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Encyclopedia > John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles

In office
January 26, 1953 – April 22, 1959
President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Preceded by Dean Acheson
Succeeded by Christian Herter

In office
July 7, 1949 – November 8, 1949
Preceded by Robert F. Wagner
Succeeded by Herbert H. Lehman

Born February 25, 1888(1888-02-25)
Washington, D.C.
Died May 24, 1959 (aged 71)
Washington, D.C.
Political party Republican
Profession Lawyer, Diplomat, Politician
Religion Presbyterian

John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888May 24, 1959) served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. He was a significant figure in the early Cold War era, advocating an aggressive stance against communism around the world. He advocated support of the French in their war against the Viet Minh in Indochina and famously refused to shake the hand of Zhou Enlai at the Geneva Conference in 1954. John Foster Dulles This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dwight David Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Dean Acheson Dean Gooderham Acheson (April 11, 1893 – October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer; as United States Secretary of State in the late 1940s he played the central role in defining American foreign policy for the Cold War. ... For the American physician (1865–1910), see Christian Archibald Herter (physician). ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... “NY” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_York. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portrait of Robert F. Wagner in the U.S. Senate Reception Room Robert Ferdinand Wagner (8 June 1877–4 May 1953) was a Democratic United States Senator from New York from 1927 until 1949. ... Herbert Lehman Herbert Henry Lehman (March 28, 1878 – December 5, 1963) was a Democratic Party politician from the U.S. state of New York. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Washington,_D.C..svg The flag of Washington, D.C. It is from openclipart. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Washington,_D.C..svg The flag of Washington, D.C. It is from openclipart. ... This article is about the modern United States Republican Party. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Dwight David Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949... The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ...

Contents

Early life, career, and family

Born in Washington, D.C., he was the son of a Presbyterian minister and attended public schools in Watertown, New York. After attending Princeton University and The George Washington University Law School he joined the New York City law firm of Sullivan & Cromwell, where he specialized in international law. He tried to join the United States Army during World War I but was rejected because of poor eyesight. Instead, Dulles received an Army commission as Major on the War Industries Board. For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... For other types of minister, see Minister In Christian churches, a minister is a man or woman who serves a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry; such persons can minister as a Pastor, Preacher, Bishop, Chaplain, Deacon or Elder. ... Watertown is a town in Jefferson County, New York. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... The George Washington University Law School, commonly referred to as GW Law, was founded in 1865 and is the oldest law school in the District of Columbia. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Sullivan & Cromwell LLP is an international law firm headquartered in New York. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Both his grandfather John W. Foster and his uncle Robert Lansing served as Secretary of State. He was also the older brother of Allen Welsh Dulles, Director of Central Intelligence under Eisenhower. His son Avery Robert Dulles converted to Catholicism and became the first American priest to be directly appointed to Cardinal. He currently teaches and resides at Fordham University in The Bronx, New York. Another son, John W.F. Dulles, is a professor of history at the University of Texas at Austin.[1] Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State John W. Foster John Watson Foster (March 2, 1836 – November 15, 1917) was an American military man, journalist and diplomat. ... This article is about the former Secretary of State. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Allen W. Dulles Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was the first civilian and the longest serving (1953-1961) Director of Central Intelligence (de-facto head of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency) and a member of the Warren Commission. ... The Office of Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was established on January 23rd 1946 with Adm. ... His Eminence Avery Robert Cardinal Dulles, S.J. (born August 24, 1918 in Auburn, New York) is currently the Laurence J. McGinley Professor of Religion and Society at Fordham University, a position he has held since 1988. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... The coat of arms of a Cardinal are indicated by a red galero (wide-brimmed hat) with 15 tassels on each side (the motto and escutcheon are proper to the individual Cardinal). ... Fordham University is a private, coeducational research university[2] in the United States, with three residential campuses located in and around New York City. ... For other uses, see The Bronx (disambiguation). ... University of Texas redirects here. ...


