/person (6th) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  4,164,590 (3rd)  - Density  2. ... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... Look up Excise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article should be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


The 2001 election campaign

In August 2001, the government refused permission for the Norwegian freighter MV Tampa, carrying a group of asylum seekers picked up in international waters, to enter Australian waters. Howard ordered the ship be boarded by Australian special forces. This brought censure from the government of Norway for Australia's failure to meet obligations to distressed mariners under international law at the United Nations.[31] 2001 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Deaths: August 25 - Aaliyah Films: August 10 - Osmosis Jones played by Chris Rock, starring Bill Murray August 24 - Bubble Boy Categories: 2001 by month ... The MV Tampa is a Norwegian cargo ship that was at the centre of a diplomatic dispute between Australia, Norway, and Indonesia which began off the coast of Christmas Island in August 2001. ... The Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) is a Special Forces regiment modelled on the original British SAS and also drawing on the traditions of the Australian World War II Z Special Force commando unit, as well as the Independent Companies which were active in the South Pacific during the same... Norwegian politics officially have the structure of a constitutional monarchy, giving the King mainly symbolic power while maintaining a stable Western democracy. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


Howard was quoted as saying;

We will decide who comes to this country and the circumstances in which they come.[32][33][34]

The government introduced "border protection" legislation. Kim Beazley and the Labor opposition offered half-hearted support to Howard's legislation, while opposing it on specific points. The issue, along with the shock of the recent September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, allowed the Howard government to portray itself as "tough" on border protection and national security. The Howard government subsequently received a big lift in the polls,[35] and most commentators agree that national security was the decisive issue in the 2001 election.[36][37][38] For Kim Beazleys father, Kim Beazley senior, see Kim Edward Beazley. ... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ...


It was in October 2001 during the election campaign that pictures released by the Royal Australian Navy sparked the Children Overboard Affair. When a vessel of asylum seekers attempting entry into Australia, designated SIEV-4, was intercepted by HMAS Adelaide, the vessel sank and the passengers were rescued by Adelaide's crew. Howard and Defence Minister Peter Reith claimed that pictures and video footage taken by the crew of Adelaide showed that asylum seekers had deliberately thrown their own children into the sea as a way of forcing Adelaide to rescue them. It later emerged that the pictures depicted children caught in the water after the vessel had sunk, video footage of the event was unclear at best, there was no evidence that children had been deliberately thrown overboard, and that multiple naval and intelligence sources were aware of all of these facts at the time of Howard and Reith's announcements. When this was discovered, Howard claimed that he was acting on the intelligence he was given at the time. It was later revealed that Minister Reith had been informed on 7 November by Air Marshal (later Air Chief Marshal) Angus Houston that the claim was false. On 26 February 2006 Howard said, The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... The asylum-seeker laden SIEV-4, the vessel at the centre of the children overboard affair. ... The refugee laden SIEV-4, the boat that sparked the affair The children overboard affair is an Australian political scandal, first appearing on the eve of the 2001 legislative elections. ... HMAS Adelaide (FFG 01) is an Australian Adelaide class guided-missile frigate laid down by Todd-Pacific Shipbuilding at Seattle, Washington 29 July 1977, launched 21 June 1978 and commissioned 15 November 1980. ... Peter Keaston Reith, (born 15 July 1950), Australian politician, was a senior Cabinet minister in the first two terms of the Howard government. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Air Chief Marshal Allan (Angus) Grant Houston, AO, AFC, is the Chief of the Australian Defence Forces as of 4 July 2005. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


"They irresponsibly sank the damn boat, which put their children in the water".


The subsequent Senate inquiry later found that passengers aboard other SIEVs had threatened children, sabotaged their own vessels, committed self-harm, and, in the case of SIEV-7 on 22 October, a child had been thrown overboard and rescued by another asylum seeker.[39] Self-harm (SH) is deliberate injury to ones own body. ... Suspected Illegal Entry Vessel was the name used by the Australian Defence Force or Australian Coastwatch for maritime vessels which were suspected to be attempting to reach Australia without authorisation. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the November 2001 elections the Coalition was re-elected, with a larger majority than in 1998, and achieved the biggest swing to an incumbent government since 1966. Legislative elections were held in Australia on 10 November 2001. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ...


Third term: 2001–2004

In the two years after the 2001 election the Howard government continued its tough line on national security and "border protection" issues, while seeking to further its agenda of conservative social policies and pro-business economic reforms. Despite its victory in 2001, the government did not have a Senate majority, and its ability to pass planned legislation was restricted. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


Howard faced a difficult issue in the allegations that his choice as Governor General, Dr. Peter Hollingworth, in his previous job as Anglican Archbishop of Brisbane, had refused to investigate Anglican priests who were accused of paedophilia in various churches. Eventually Hollingworth was forced to resign the governor-generalship amidst a storm of controversy that threatened to damage the credibility of his office. Michael Jeffery, the current Governor-General of Australia The Governor-General of Australia is the representative in Australia of Australias head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, who lives in the United Kingdom. ... The Rt Revd Dr Peter Hollingworth AC OBE The Right Reverend Dr Peter Hollingworth AC OBE (born April 10, 1935), Australian bishop and 23rd Governor-General of Australia, became the first Governor-General to resign his office as a result of criticism of his conduct, when on 28 May... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The Anglican Diocese of Brisbane is located in Brisbane, Australia. ... Pedophilia or pædophilia (see spelling differences) is a mental state in which an adult has a preferential sexual attraction to prepubescent and in some definitions, preadolescent children. ...


Howard retained a clear political advantage over his opponents. Throughout 2002 and 2003 he kept his lead in the opinion polls over the then Labor leader, Simon Crean. Following the October 2002 Bali bombing, Howard placed a renewed emphasis on his government's approach to national security. Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Simon Findlay Crean (born 26 February 1949) an Australian politician, was leader of the Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition at the Federal level, from November 2001 to 2 December 2003. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The 2002 Bali bombing occurred on October 12, 2002 in the tourist district of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali. ...


In March 2003, Howard joined 40 countries including the United Kingdom and the United States, in sending troops and naval units to support in the invasion of Iraq and the removal of Saddam Hussein from power. He told parliament: March 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December - → // Events March 1, 2003 Iraq disarmament crisis: The Turkish speaker of Parliament voids the vote accepting U.S. troops involved in the planned invasion of Iraq into Turkey on constitutional grounds. ... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ...

