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Encyclopedia > John Hawkins
John Hawkins
John Hawkins

Admiral Sir John Hawkins (also spelled as John Hawkyns) (Plymouth 1532November 12, 1595) was an English shipbuilder, naval administrator and commander, merchant, navigator, and slave trader. As treasurer (1577) and controller (1589) of the navy, he rebuilt older ships and helped design the faster ships that withstood the Spanish Armada in 1588. He later devised the naval blockade to intercept Spanish treasure ships. One of the foremost seamen of 16th-century England, he was the chief architect of the Elizabethan navy. In the great battle in which the Spanish Armada was defeated in 1588, Hawkins served as a vice admiral. He was knighted for gallantry. Notable people named John Hawkins have included: Sir John Hawkins, Elizabethan sailor Sir John Hawkins, 18th century author John Hawkins - author of The Rainbow Mansions The Rainbow Mansions Official Website. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1422x1753, 430 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1422x1753, 430 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Smeatons tower on the Plymouth Hoe Plymouth is a city in the Westcountry of England, situated at the mouths of the rivers Plym and Tamar in the traditional county of Devon. ... Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... A navigator is the person onboard a ship responsible for the navigation of the vessel. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the modern navy of Spain, see Armada Española. ...


William, John's father, was a confidant of Henry VIII of England and one of the principal sea captains of England. “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The first Englishman recorded to have taken slaves from Africa was John Lok, a London trader who, in 1555, brought to England five slaves from Guinea. A second London trader taking slaves at that time was William Towerson whose fleet sailed into Plymouth following his 1556 voyage to Africa and from Plymouth on his 1557 voyage. Despite the exploits of Lok and Towerson, John Hawkins of Plymouth is widely acknowledged to be the pioneer of the English slave trade. Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Events Spain is effectively bankrupt. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Contents

Genealogy

John was the son of William Hawkins and Joan Trelawney. Joan's parents were William and Joan Trelawney. William Trelawney was the son of John Trelawney and Florence Courtenay, daughter of Hugh Courtenay. Hugh Courtenay was the son of Hugh Courtenay, Sr. and Matilda "Maud' Beaumont. Maud's mother was Eleanor Plantagenet, making John Hawkins the 4th great-grandson of Eleanor of Lancaster. Eleanor of Lancaster (sometimes called Eleanor Plantagenet1) (about 1315 - 11 January 1372) was born in Arundel, West Sussex, England, the fifth daughter of Henry, Earl of Lancaster (c. ...


Hugh Courtenay, Sr. was the son of Edward Courtenay, Sr. Edward's father was Hugh de Courtenay. Hugh's father was Hugh de Courtenay, Sr. His mother, Eleanor le Despencer was the daughter of Hugh le Despencer. Hugh's mother was Emma D'Harcourt, the daughter of Richard D'Harcourt. Richard's father was Robert D'Harcourt, son of Ivo D'Harcourt. Ivo's mother was Agnes Ambroise.


John Hawkins was an ancestor of Colonel Benjamin Hawkins. Sen. ...


First voyage

In 1554 John Hawkins formed a syndicate of wealthy merchants to invest in the slave trade. In 1555, he set sail with three ships for the Caribbean via Sierra Leone. They hijacked a Portuguese slave ship and traded the 300 slaves in the Caribbean. Despite having two ships seized by the Spanish authorities, he sold the slaves in Santo Domingo and thus made a profit for his London investors. His voyage caused the Spanish to ban all English ships from trading in their West Indies colonies. citation needed Events January 5 - Great fire in Eindhoven, Netherlands. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... It has been suggested that Greater Santo Domingo Area be merged into this article or section. ...


Second voyage

In 1564, Queen Elizabeth I partnered with him by renting him the huge old 700-tonne ship Jesus of Lubeck, and he set forth on his second longer and more extensive voyage along with three small ships. Hawkins sailed to Borburata, privateering along the way. By the time he reached Borburata, he had kidnapped around 400 Africans. After Borburata, Hawkins sailed to Rio de la Hacha. The Spanish officials tried to prevent Hawkins' sale of his kidnap victims into slavery by imposing taxes. Captain Hawkins refused the taxes and threatened to burn the towns. After selling his victims, Captain Hawkins sailed to a French colony in Florida for a respite. Captain Hawkins returned to England in September 1566, his expedition a total success as his financiers made a 60% profit. Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... Borburata is a small coastal town in Carabobo state, Venezuela. ... Riohacha is the capital city of the department of Guajira in Colombia. ...