Political career

In 1918, Woodrow Wilson appointed Dulles as legal counsel to the United States delegation to the Versailles Peace Conference where he served under his uncle, Robert Lansing, then Secretary of State. Dulles made an early impression as a junior diplomat by clearly and forcefully arguing against imposing crushing reparations on Germany. Afterwards, he served as a member of the War Reparations Committee at the request of President Wilson. Dulles, a deeply religious man, attended numerous international conferences of churchmen during the 1920s and 1930s. In 1924, he was the defense counsel in the church trial of Rev. Harry Emerson Fosdick, who had been charged with heresy by opponents in the denomination, a case settled when Fosdick, a liberal Baptist, resigned his pulpit in the Presbyterian Church, which he had never joined. Dulles also became a partner at Sullivan & Cromwell, an international law firm. According to Stephen Kinzer's 2006 book Overthrow, the firm benefited from doing business with the Nazi regime, and throughout 1934, Dulles was a very public supporter of Hitler. However, his partners were appalled by Nazi activities and threatened to revolt if Dulles did not end the firm's association with the regime. In 1935, Dulles closed Sullivan & Cromwell's Berlin office; later he would cite the closing date as 1934, no doubt in an effort to clear his reputation by shortening his involvement with Nazi Germany.[2] Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... The Paris Peace Conference was an international conference, organized by the victors of the World War I for negotiating the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and their former enemies. ... This article is about the former Secretary of State. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Sullivan & Cromwell LLP is an international law firm headquartered in New York. ...


Dulles was a close associate of Thomas E. Dewey, who became the presidential candidate of the United States Republican Party in the 1944 election. During the election, Dulles served as Dewey's foreign policy adviser. Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1954) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... This article is about the political process. ...


In 1945, Dulles participated in the San Francisco Conference and worked as adviser to Arthur H. Vandenberg and helped draft the preamble to the United Nations Charter. He subsequently attended the United Nations General Assembly as a United States delegate in 1946, 1947 and 1950. Dulles was appointed to the United States Senate as a Republican from New York on July 7, 1949, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Democrat Robert F. Wagner. Dulles served from July 7, 1949, to November 8, 1949, when a successor, Herbert Lehman, was elected, having beaten Dulles in a special election to fill the senate vacancy. Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru of Japan, gave a speech on Reconciliation and rapport (和解と信頼) in 1951 at San Francisco Peace conference. ... Arthur Hendrick Vandenberg (March 22, 1884–April 18, 1951) was a Republican Senator from the state of Michigan who participated in the creation of the United Nations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Portrait of Robert F. Wagner in the U.S. Senate Reception Room Robert Ferdinand Wagner (8 June 1877–4 May 1953) was a Democratic United States Senator from New York from 1927 until 1949. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Herbert Henry Lehman (March 28, 1878 - December 5, 1963) was a Governor and Senator from New York. ...


In 1950, Dulles published War or Peace, a critical analysis of the American policy of containment, which at the time was favored by many of the foreign policy elites in Washington. Dulles criticized the foreign policy of Harry S. Truman. He argued that containment should be replaced by a policy of "liberation". When Dwight Eisenhower became President in January, 1953, he appointed Dulles as his Secretary of State. As Secretary of State, Dulles still carried out the “containment” policy of neutralizing the Taiwan Strait during the Korean War, which had been established by President Truman in the Treaty of Peace with Japan of 1951. This article is about foreign policy. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Taiwan Strait Area The Taiwan Strait or Formosa Strait is a 180km-wide Strait between mainland China and the island of Taiwan. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru of Japan, gave a speech on Reconciliation and rapport (和解と信頼) in 1951 at San Francisco Peace conference. ...


Secretary of State

Dulles with president Eisenhower in 1956
Dulles with president Eisenhower in 1956

As Secretary of State, Dulles spent considerable time building up NATO as part of his strategy of controlling Soviet expansion by threatening massive retaliation in event of a war, as well as building up friendships, including that of Louis Jefferson, who would later write a good-humored biography on Dulles. In 1950, he helped instigate the ANZUS Treaty for mutual protection with Australia and New Zealand. One of his first major policy shifts towards a more aggressive posture against communism, Dulles directed the CIA, in March of 1953, to draft plans to overthrow the Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh in Iran [1]. This led directly to the Coup d'état via Operation Ajax in support of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran. File links The following pages link to this file: John Foster Dulles Categories: U.S. history images ... File links The following pages link to this file: John Foster Dulles Categories: U.S. history images ... Dwight David Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Massive Retaliation is a military doctrine in which an entity commits itself to retaliate in much greater force in the event of an attack. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the military alliance which binds Australia and New Zealand and, separately, Australia and the United States to cooperate on defence matters in the Pacific Ocean area, though today the treaty is understood to relate to attacks in... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh Mohammed Mossadegh ( )(Persian: ‎ ​, also Mosaddegh or Mosaddeq) (19 May 1882 - 5 March 1967) was the democratically elected[1] prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarch of Iran from September 16, 1941 until the Iranian Revolution on February... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of Persia to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ...