"Full disclosure by Iraq of its chemical, biological and nuclear weapons programs and immediate and total cooperation by Iraq with the provisions of resolution 1441 of the Security Council will remove the need for military action."[40]

Australian opinion was deeply divided on the war and large public protests against the war occurred.[41] Several senior figures from the Liberal party, including John Valder, a former president of the Liberal Party, and Howard's former friend and colleague, former Opposition Leader John Hewson and former Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser publicly criticised Howard over Iraq.[42][43][44] John Valder's criticism was particularly strong, claiming that Howard should be tried and punished as a war criminal.[45] John Valder is a former president of the federal Liberal Party of Australia and also a previous chairman of the Australian Stock Exchange. ... Dr John Hewson Dr John Robert Hewson (born 28 October 1946), Australian Liberal politician and economist, was born in Sydney, New South Wales, the son of a working-class, politically conservative engineer. ... This article is about the former Prime Minister of Australia; for the Western Australian public servant, see Malcolm Fraser (surveyor). ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


On Anzac Day 2004, Howard made a surprise visit to Australian defence personnel in Iraq. This came amid a bitter debate in Australia over the war following opposition leader Mark Latham's promise to return Australian troops by Christmas. Howard portrayed Latham as a threat to the U.S.-Australia alliance. ANZAC Day is commemorated by Australia and New Zealand on 25 April every year to remember members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who in the Battle of Gallipoli landed at Gallipoli in Turkey during World War I. ANZAC Day is also a public holiday in the... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mark William Latham (born 28 February 1961), a former Australian politician, was Leader of the Federal Parliamentary Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition from December 2003 to January 2005. ... Christmas is an annual holiday that celebrates the birth of Jesus. ... The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the military alliance which bound Australia, New Zealand and the United States to co-operate on defense matters in the Pacific Ocean area, though today the treaty is understood to relate to attacks in any area. ...


On 6 May 2004 representatives of the Australian government and John Howard met with a group of representatives of industry called the Lower Emissions Technology Advisory Group (LETAG). Minutes from the meeting were leaked and describe how both groups are worried that mandatory renewable energy targets were working too well and were "market skewed" towards wind power.[46][47] is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article describes the national government of Australia. ... World renewable energy in 2005 (except 2004 data for items marked* or **). Enlarge image to read exclusions. ... Worldwide installed capacity and prediction 1997-2010, Source: WWEA Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into more useful forms, usually electricity, using wind turbines. ...


In August 2004, Howard's proposed amendment to the Marriage Act—to prevent foreign and domestic same-sex unions from being recognised as marriages within Australia—was passed with the support of the Australian Labor Party, although several Labor Left MPs had expressed their opposition to the amendment, and the Premier of Western Australia Dr. Geoff Gallop. The Greens and Democrats opposed the amendment. Howard has since ruled out recognising gay marriages.[48] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Socialist Left faction of the Australian Labor Party (the Left) is an organised political faction that advocates within the party for traditionally Labor interventionist and socialist economic policies. ... John Forrest, the first Premier of Western Australia The Premier of Western Australia is the head of the executive government in the Australian State of Western Australia. ... Professor Geoffrey Ian Gallop (born 27 September 1951), Australian academic and former politician, was the Premier of Western Australia from 2001 to 2006. ...


The 2004 election campaign

On 29 August 2004, Howard called an election for 9 October. The Labor opposition, after the resignation of Simon Crean and the election of Mark Latham as leader in December 2003, had established a large lead in some opinion polls by March 2004, and the government entered the election campaign behind Labor in all the published national opinion polls. Howard himself still had a large lead over Latham as preferred Prime Minister in those same polls and most commentators regarded the result as being too close to call. is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Simon Findlay Crean (born 26 February 1949) an Australian politician, was leader of the Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition at the Federal level, from November 2001 to 2 December 2003. ... Mark William Latham (born 28 February 1961), a former Australian politician, was Leader of the Federal Parliamentary Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition from December 2003 to January 2005. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Legislative elections were held in Australia on 9 October 2004. ...


During the campaign, Howard attacked Latham's economic record as Mayor of Liverpool City Council. Howard also attacked Labor's economic history. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... The City of Liverpool is a Local Government Area in southwest of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. ...


"It is an historic fact that interest rates have always gone up under Labor governments over the last 30 years, because Labor governments spend more than they collect and drive budgets into deficit," he said. "So it will be with a Latham Labor government... I will guarantee that interest rates are always going to be lower under a Coalition government."[49]


In the closing period of the election campaign, Howard promised a large spending program on health, education, small business and family payments with the aim of trumping Latham's policy strengths.


The election resulted in an increased Coalition majority in the House of Representatives and also a government majority in the Senate, the first government majority in that chamber since 1981. The strength of the Australian economy under Howard's leadership[50] combined with his strong conservative base, gave the Coalition a comfortable election victory of 52.74% of the vote on a two party preferred basis against Labor's result of 47.26%.[51]


Fourth term: 2004–present

John Howard (right) and wife Janette Howard (far left) with U.S. President George W. Bush (far right) and U.S. First Lady Laura Bush (left) on 16 May 2006 during Howard's seventh official visit to the White House as Prime Minister.
John Howard (right) and wife Janette Howard (far left) with U.S. President George W. Bush (far right) and U.S. First Lady Laura Bush (left) on 16 May 2006 during Howard's seventh official visit to the White House as Prime Minister.

Image File history File linksMetadata Howard_and_Bush. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Howard_and_Bush. ... Janette Howard (born 11 July 1944) is the wife of Australian Prime Minister John Howard. ... The presidential seal is a well-known symbol of the presidency. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... First Lady Laura Bush and former first ladies, from left, Rosalynn Carter, Sen. ... Laura Lane Welch Bush (born November 4, 1946) is the wife of the forty-third and current President of the United States of America George W. Bush and is thereby the First Lady of the United States. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...