Third voyage

His third voyage was in 1567. Hawkins obtained many more victims, and also augmented his cargo by capturing the Portuguese slave ship Madre de Dios (Mother of God) and its human cargo. He took about 400 slaves across the Atlantic on the third trip. At Vera Cruz he was chanced upon by a strong Spanish force that was bringing the new viceroy to the colony there. Only two of the English ships escaped destruction, and Hawkins' voyage home was a miserable one. Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... Slave ships were cargo boats specially converted for the purpose of transporting slaves, especially newly captured African slaves. ... Veracruz from space, July 1997 The city of Veracruz is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz. ...


Although his first three voyages were semi-piratical enterprises, Queen Elizabeth I was in need of money and saw pirates as fighting her battles at their own cost and risk. Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Hawkins would write about the details of his third voyage in An Alliance to Raid for Slaves. Specifically he comments on how trading and raiding were closely related in the English slave trade and how European success in the slave trade directly depended on African allies who were willing to cooperate. He also comments on the level of violence he and his men used and encouraged in order to secure his captives. The title makes clear the basis of his methodology.


1570-1587

Hawkins pretended to be part of the Ridolfi plot to betray Queen Elizabeth in 1571. He offered his services to the Spanish, in order to obtain the release of prisoners and to discover plans for the proposed Spanish invasion of England. The Ridolfi plot was meant to put Mary Stewart on the throne of England. ... Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ...


His help in foiling the plot was rewarded, and in 1571 Hawkins entered Parliament to become a Member of Parliament. He also became Treasurer and comptroller of the Royal Navy (15731589). Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... A notable office in British government between the 16th and early 19th centuries, the Treasurer of the Navy was responsible for the financial maintenance of the Royal Navy. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Year 1573 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ...


His Navy financial reforms upset many who had vested interests – principally Mathew Baker and Phineas Pett – and these concocted a Royal Commission on Fraud against him in 1583. However, he was found innocent. Mathew Baker (1530- 1615), was one of the most renowned Tudor shipwrights, and the first to put the practice of shipbuilding down on paper. ... Phineas Pett (November 1, 1570 - August, 1647) was a shipwright and a member of the Pett dynasty. ... 1583 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ...


John Hawkins was determined that his navy, as well as having the best fleet of ships in the world, would also have the best quality of seamen, and so petitioned and won a pay increase for sailors, arguing that a smaller number of well-motivated and better-paid men would achieve substantially more than a larger group of disinterested men.


Hawkins made important improvements in ship construction and rigging; he is less well known for his inventiveness as a shipwright, but it was his idea to add to the caulker's work by the finishing touch of sheathing the underside of his ships with a skin of nailed elm planks sealed with a combination of pitch and hair smeared over the bottom timbers, as a protection against the worms which would attack a ship in tropical seas. Hawkins also introduced detachable topmasts that could be hoisted and used in good weather and stowed in heavy seas. Masts were more forward, and sails flatter. His ships were longer and the forecastle and aftcastle (or poop) were greatly reduced in size. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For a description of caulking in computer game creation, refer to caulking (computer games) Caulking is a process used in the sealing of the seams in wooden boats and making them watertight. ... Species See Elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees making up the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae, found throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Siberia to Indonesia, Mexico to Japan. ... The pitch drop experiment. ... forecastle with figurehead Grand Turk Focsle of the Prince William, a modern square rigged ship, in the North Sea. ...


The Spanish Armada

The arms of Sir John Hawkins
The arms of Sir John Hawkins

Hawkins innovative measures made the new English ships fast and highly manoeuverable. In 1588 they were tested against the Spanish Armada. Hawkins was the Rear Admiral, one of three main commanders of the English fleet against the Armada, alongside Francis Drake and Martin Frobisher. Hawkins’ flagship was Victory. It is possible that Hawkins organised the fire-ship attacks at Calais. For his role in the great sea battle, Hawkins was knighted. Image File history File links Arms_of_John_Hawkins. ... Image File history File links Arms_of_John_Hawkins. ... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... For the modern navy of Spain, see Armada Española. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ...