Dulles was also the architect of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) that was created in 1954. The treaty, signed by representatives of the United States, Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines and Thailand, provided for collective action against aggression. In that same year, due to his relationship with his brother Allen Dulles, a member of the Board Of Directors of the United Fruit Company, based in Guatemala, Foster Dulles was pivotal in promoting and executing the CIA-led Operation PBSUCCESS that overthrew the democratically elected Guatemalan government of Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán. The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty or the Manila Pact, was an international organization for collective defense established on September 8, 1954. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Chiquita Brands International. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán with his wife Maria Colonel Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán (September 14, 1913 – January 27, 1971) was president of Guatemala from 1951 to 1954, when he was ousted in a coup détat organized by the US Central Intelligence Agency, known as Operation PBSUCCESS, and was replaced...


Dulles was one of the pioneers of mutual assured destruction and brinkmanship. In an article written for Life Magazine Dulles defined his policy of brinkmanship: "The ability to get to the verge without getting into the war is the necessary art." His critics blamed him for damaging relations with Communist states and contributing to the Cold War. Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A cover of Life Magazine from 1911 Life has been the name of two notable magazines published in the United States. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Dulles upset the leaders of several non-aligned countries when on June 9, 1956, he argued in one speech that "neutrality has increasingly become an obsolete and, except under very exceptional circumstances, it is an immoral and shortsighted conception." June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Dulles provided some consternation and amusement to the British, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand ambassadors by his repeated attempts to tell substantially different versions of events to them. Apparently, unbeknownst to Dulles, the men had all attended Cambridge together and followed up meetings with Dulles by comparing notes and reporting the discrepancies to their home countries.[citation needed] The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ...


In 1956, Dulles strongly opposed the Anglo-French invasion of the Suez Canal, Egypt (October–November 1956). However, by 1958, he was an outspoken opponent of President Gamal Abdel Nasser and stopped him from receiving weapons from the United States. This policy seemingly backfired, enabling the Soviet Union to gain influence in the Middle East. For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Dulles also served as the former Chairman and Co-founder of the Commission on a Just and Durable Peace of the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America (succeeded by the National Council of Churches), Chairman of the Board for the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, a former Trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation from 1935 to 1952, and a founding member of the Council of Foreign Relations. The National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA (usually identified as National Council of Churches, or NCC) is an association of 35 Christian faith groups in the United States with 100,000 local congregations and more than 45,000,000 adherents. ... The Endowments headquarters at 1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is a private nonprofit organization promoting international cooperation and active international engagement by the United States of America. ... The Rockefeller Foundation (RF) is a prominent philanthropic organization based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. ... The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is a think tank which describes itself as dedicated to increasing Americas understanding of the world and contributing ideas to U.S. foreign policy. ...


Death and legacy

Suffering from cancer, Dulles was forced by his declining health to resign from office in April 1959. He died in Washington, D.C. on May 24, 1959, at the age of 71, and is buried at Arlington National Cemetery. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Sylvanus Thayer Award in 1959. A central Berlin road was (re-)named "John-Foster-Dulles-Allee" in 1959 in presence of Christian Herter, Dulles' successor as Secretary of State. Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... The Sylvanus Thayer Award is a military award that is given each year by the United States Military Academy at West Point. ...


The Washington Dulles International Airport (located in Dulles, Virginia) and John Foster Dulles High, Middle and Elementary School (Sugar Land, Texas) were both named in honor of Dulles. Watertown, NY named the Dulles State Office Building in his honor. FAA Airport Diagram Washington Dulles International Airport (IATA: IAD, ICAO: KIAD, FAA LID: IAD) is a public airport located 25 miles (32 km) west of the central business district of Washington, D.C., in Loudoun County, Virginia, United States. ... Dulles is an unincorporated area in Loudoun County, Virginia. ... City nickname: The Land of Sugar City slogan: Sugar Land. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ...


In 1954, Dulles was named Man of the Year in Time Magazine[3]. Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Past Person of the Year covers (clockwise from upper-left): Charles Lindbergh, 1927; The American Fighting-Man, 1950; Ayatollah Khomeini, 1979; The Computer, 1982; Rudy Giuliani, 2001. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ...