Political Situation

The Government response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was widely acclaimed in Australia and abroad, including by then Opposition shadow foreign affairs spokesperson and current Opposition leader, Kevin Rudd. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake,[1] was a great undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) December 26, 2004 with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ... The Shadow Cabinet (also called the Shadow Front Bench) is a senior group of opposition spokespeople in the Westminster system of government who together under the leadership of the Leader of the Opposition (or the leader of other smaller opposition parties) form an alternative cabinet to the governments, whose... Kevin Michael Rudd (born 21 September 1957), is the leader of the federal Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition in the Australian Parliament. ...


On 1 July 2005 the new Senate came into effect, giving the Government control of both houses. This is the first Australian government since the Fraser government that is able to pass any legislation it wishes, without having to first gain the approval of another party or hold a double dissolution election. With a majority of, arguably, one senator, this is subject to achieving the necessary Coalition discipline, which has appeared to be quite fragile on certain issues. is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image:Ac. ...


Legislation which had previously been blocked and has now been passed includes industrial relations changes and Voluntary Student Unionism, which removed compulsory student union fees at universities. It has also overruled a legislation, the ACT Civil Unions Act. The Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations, Kevin Andrews, who introduced the Australian industrial relations legislation, speaking at a press conference on 8 November Wikinews has News related to this article: Portal:Australia/Australian industrial relations legislation, 2005 New Australian industrial relations legislation passes House of Representatives Suspicions of nepotism... Voluntary student unionism (VSU) is a policy under which membership of – and payment of membership fees to – university student organisations is not compulsory. ... The Civil Unions Act 2006 (ACT) was an act of the Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly which established civil unions for same-sex, opposite-sex or transgender couples that allowed for equal legal recongnition with marriage under territory law. ...


Other legislation which had previously been blocked in the Senate includes revising media ownership laws so as to remove restrictions on media companies having control over multiple different media.


In July 2006, as part of a redistribution of New South Wales electoral divisions, a proposal was made to change the boundaries of Howard's electorate of Bennelong on Sydney's Lower North Shore. It has been suggested that these changes may make Bennelong one of the most marginal seats in the state with only a 3% majority, however these figures have been disputed by political commentators such as Malcolm Mackerras, and also Shane Easson of the NSW Labor Party, who argue that the impact of the changes will be minimal.[52][53][54] The Lower North Shore is an informal term for the lower northern suburbs of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia which are located on the north shore of Sydney Harbour. ... Malcolm Hugh Mackerras AO (1939 - ) is an academic (psephologist) and commentator on Australian and American politics. ... Shane Easson (b. ...


On Monday 4 December 2006 Kevin Rudd replaced Kim Beazley as leader of the opposition.[55]


Industrial Relations

Main article: Workchoices

In 2005, Howard announced fundamental and wide-ranging changes to industrial relations laws which have since been the subject of a national campaign by community groups, the union movement and state Labor governments. WorkChoices, or the Workplace Relations Act 1996 as amended by the Workplace Relations Amendment (Workchoices) Act 2005, came into effect in March 2006. ... Australian industrial relations law reform 2005 is getting worse every year. ...


Despite the coalition's majority in the Senate, a number of the proposed laws were in doubt, due to the opposition that had been voiced by Queensland National Party Senator Barnaby Joyce who had threatened to vote against the sale of Telstra. Joyce raised concerns in relation to the industrial relations announcements but eventually supported the legislation. Barnaby Thomas Gerald Joyce (born 17 April 1967), Australian politician, has been a member of the Australian Senate representing the state of Queensland since July 2005. ...


On 15 November 2005 protest rallies were held to protest against the workplace relations laws around the country, in opposition to the Howard government’s planned changes to industrial relations laws. A large crowd, estimated at between 100-175,000 people, turned out at the protests in Melbourne, with large numbers attending around 300 meetings and rallies that were held concurrently across the country.[56][57] These meetings[58] were organised by various unions and community organisations with the help of Labor and the Greens. The laws were passed without substantial change. is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Trade union supporters rally at Federation Square in Melbourne. ...


Iraq and Terrorism

Main article: Iraq War
John Howard and U.S. President George W. Bush during a joint press conference in the East Room of the White House in May 2006.

On 22 February 2005 Howard announced that Australia would increase its military commitment to Iraq with an additional 450 troops, telling John Laws, "I’m openly saying that some small adjustment at the margin might happen".[59][60] For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The presidential seal is a well-known symbol of the presidency. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The East Room is one of the largest rooms in the White House, the home of the President of the United States. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In mid 2005, John Howard and his cabinet began discussions of new anti-terror legislation which includes modification to the Crimes Act 1914. In particular, sections relating to sedition are to be modified. On 14 October 2005, Jon Stanhope (Chief Minister of the ACT) took the controversial step of publishing the confidential draft of the Federal Anti-Terrorism Bill 2005 on his website.[61][62] This action was both praised and criticised.[63][64] Citing concerns about civil rights raised by the Australian National University as well as concerns over the speed of the legislation's passage through parliament, he later refused to sign off on a revised version of the legislation, becoming the only State and Territorial leader not to sign.[65][66] The House of Representatives passed the anti-terrorism legislation which was debated in the Senate before its final implementation in December 2005. This is a piece of Federal legislation in Australia. ... Sedition is a term of law to refer to covert conduct such as speech and organization that is deemed by the legal authority as tending toward insurrection against the established order. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the 18th century British politician, see John Stanhope. ... The Australian National University, or ANU, is a public university located in Canberra, Australia. ...


On 2 November 2005 Howard held a press conference to announce that he had received information from police and the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO) that indicated an imminent terrorist attack in Australia. Within a week, on 8 November, anti-terrorist raids were held across Melbourne and Sydney, with 17 suspected terrorists arrested, including Abdul Nacer Benbrika. These raids, according to Howard, demonstrated the need for his Anti-Terrorism Bill.[Quotation from source requested on talk page to verify interpretation of source] According to the Greens and Democrats, the raids demonstrated that no further legislation was needed as even the current legislation was sufficient to allow ASIO and the Australian Federal Police to act in some cases.[clarify] Critics have also said that the press conference was held on the same day as the changes to industrial relations laws were introduced to Parliament. is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ASIO Central Office, Canberra. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Melbourne (pronounced ) is the second most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of approximately 3. ... The Sydney Opera House on Sydney Harbour Sydney (pronounced ) is the most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of approximately 4. ... Abdul Nacer Benbrika (born about 1960), Australian Muslim activist, also known as Abu Bakr, was one of 17 men arrested in the Australian cities of Sydney and Melbourne in November 2005, and charged with membership of a terrorist organisation and of planning terrorist attacks on targets within Australia. ... The Australian Federal Police (AFP) is the federal police agency of the Commonwealth of Australia. ... Australian industrial relations law reform 2005 is getting worse every year. ...


