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Encyclopedia > John F. Kennedy assassination
President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine shortly before his assassination
President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine shortly before his assassination

The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p.m. CST (18:30 UTC). John F. Kennedy was fatally wounded by gunshots while riding with his wife Jacqueline in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza. That Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald was the conclusion of multiple government investigations, including the ten-month investigation of the Warren Commission of 1963–1964 and the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) of 1976–1979. This conclusion initially met with widespread support among the American public, but polls, since the original 1966 Gallup poll, show a majority of the public hold beliefs contrary to these findings.[1][2] The assassination is still the subject of widespread speculation and has spawned numerous conspiracy theories (even the HSCA, based in part on disputed acoustical evidence, concluded that Oswald may have had unspecified co-conspirators), though none of these theories have been proven. Robert Kennedy The assassination of Robert F. Kennedy, a United States Senator and brother of assassinated President John F. Kennedy took place shortly after midnight on June 5, 1968 following celebrations of a successful campaign in the Californian primary elections while seeking the Democratic nomination for President of the United... In politics, Governor of Texas is the title given to the chief executive of the state of Texas. ... John Bowden Connally, Jr. ... For the song from the band: Brand New, see Limousine (MS Rebridge). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dallas (disambiguation). ...  CST or UTC-6 The Central Standard Time Zone (CST) is a geographic region in the Americas that keeps time by subtracting six hours from UTC (UTC-6). ... ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... A gunshot is the discharge of a firearm, and the sound effect thereof; the term can also refer to a wound caused by such a discharge. ... Jacqueline Bouvier redirects here. ... Motorcade for the British Queen Elizabeth II in Koblenz 1964 A motorcade is a procession of cars carrying VIPs, especially political figures. ... Dealey Plaza (Warren Commission exhibit #876) Dealey Plaza (IPA pronunciation: ), in the historic West End district of downtown Dallas, Texas (USA), is infamous as the location of the John F. Kennedy assassination on November 22, 1963. ... Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to four United States government investigations, the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. ... Warren Commission report cover page The Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... The United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ... President Kennedy, Jackie Kennedy, Nellie Connally and Governor John Connally, shortly before the assassination. ... The U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... John F. Kennedy This article examines the dictabelt evidence relating to the assassination of John F. Kennedy. ...

Contents

Background of the visit

Kennedy had chosen to visit Dallas for three main reasons: to help generate more Democratic Party presidential campaign fund contributions in advance of the November 1964 presidential election; to begin his quest for re-election; and, because the Kennedy-Johnson ticket barely won Texas (and had lost Dallas) in 1960, to mend political fences among several leading Texas Democratic Party members who appeared to be fighting politically amongst themselves. The basic decision on the November trip to Texas was made at a meeting of President Kennedy, Vice President Johnson, and Texas Governor John Connally on June 5, 1963. The trip also included a first stop in Houston for a 3,200-person dinner for senior Congressman Albert Thomas, who was considering not seeking re-election. On September 26, 1963, the two daily Dallas newspapers confirmed plans of the November visit. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... John Bowden Connally, Jr. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Houston redirects here. ... Rep. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ...


There were concerns about security, because as recently as October 24, 1963, United States Ambassador to the United Nations, Adlai Stevenson, had been jeered, jostled, struck by a protest sign, and spat upon during a visit to Dallas. The danger from a concealed sniper on the Dallas trip was also of concern. President Kennedy had mentioned it the morning he was assassinated, as had the Secret Service agents when they were fixing the motorcade route. The motorcade route was described in both Dallas newspapers on November 19, 1963, and a map of the route was published on November 21, 1963.[3] is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... United States Ambassador to the United Nations, full title, Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, and Representative of the United States of America in the Security Council of the United Nations (also known as the... This is about the mid-20th-century politician and diplomat; for other American politicians so named, see Adlai Stevenson (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sniper (disambiguation). ... USSS redirects here. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ...


Sgt. Davis, of the Dallas Police Department, had prepared the most stringent security precautions in the city's history, so that the demonstrations like those marking the Stevenson visit would not happen again. But Winston Lawson of the Secret Service, who was in charge of the planning, told the Dallas Police not to assign its usual squad of experienced homicide detectives to follow immediately behind the President's car. This police protection was routine for both visiting presidents and for motorcades of other visiting dignitaries. Police Chief Jesse Curry later testified that had his men been in place, the murder might have been prevented, because they carried submachine guns and rifles to take out any attackers, or at least they might have been able to stop Oswald before he left the building.[4] Lyndon Johnson being sworn in. ...