Carol Burnett first rose to prominence in the 1950s singing a novelty song, "I Made a Fool of Myself Over John Foster Dulles"; more recently, Gil Scott Heron commented "John Foster Dulles ain't nothing but the name of an airport now" in the song "B-Movie". In the book Fierce Invalids Home from Hot Climates, Switters and Case both spit whenever they refer to John Foster Dulles. Dulles' rollback policy was later implemented by the Reagan Administration during the 1980's and it is sometimes credited with the collapse of both the Communist Bloc in eastern Europe and the Soviet Empire. There are however, many other points of view about the break-up of the Communist Bloc and the Soviet Empire. Many of them do not involve the policies of the U.S. government. Carol Creighton Burnett (born April 26, 1933) is a five-time Golden Globe winning American actress and comedienne. ... Gil Scott-Heron - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Fierce Invalids Home From Hot Climates is Tom Robbins seventh and biggest novel. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... President Reagan, with his Cabinet and staff, in the Oval Office (February 4, 1981) Headed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1989, the Reagan Administration was conservative, steadfastly anti-Communist and in favor of tax cuts and smaller government. ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Map showing states that had communist governments during the Cold War in bright red, and other states the USSR believed to be moving toward socialism in dark red Soviet Empire was a controversial, politically charged and pejorative term used to critically describe the actions and nature of the Soviet Union. ...


On December 1958, Dulles and Dr. Milton Eisenhower attended Mexico's new president Adolfo Lopez Mateos' inauguration, where Dulles made the candid quote, "The United States of America does not have friends; it has interests". At the time the quote was actually interpreted positively, but has with time become infamous in some sectors due to the country's future foreign policies. Milton Stover Eisenhower (September 15, 1899 - May 2, 1985) served as president of three major American universities. ... Adolfo López Mateos (26 May 1909 – 22 September 1969) was President of Mexico from 1958 to 1964. ...


Bibliography

  • Biographies
    • Power and Peace: The Diplomacy of John Foster Dulles by Frederick Marks (1995) ISBN 0-275-95232-0
    • John Foster Dulles: Piety, Pragmatism, and Power in U.S. Foreign Policy by Richard H. Immerman (1998) ISBN 0-8420-2601-0
    • Devil and John Foster Dulles by Hoopes Townsend (1973) ISBN 0-316-37235-8. Most famous book on Dulles.
    • The actor; the true story of John Foster Dulles, Secretary of State, 1953-1959 by Alan Stang, Western Islands (1968)
    • The John Foster Dulles Book of Humor by Louis Jefferson (1986), St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0-312-44355-2
  • General History
    • Kinzer, Stephen, Overthrow. Henry Holt and Company (2006). ISBN 0-8050-8240-9

Headquartered in the legendary Flatiron Building in New York City, St. ...

See also

Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The New Look was the name given to the national security policy of the United States during the administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ...

References

  1. ^ "90-year-old Still Active at University, The Daily Texan"
  2. ^ Kinzer, Stephen, Overthrow. Henry Holt and Company (2006), p. 114, ISBN 0-8050-8240-9
  3. ^ TIME.com: Man of the Year — Jan. 3, 1955 — Page 1

External links

Preceded by
Robert F. Wagner
United States Senator (Class 3) from New York
1949
Served alongside: Irving Ives
Succeeded by
Herbert H. Lehman
Preceded by
Dean Acheson
United States Secretary of State
1953–1959
Succeeded by
Christian Herter
Preceded by
Ernest O. Lawrence
Sylvanus Thayer Award recipient
1959
Succeeded by
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
Preceded by
Konrad Adenauer
Time's Man of the Year
1955
Succeeded by
Harlow Curtice
Persondata
NAME Dulles, John Foster
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION United States Secretary of State
DATE OF BIRTH February 25, 1888
PLACE OF BIRTH Washington, D.C.
DATE OF DEATH May 24, 1959
PLACE OF DEATH Washington, D.C.

  Results from FactBites:
 
John Foster Dulles - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1013 words)
Dulles was appointed to the United States Senate as a Republican from New York on July 7, 1949, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Democrat Robert F. Wagner.
Dulles served from July 7, 1949, to November 8, 1949, when a successor, Herbert Lehman, was elected, having beaten Dulles in a special election to fill the senate vacancy.
Dulles was one of the pioneers of Mutually Assured Destruction and brinkmanship.
John Foster Dulles - definition of John Foster Dulles in Encyclopedia (772 words)
John Foster Dulles, the son of a Presbyterian minister, was born in Washington D.C., and attended public schools in New York.
Dulles was appointed to the United States Senate as a Republican on July 7, 1949, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Democrat Robert F. Wagner.
Dulles, suffering from cancer, was forced by his declining health to resign from office in April, 1959 and died in Washington on 24 May, 1959.
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