Mandatory Detention of Refugees

Throughout the first half of 2005, the Howard government faced pressure regarding the controversial mandatory detention program.[clarify] It was revealed in February that a mentally ill German citizen and Australian resident, Cornelia Rau, had been held in detention for nine months. The government then established the closed non-judicial Palmer Inquiry promising that the findings would be made public. In May, it was revealed that another Australian, subsequently identified as Vivian Solon, had been deported from Australia and that the department responsible was unable to locate her. By late May, it was revealed that an additional 200 cases of possible wrongful detention had been referred to the Palmer Inquiry.[67] Also at this time Howard faced backbench revolt from small numbers of his own party demanding that reforms be made.[68] On 9 June Australia's longest serving detainee, Peter Qasim, was moved to a psychiatric hospital.[69] Mandatory detention in Australia refers to the Australian federal governments policy and system of mandatory detention, under which all persons entering or remaining in the country without a valid visa are compulsorily detained[1]. Immigration detainees are incarcerated in one of the Australian immigration detention facilities on the Australian... Mandatory detention in Australia refers to the Australian federal governments policy and system of mandatory detention, under which all persons entering or remaining in the country without a valid visa are compulsorily detained[1]. Immigration detainees are incarcerated in one of the Australian immigration detention facilities on the Australian... Cornelia Rau at a press conference at Glenside Hospital Cornelia Rau is an Australian permanent resident and German citizen who was unlawfully detained for a period of ten months in 2004 and 2005 as part of the Australian Governments mandatory detention program. ... Vivian Solon at the Mother Teresa Sisters mission in Olongapo, Philippines Vivian Alvarez Solon is an Australian who was unlawfully removed to the Philippines by the Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs (DIMIA) in July 2001. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Peter Qasim (Arabic: بيتر قاسم) was the longest-serving detainee within the Australian immigration detention system, having resided there for over seven years as of 2005. ...


Environment

A talk given on 20 February 2006 by Clive Hamilton, the director of the Australia Institute, described the Howard as being influenced by the "dirty dozen", a group of industry lobbyists with considerable influence over Australian policy.[70] On 6 June 2006, Howard announced a task force to conduct the "Uranium Mining, Processing, and Nuclear Energy Review", the terms of reference of which include "the extent to which nuclear energy will make a contribution to the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions".[71] Howard announced on 10 December 2006 the formation of a Prime Ministerial Task Group on Emissions Trading.[72][73] On 3 February 2007, the Australian government announced that it could not by itself have a significant effect on mitigation of global warming, though it would continue to make efforts to cut greenhouse gases; it would be necessary for Australia to find means of adaptation.[74]On 4 June 2007, Howard announced a new Carbon Trading Scheme to be in place in Australia by 2012. is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Growth Fetish is a book about economics and politics by the Australian left-wing political theorist Clive Hamilton. ... Australia Institute logo The Australia Institute is an Australian think tank conducting public policy research, funded by grants from philanthropic trusts, memberships and commissioned research. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... On December 10, 2006, the Australian Prime Minister John Howard announced the establishment of the Prime Ministerial Task Group on Emissions Trading. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Global carbon dioxide emissions 1800–2000 Global average surface temperature 1850 to 2006 Mitigation of global warming involves taking actions aimed at reducing the extent of global warming. ... Adaptation to global warming covers all actions aimed at reducing the negative effects of global warming. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... On the 4th of June, 2007,[1] Prime Minister John Howard has announced that Australia would be under a new Carbon Trading scheme and would be in place domestically by the year 2012 [2]. This development to implement an ETS (Emissions Trading Scheme) was announced after the final report of... 2012 (MMXII) will be a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Speculation about retirement

In the lead up to the 2001 election, Howard did not commit to serving a full term if he won the election. Instead, he said he would consider the question of retirement when he turned 64, which would be in July 2003.[75] When July 2003 came, he announced that the party was strongly in favour of him continuing, so he stayed on.[76]


In the lead up to the 2004 election, Howard again did not commit to serving a full term.[77] In 2006, there was mounting speculation that he would retire that year.


In July 2006, it was alleged that a deal had been struck with Peter Costello in 1994 with Ian McLachlan present, that if the Liberal party were to win the next election, Howard would serve one and a half terms of office and then allow Costello to take over. Mr. McLachlan's version of the conversation is that Mr. Howard said something like: Peter Howard Costello (born 14 August 1957), Australian politician, has been Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party since 1994, and Treasurer in the Australian government since 1996. ... Ian Murray McLachlan (born 2 October 1936) is an Australian landowner and politician. ...

I can't guarantee this to you Peter, but my intention is not to hang around forever. If I win, I'll serve two terms and hand over to you.[78]

Howard denied that this constituted a deal, yet Costello and McLachlan insisted it did;[79][80][81] and there were calls for Costello to either challenge or quit.[82][83]


The impasse was resolved at the end of July when Howard, again citing strong party room support for him as leader, stated that he would remain to contest the next election (most probably to be held in late 2007), and that he and Costello would remain in their current roles.[84] Costello declared that he would not be seeking the top position in the Liberal Party while Howard was standing as its leader, saying on The 7.30 Report he would be handing down the 2007 Budget.[85] The 7:30 Report is an Australian nightly television current affairs programme, produced by and broadcast on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Monday to Thursday at 7:30 PM. The host, Kerry OBrien is one of the few Australian journalists that is able to make a politician to answer a...


Honours

  • Centenary Medal In January 2001
  • The Star of the Solomon Islands together with Helen Clark as Prime Minister of New Zealand on 15 June 2005 for their respective roles in restoring law and order in the Solomon Islands.[86]

Australian Centenary Medal The Centenary Medal is an award created by the Australian Government in 2001. ... Helen Elizabeth Clark (born February 26, 1950) became Prime Minister of New Zealand in December 1999 and entered her third successive term in that office in 2005. ...