After the defeat of the Armada, Hawkins urged the seizure of Philip II's colonial treasure, in order to stop Spain re-arming. In 1589, Hawkins sailed with former apprentice Francis Drake in a massive military operation (the Drake-Norris Expedition) with one of its goals being to try to intercept the Spanish treasure fleet. The voyage failed, but the idea led many other English pirates to make similar attempts. Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. ... The English Armada (also known as the Counter Armada) was a fleet of warships sent to the Iberian coast by Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1589, during the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) in an attempt to drive home the advantage won upon the defeat and dispersal of the...


In 1590 Drake and Hawkins founded a charity for the relief of sick and elderly mariners. This was followed by a hospital in 1592 and another in 1594, the Sir John Hawkins’ Hospital. The charity continues today. Three types of mariners are seen here in the wheelhouse: a master, an able seaman, and a harbour pilot. ... Year 1592 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events February 27 - Henry IV is crowned King of France at Rheims. ...


Potatoes, tobacco and sharks

Potatoes were first imported to England (probably Ireland) in either 1563 or 1565 (sources differ) by Hawkins. For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... // Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded. ...


Some scholars suggest it was John Hawkins who introduced tobacco into England. Some accounts say this was in 1569, others in 1564. The latter is more likely, since he mentions "Ltobaccoj" (meaning tobacco) in his journals of the second voyage. Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in genus Nicotiana. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony...


The OED notes that the word shark appears to have been introduced by Hawkins' sailors, who brought one back and exhibited it in London in 1569. It has recently been suggested that the derivation is from xoc the word for "fish" in a Mayan language spoken in Yukatan.[1] OED stands for Oxford English Dictionary Office of Enrollment & Discipline This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... “Maya language” redirects here. ... Yucatán is the name of one of the 31 states of Mexico, located on the north of the Yucatán Peninsula. ...


Death

In 1595 he accompanied his cousin Francis Drake, on a treasure-hunting voyage to the West Indies, during which he fell sick and died at sea off Puerto Rico. Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. ... For other uses, see Treasure (disambiguation). ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...


He was succeeded by his son Sir Richard Hawkins, and his great apprentice and protégé, Francis Drake. Sir Richard Hawkins (c. ...


Hawkins came to the public's attention again in June 2006, almost four and a half centuries after his death, when his descendant Andrew Hawkins publicly apologized for his ancestor's actions in the slave trade.[2]


References

  1. ^ Breaking the Maya Code: Revised Edition by Michael D. Coe, 1999
  2. ^ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-2236871,00.html The Times: "Slaver's descendant begs forgiveness: Briton apologises to African nation for the exploits of his Elizabethan ancestor".

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


Further reading

  • Hazlewood, Nick. The Queen's Slave Trader: John Hawkyns, Elizabeth I, and the Trafficking in Human Souls. HarperCollins Books, New York, 2004. ISBN 0-06-621089-5.
  • Walling, R.A.J. A Sea-Dog of Devon: a Life of Sir John Hawkins. 1907.
  • Williamson, James. Hawkins of Plymouth: a new History of Sir John Hawkins. 1969.
  • Davis, Bertram. Proof of Eminence : The Life of Sir John Hawkins. Indiana University Press. 1973

Part of the seafront of Torquay, south Devon, at high tide Devon is a large county in South West England, bordered by Cornwall to the west, and Dorset and Somerset to the east. ...

External links

  • An exhibit in the National Archives of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Benjamin Gonson
Treasurer of the Navy
1577–1595
(jointly with Benjamin Gonson, 1577)
Succeeded by
Fulk Greville

  Results from FactBites:
 
John Hawkins - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (870 words)
John was the son of William Hawkins the elder, by Joan Trelawny.
Hawkins pretended to be part of the Ridolfi plot to betray Queen Elizabeth in 1571.
Hawkins came to the public's attention again in June 2006, almost four and a half centuries after his death, when his descendant Andrew Hawkins publicly apologised for his ancestor's actions in the slave trade.
Sir John Hawkins (1731 words)
John Hawkins, the son of a merchant, was born in Plymouth in 1532.
In 1571 Hawkins was involved in a plot with Philip II to assassinate Elizabeth I.
Hawkins also showed concern for his men: "The men have long been unpaid and need relief." Charles Howard was also angry that his men had not received their wages.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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