See also

This is a list of current heads of state and government, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems; it should be noted that often a leader is both in presidential systems or dictatorships. ... The First Howard Ministry was the sixty-first Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 11th March 1996 to 21st October 1998. ... The Second Howard Ministry was the sixty-second Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 21st October 1998 to 26th November 2001. ... The Third Howard Ministry was the sixty-third Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 26th November 2001 to 22nd October 2004. ... The Fourth Howard Ministry is the sixty-fourth Australian Commonwealth ministry, and began 22nd October 2004. ...

Notes

  1. ^ PM still favourite as he celebrates milestone. ABC News (2004-12-21). Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  2. ^ a b c Education: John Howard. National Museum of Australia (2007-08-01). Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  3. ^ Errington, Wayne; Van Onselen, Peter (2007). John Winston Howard: The Biography. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, pp 1-25
  4. ^ Transcript of the Prime Minister the Hon. John Howard MP, opening of the child deafness research laboratories at The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, East Melbourne. PM News Room (2000-02-16). Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  5. ^ Errington, Wayne; Van Onselen, Peter (2007). John Winston Howard: The Biography. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, pp 21, 35
  6. ^ Beazley and Howard- Politics and Sport. Australian Broadcasting Corporation (26 October 2001). Retrieved on [[13 March 2007]].
  7. ^ Sixteen-year-old John Howard on a popular radio quiz show compered by Jack Davey RAM. australianpolitics.com (2002-06-09). Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  8. ^ Young Liberals Life Members & Past Presidents. Young Liberals (2006). Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  9. ^ John Howard Interview - 1996. Four Corners (1996-02-19). Retrieved on 2006-12-26.
  10. ^ Drummoyne - 1968. Parliament of NSW (2007-07-25). Retrieved on 2007-07-25.
  11. ^ Mrs Howard's cancer fight. The Sydney Morning Herald (2006-10-17). Retrieved on 2006-11-09.
  12. ^ John Howard/Janette Howard. National Archives of Australia. Retrieved on 2006-11-09.
  13. ^ Recent Developments in Interest Rates on Bank Lending. Reserve Bank of Australia (1999). Retrieved on 2007-01-31.
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ Howard failed as treasurer, says Costello. The Sydney Morning Herald (2007-07-19). Retrieved on 2007-07-25.
  16. ^ Howard's labours are slipping away, Alan Ramsay, Sydney Morning Herald, March 6, 2004
  17. ^ The sad times do suit him; he made them, Anne Summers, Sydney Morning Herald, August 18, 2003
  18. ^ a b Asian influence spices up contest. The Australian (2007-02-27). Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  19. ^ A look back at Howard's ten years, The World Today, 2 March 2006
  20. ^ No guarantee from Howard workers won't be worse off, The World Today, 7 July 2005
  21. ^ Budget 'black hole' electioneering, PM, 27 Jan 2004
  22. ^ United States, Central Intelligence Agency, Assessment of Australian Economic History. CIA World Factbook (2006-10-17). Retrieved on 2006-11-01.
  23. ^ GST related information. Queensland Government (6 October 2006]]). Retrieved on [[4 March 2007]].
  24. ^ [2]
  25. ^ [3]
  26. ^ [4]
  27. ^ [5]
  28. ^ [6]
  29. ^ Opening Speech of Australian Reconciliation Convention. Australasian Legal Information Institute (2000-05-26). Retrieved on 2006-08-23.
  30. ^ First Home Owner Grant - General Information. Australian Government (2002-02-15). Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  31. ^ United Nations General Assembly - Fifty-sixth session (PDF). United Nations (2001-11-27). Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  32. ^ Deal to send boat people packing. The Sydney Morning Herald (2007-02-24). Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  33. ^ Australia: The war within. The Sydney Morning Herald (2003-03-18). Retrieved on 2007-08-12.
  34. ^ Making sense of a black day. The Age (2005-12-13). Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
  35. ^ Tampa issue improves Coalition election prospects, 7.30 Report, 4 Sep 2001
  36. ^ Rod Cameron (ALP Pollster) speaking on PM, 1-Jun-2004
  37. ^ Antony Green's Election Summary, 2004
  38. ^ The challenge for Australia, Shaun Carney, The Age, 11-Sep-2004
  39. ^ http://www.aph.gov.au/senate/committee/maritime_incident_ctte/report/f04.htm
  40. ^ Howard's speech to parliament in which he puts forward his claims of threat from Iraq as reasons for Australian support of the subsequent invasion of Iraq in 2003. Hansard of the Parliament of Australia (2003-02-04). Retrieved on 2006-10-11.
  41. ^ Protests across Australia against war. The Sydney Morning Herald (2003-04-14). Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  42. ^ Laurie Oakes (2004-08-15). Interview with John Howard on Sunday (TV series). NineMSN. Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  43. ^ John Hewson Criticises Howard Iraq Policy. australianpolitics.com (2003-03-11). Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
  44. ^ Andrew Webster (2003-08-24). Liberal blast from one PM to another. The Age. Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  45. ^ Howard is war criminal, says former colleague. The Sydney Morning Herald (2004-07-19). Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  46. ^ Minutes of a meeting of the Low Emissions Technology Advisory Group (LETAG) with the Australian Government (2004-05-06). Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  47. ^ Andrew Fowler (2004-09-07). Leaked documents reveal fossil fuel influence in White Paper. Retrieved on 2007-01-24.
  48. ^ Erin O'Dwyer (2006-01-01). Push to legalise gay marriage. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  49. ^ [7]
  50. ^ Ross Gittins (2005-07-30). PM's luck may have run out. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved on 2006-07-30.
  51. ^ Two party preferred vote results by state. Australian Electoral Commission (2005-11-09). Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  52. ^ PM seat 'more marginal' in shake-up. The Australian (2006-07-03). Retrieved on 2006-07-15.
  53. ^ The Qld and NSW seat shuffle. Crikey (2006-07-04). Retrieved on 2006-07-15.
  54. ^ Elections: voting with Mumble. Mumble (2006-07-09). Retrieved on 2006-07-15.
  55. ^ Rudd ousts Beazley. The Age. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  56. ^ engulf Melbourne CBD ABC News, 15-Nov-2005
  57. ^ Thousands protest against IR laws ABC News, 15-Nov-2005
  58. ^ turn out for IR rally
  59. ^ Alexandra Kirk (2005-02-22). Australia boosts its military commitment to Iraq. ABC News and Current Affairs. Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  60. ^ Transcript of the Prime Minister the Hon John Howard MP - Interview with John Laws on 2UE (Radio Station). PM News Room (2004-04-27). Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  61. ^ Exposure draft of anti-terrorism laws. Jon Stanhope (2005-12-15). Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  62. ^ Australian Parliament (2005-12-15). Draft Anti-Terrorism Bill 2005 (PDF). Jon Stanhope. Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  63. ^ PM on attack over draft bill release. Sydney Morning Herald (2005-10-15). Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  64. ^ Stanhope under fire over bill leak. ABC News Online (2005-10-15). Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  65. ^ Human rights implications of the Anti-Terrorism Bill 2005 (PDF). Jon Stanhope (2005-10-18). Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  66. ^ Stanhope flags doubts on 'hasty' terrorism bill. ABC News Online (2005-10-17). Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  67. ^ Detention probe handed 200 cases. ABC News (2005-05-25). Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  68. ^ Louise Dodson (2005-05-25). Howard explodes at MPs' revolt. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  69. ^ Longest-serving detainee moved to psychiatric hospital. ABC News and Current Affairs (2005-06-09). Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  70. ^ The Dirty Politics of Climate Change. Australia Institute (2006-02-20). Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  71. ^ Uranium Mining, Processing, and Nuclear Energy Review (2006-12-12). Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  72. ^ Prime Ministerial Task Group on Emissions Trading. Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  73. ^ Sourcewatch entry on the Prime Ministerial Task Group on Emissions Trading. Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  74. ^ Australia 'must adapt' to global warming (ABC news article) (2007-02-03). Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
  75. ^ When Im 64: Howard, 7.30 Report, 5 Oct 2001
  76. ^ PM decides to stay PM, 3 June , 2003
  77. ^ I'm committed and ready, says Latham, 7.30 Report, 7 Oct 2004
  78. ^ Howard asked about leadership deal. Australian Broadcasting Corporation (10 July 2006). Retrieved on 2006-08-15.
  79. ^ Steve Lewis (2006-07-10). Costello backers savage Howard. News Limited. Retrieved on 2006-07-10.
  80. ^ Glenn Milne (2006-07-10). No, Prime Minister, you cannot deny it. News Limited. Retrieved on 2006-07-10.
  81. ^ Howard promised me a handover: Costello / Howard rejects Costello's deal claim. Australian Broadcasting Corporation (2006-07-10). Retrieved on 2006-07-10.
  82. ^ Labor sees end to Howard-Costello duet. Australian Broadcasting Corporation (2006-07-10). Retrieved on 2006-07-10.
  83. ^ Call for Costello to quit or challenge. Australian Broadcasting Corporation (2006-07-11). Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
  84. ^ PM's decision to face electorate welcomed. Australian Broadcasting Corporation (2006-07-31). Retrieved on 2006-07-31.
  85. ^ Costello rules out leadership challenge. ABC (2005-12-07). Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  86. ^ PM awarded the Star of the Solomon Islands. Beehive (2005-06-20). Retrieved on 2006-07-08.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Central garden of the National Museum of Australia The National Museum of Australia first opened its doors to the public in March 2001 in the nations federal capital city of Canberra. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... RealAudio is a proprietary audio format developed by RealNetworks. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Young Liberal Movement, or the Young Liberals, is the youth-division of the Liberal Party of Australia, and membership is open to those between 16 and 30 years of age. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Four Corners is Australias longest-running and most respected investigative journalism/current affairs television program. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Archives of Australia building on Queen Victoria Terrace in Canberra, May 2007. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Reserve Bank of Australia came into being on 14 January 1960 to operate as Australias central bank and banknote issuing authority. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... ... The Australian (informally referred to as The Oz) is a national daily broadsheet newspaper published by Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article describes the national government of Australia. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Laurie Oakes is an Australian political journalist and commentator. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ninemsn is a 50/50 joint venture between Microsoft and Publishing and Broadcasting Limited (PBL) . It effectively acts as the website for both the Nine Network and MSN, and is one of Australias websites. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AEC logo The Australian Electoral Commission, or the AEC, is the federal government agency in charge of organising and supervising federal elections. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian (informally referred to as The Oz) is a national daily broadsheet newspaper published by Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The word crikey is also a phrase made famous internationally by Steve Irwin. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... ABC News and Current Affairs is the name of the division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) that controls content classified as News, Public Affairs and Business and Finance. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the 18th century British politician, see John Stanhope. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The main entrance to Parliament House in Canberra, with the flag mast visible. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the 18th century British politician, see John Stanhope. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) is Australias national public broadcaster. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the 18th century British politician, see John Stanhope. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) is Australias national public broadcaster. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ABC News opening titles ABC News is a national news service produced by the News and Current Affairs division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ABC News and Current Affairs is the name of the division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) that controls content classified as News, Public Affairs and Business and Finance. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Australia Institute logo The Australia Institute is an Australian think tank conducting public policy research, funded by grants from philanthropic trusts, memberships and commissioned research. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... News Limited was the principal holding for the business interests of Rupert Murdoch until the formation of News Corporation in 1979. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... News Limited was the principal holding for the business interests of Rupert Murdoch until the formation of News Corporation in 1979. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Publications
  • Barnett, David; Goward, Pru (1997). John Howard, Prime Minister. Viking. ISBN 0-670-87389-6. 
  • Cater, Nick (2006). The Howard Factor. Melbourne University Publishing. ISBN 0-522-85284-X. 
  • Errington, Wayne; Van Onselen, Peter (2007). John Winston Howard: The Biography. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. ISBN 9780522853346
  • Kevin, Tony (2004). A Certain Maritime Incident the sinking of SIEV X. Scribe Publications. ISBN 1-920769-21-8. 
  • Kingston, Margo (June 2004). Not Happy, John! defending Australia's democracy. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-300258-9. 
  • Maddox, Marion (February 2005). God Under Howard: The rise of the religious right in Australian politics. St Leonards: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-74114-568-6. 
  • Wilkie, Andrew (October 2004). Axis of deceit (Black Inc. Agenda). Melbourne: Schwarz Publishing. ISBN 0-9750769-2-2. 
Websites
  • Howard's speech to parliament in which he puts forward his claims of threat from Iraq as reasons for Australian support of the subsequent invasion of Iraq in 2003. Hansard of the Parliament of Australia (2003-02-04). Retrieved on 2006-07-08.

Pru Goward, © 2001 HREOC Prudence Jane Goward (born 2 September 1952) is a former Australias Federal Sex Discrimination Commissioner and Commissioner Responsible for Age Discrimination with the Australian Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission. ... Nick Cater The Deputy Editor of The Weekend Australian newspaper. ... Margo Kingston (born 1959) is an Australian political journalist who formerly worked for The Sydney Morning Herald. ... Marion Maddox is the author of God Under Howard: The rise of the religious right in Australian politics (ISBN 1741145686), she is Senior Lecturer in Religious Studies at Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand. ... David Marr (born in Sydney 1947) is an Australian journalist and author. ... Marian Wilkinson is an Australian journalist and author. ... Andrew Wilkie resigned from the Australian intelligence services in March 2003 in opposition to the misuse of intelligence during the Australian contribution to the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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  • Prime Minister of Australia: John Howard Prime Minister's official website
  • Australia's Prime Ministers: John Howard National Archives of Australia
  • John Howard's maiden speech to parliament
  • Official Liberal Party website
  • John Howard addresses a joint session of parliament in Canada, the first Australian Prime Minister to do so since John Curtin in 1944.
Political offices
Preceded by
Phillip Lynch
Treasurer of Australia
1977 – 1983
Succeeded by
Paul Keating
Preceded by
Paul Keating
Prime Minister of Australia
1996 – present
Incumbent
Parliament of Australia
Preceded by
Sir John Cramer
Member for Bennelong
1974 – present
Incumbent
Party political offices
Preceded by
Andrew Peacock
Leader of the Liberal Party
1985 – 1989
Succeeded by
Andrew Peacock
Preceded by
Alexander Downer
Leader of the Liberal Party
1995 – present
Incumbent
Prime Ministers of Australia
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Leaders of the Liberal Party of Australia
Menzies | Holt | Gorton | McMahon | Snedden | Fraser | Peacock | Howard | Peacock | Hewson | Downer | Howard
Current Members of the Australian House of Representatives from New South Wales

Abbott | Albanese | Anderson | Andren | Baird | Baldwin | Bartlett | Bird | Bishop | Bowen | Burke | Cadman | Causley | Cobb | Elliot | Farmer | Ferguson | Fitzgibbon | Garrett | Gash | George | Grierson | Hall | Hartsuyker | Hatton | Hayes | Hoare | Hockey | Howard | Hull | Irwin | Kelly | Ley | Lloyd | Markus | McClelland | Melham | Murphy | Nairn | Nelson | Owens | Plibersek | Price | Ruddock | Schultz | Ticehurst | Turnbull | Vaile | Vale | Windsor

The 2004-2007 composition of the House. ... Australian House of Representatives chamber Entrance to the House of Representatives The Australian House of Representatives is one of the two houses (chambers) of the Parliament of Australia. ... Capital Sydney Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Professor Marie Bashir Premier Morris Iemma (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 50  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $305,437 (1st)  - Product per capita  $45,153/person (4th) Population (End of March 2006)  - Population  6,817,100 (1st)  - Density  8. ... For other people called Tony Abbott, see Tony Abbott (disambiguation). ... Anthony Albanese Anthony Norman Albanese (born 2 March Australian politician, has been an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1996, representing the Division of Grayndler, New South Wales. ... Hon John Anderson John Duncan Anderson (born 14 November 1956) is an Australian politician. ... Peter James Andren (born 28 August 1946), is an Australian politician. ... Hon Bruce Baird Bruce George Baird (born 28 February Australian politician, has been a Liberal member of the Australian House of Representatives since October 1998, representing the Division of Cook, New South Wales. ... Bob Baldwin Robert Charles Bob Baldwin is nice. ... Kerry Bartlett Kerry Joseph Bartlett (born 15 April 1949) is an Australian politician. ... Sharon Bird (born 15 November 1962), Australian politician, was elected to the Australian House of Representatives for the Division of Cunningham, New South Wales, at the October 2004 election. ... Hon Bronwyn Bishop Bronwyn Kathleen Bishop (born 19 October 1942), Australian politician, has been a Liberal member of the Australian House of Representatives since February 1994, representing the Division of Mackellar, New South Wales. ... Chris Bowen, Australian politician, was elected to the Australian House of Representatives as member for the Division of Prospect, New South Wales for the Australian Labor Party at the 2004 federal election. ... Tony Burke Anthony Stephen Tony Burke (4 November 1969-), Australian politician, was elected to the House of Representatives as member for the seat of Watson, New South Wales for the Australian Labor Party at the 2004 federal election. ... Alan Glyndwr Cadman (born 26 July 1937), Australian politician, has been a Liberal member of the Australian House of Representatives since May 1974 representing the Division of Mitchell, New South Wales. ... Hon Ian Causley Ian Raymond Causley (born 19 October 1940),Australian politician, has been a National Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1996 representing the Division of Page, New South Wales. ... John Kenneth Cobb (born 11 February 1950), Australian politician, has been a National Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since November 2001 representing the Division of Parkes, New South Wales. ... Justine Elliot (born 29 July 1967), Australian politician, was elected to the House of Representatives as member for the Division of Richmond, New South Wales for the Australian Labor Party at the 2004 federal election. ... Hon Pat Farmer Patrick Francis Pat Farmer (born 14 March 1962), Australian politician, has been a Liberal member of the Australian House of Representatives since November 2001, representing the Division of Macarthur, New South Wales. ... Laurie Donald Thomas Ferguson (born 7 July 1952), Australian politician, has been an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1990, representing the Division of Reid, New South Wales. ... Joel Fitzgibbon Joel Andrew Fitzgibbon (born 16 January 1962), Australian politician, has been an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1996, representing the Division of Hunter, New South Wales. ... Peter Garrett campaigning in Melbourne for the 9 October 2004 Australian election Peter Garrett AM MP (born 16 April 1953), is an Australian musician and politician. ... Joanna Gash (born 21 July 1944), has been a Liberal member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1996, representing the Division of Gilmore on the southern coast of New South Wales. ... Jennie George Jennie George (born 28 August 1947), Australian politician, has been an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since November 2001, representing the Division of Throsby, New South Wales. ... Sharon Grierson Sharon Joy Grierson (born 4 May 1951), Australian politician, has been an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since November 2001, representing the Division of Newcastle, New South Wales. ... Jill Hall Jill Griffiths Hall (born 16 November 1949), Australian politician, has been an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since October 1998, representing the Division of Shortland, New South Wales. ... Luke Hartsuyker Luke Hartsuyker (born 28 April 1959), Australian politician, has been a National Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since November 2001, representing the Division of Cowper, New South Wales. ... Michael Hatton Michael John Hatton (born 28 August 1951), Australian politician, has been an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since June 1996, representing the Division of Blaxland, New South Wales. ... Image:Hayes. ... Kelly Hoare Kelly Joy Hoare (born 1 July 1963), Australian politician, has been an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since October 1998, representing the Division of Charlton, New South Wales. ... Joseph Benedict Joe Hockey (born 2 August 1965), Australian politician, is the outgoing Federal Minister for Human Services. ... Kay Hull Kay Elizabeth Hull (born 3 February 1954), Australian politician, has been a National Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since October 1998, representing the Division of Riverina, New South Wales. ... Julia Irwin Julia Claire Irwin (born 8 November 1951), Australian politician, has been an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since October 1998, representing the Division of Fowler, New South Wales. ... Jacqueline Marie Jackie Kelly (born 18 February 1964), Australian politician, has been a Liberal member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1996, representing the Division of Lindsay, New South Wales. ... Sussan Penelope Ley (born 14 September 1961), Australian politician, has been a Liberal Party of Australia member of the Australian House of Representatives since November 2001, representing the Division of Farrer, New South Wales. ... Hon Jim Lloyd James Eric Lloyd (born 17 July 1954), Australian politician, has been a Liberal Party of Australia member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1996, representing the Division of Robertson, New South Wales. ... Louise Markus (born 6 September 1958), Australian politician, was elected to the House of Representatives as member for the Division of Greenway, New South Wales for the Liberal Party of Australia at the 2004 federal election, in a very close result. ... Robert McClelland Robert Bruce McClelland (born 26 January 1958), Australian politician, has been an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1996, representing the Division of Barton, New South Wales. ... Daryl Melham Daryl Melham (born 27 November 1954), Australian politician, has been an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1990, representing the Division of Banks, New South Wales. ... John Paul Murphy (born 31 May 1950), Australian politician, has been an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since October 1998, representing the Division of Lowe, New South Wales. ... Hon Gary Nairn Gary Roy Nairn (born 3 January 1951), Australian politician, has been a Liberal Party of Australia member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1996, representing the Division of Eden-Monaro, New South Wales. ... Dr Hon Brendan Nelson Dr Brendan John Nelson (born 19 August 1958), Australian politician, has been a Liberal Party of Australia member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1996, representing the Division of Bradfield, New South Wales. ... Julie Owens (born 17 October 1958), Australian politician, has been an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since October 2004, representing the Division of Parramatta, New South Wales. ... Tanya Plibersek Tanya Joan Plibersek (born 2 December 1969), Australian politician, has been an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1998, representing the Division of Sydney, New South Wales. ... Leo Roger Spurway Price (born 26 November 1945), Australian politician, has been an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since December 1984, representing the Division of Chifley, New South Wales. ... Philip Maxwell Ruddock (born March 12, 1943), Australian politician, is the Attorney-General of Australia in the Coalition Government of Australian Prime Minister John Howard. ... Alby Schultz Albert John Alby Schultz (born 29 May Australian politician, has been a Liberal member of the Australian House of Representatives since October 1998, representing the Division of Hume, New South Wales. ... Ken Ticehurst Kenneth Ticehurst (born 22 January 1945), Australian politician, has been a Liberal member of the Australian House of Representatives since November 2001, representing the Division of Dobell, New South Wales. ... Malcolm Bligh Turnbull (born 24 October 1954), Australian politician, is the Federal Minister for Environment and Water Resources. ... Hon Mark Vaile Eric William Day (born 18 April 1956), Australian politician, is the leader of the Nationals and Deputy Prime Minister of Australia. ... Hon Danna Vale Danna Sue Vale (born 14 November 1944), Australian politician, has been a Liberal member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1996, representing the Division of Hughes, New South Wales. ... Tony Windsor Antony Harold Curties Tony Windsor (born 2 September 1950), Australian politician, has been an independent member of the Australian House of Representatives since 2001, representing the Division of New England, New South Wales. ...

Labor | Liberal | National | Independent
Persondata
NAME Howard, John Winston
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Prime Minister of Australia
DATE OF BIRTH 26 July 1939
PLACE OF BIRTH Sydney, Australia
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
John Howard (1056 words)
Howard was shocked by the condition of dungeon in which he was imprisoned and when he arrived back in England he sent a report to the authorities detailing the sufferings of his fellow prisoners.
Howard was devastated when his wife died giving birth to their first child in 1765.
When Howard returned to England he began a second tour of its prisons to see if the reforms of the 1774 Gaol Act were being implemented.
John Howard (0 words)
Howard described himself as "the most conservative leader the Liberals have ever had," and said that "the times will suit me." During 1985 and 1986, with unemployment rising and the economy stagnant, Howard appeared to be making ground on the government.
Howard's reputation for honesty was damaged when it was demonstrated that one of his claims during the asylum-seeker debate, that asylum-seekers has "thrown their children overboard" in order to force the government to allow them to land in Australia, was untrue, and that the Defence Minister at the time, Peter Reith, had known this.
Howard and the Liberals remained firm favourites to defeat Crean at the scheduled elections in 2004, even though opinion polls on voting intention (as distinct from preferred Prime Minister) indicated that the election might be a closer contest than many people supposed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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