It was planned that Kennedy would travel from Love Field airport in a motorcade through downtown Dallas (including Dealey Plaza) to give a speech at the Dallas Trade Mart. The car in which he was traveling was a 1961 Lincoln Continental, open-top, modified limousine. A presidential car with a bulletproof top was not yet in service in 1963, although plans for such a top were presented in October 1963. Dallas Love Field (IATA: DAL, ICAO: KDAL, FAA LID: DAL) is a public airport located five miles (8 km) northwest of the central business district (CBD) of the City of Dallas, in Dallas County, Texas, USA. The airport covers 1,300 acres and has three runways. ... The Dallas Market Center along the Stemmons Corridor of Dallas, Texas (USA) is a collection of large buildings used for show-space, conventions, meetings, and warehousing. ... The Lincoln Continental, an automobile produced by the Lincoln division of Ford Motor Company, began for the 1939 model year. ...


Assassination

The route taken by the motorcade within Dealey Plaza (north is toward the almost direct-left)
The route taken by the motorcade within Dealey Plaza (north is toward the almost direct-left)
Further information: Timeline of the John F. Kennedy assassination and Single bullet theory

Just before 12:30 p.m.CST, Kennedy’s limousine entered Dealey Plaza and slowly approached the Texas School Book Depository head-on, then turned left 120-degrees directly in front of the Depository, 65 feet (20 m) away. Photo of Dealey Plaza (annotated), from Warren Commission report. ... Photo of Dealey Plaza (annotated), from Warren Commission report. ... John F. Kennedy This article considers the detailed timeline of events before, during, and after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States. ... The Single Bullet Theory (pejoratively referred to as the magic bullet theory by critics and conspiracy theorists) is thought to be an essential element of the Warren Commission theory that only one assassin was responsible for the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy. ...


When the Presidential limousine passed the Depository and continued down Elm Street, shots were fired at Kennedy; the great majority of witnesses recalled hearing three shots.[5] There was hardly any reaction in the crowd to the first shot, many later saying they thought they had heard a firecracker or the exhaust backfire of a vehicle.[6] President Kennedy and Texas Governor John Connally, sitting with his wife in front of the Kennedys in the limousine, both turned abruptly from looking to their left to looking to their right. Connally immediately recognized the sound of a high powered rifle. "Oh, no, no, no", he said as he turned further right, and then started to turn left, attempting to see President Kennedy behind him.[7]

Elm Street seen from the 6th floor of the Texas School Book Depository
Elm Street seen from the 6th floor of the Texas School Book Depository
Photo of presidential limousine by Ike Altgens taken between the first and second shots that hit President Kennedy (detail)
Photo of presidential limousine by Ike Altgens taken between the first and second shots that hit President Kennedy (detail)

According to the Warren Commission[8] and the House Select Committee on Assassinations,[9] as President Kennedy waved to the crowds on his right, a shot entered his upper back, penetrated his neck, and exited his throat. He raised his clenched fists up to his neck and leaned forward and to his left, as Mrs. Kennedy put her arms around him in concern. Governor Connally also reacted, as the same bullet penetrated his back, chest, right wrist, and left thigh. He yelled, "My God, they are going to kill us all."[10][11] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1260x1115, 524 KB) Source The Mary Ferrell Foundation ( www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1260x1115, 524 KB) Source The Mary Ferrell Foundation ( www. ... Altgens photograph taken during the assassination of John F. Kennedy. ... The Single Bullet Theory (pejoratively referred to as the magic bullet theory by critics and conspiracy theorists) is thought to be an essential element of the Warren Commission theory that only one assassin was responsible for the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy. ...


The final shot took place when the Presidential limousine was passing in front of the John Neely Bryan north pergola concrete structure. As the shot was heard, a fist-size hole exploded out from the right side of President Kennedy's head, covering the interior of the car and a nearby motorcycle officer with blood and brain tissue.[12] John Neely Bryan (December 24, 1810 – September 8, 1877) was a presbyterian farmer, laywer, and tradesman in the United States and founder of the city of Dallas, Texas. ... A pergola in a garden in Oregon, USA. For the Italian city, see Pergola, Italy. ...

Polaroid photo by Mary Moorman taken a fraction of a second after the fatal shot (detail)
Polaroid photo by Mary Moorman taken a fraction of a second after the fatal shot (detail)

Secret Service agent Clint Hill was riding on the left front running board of the car immediately behind the Presidential limousine. Sometime after the shot that hit the president in the back, Hill jumped off and ran to overtake the limousine.[13] After the president had been shot in the head, Mrs. Kennedy climbed onto the rear of the limousine, though she later had no recollection of doing so.[14] Hill believed she was reaching for something, perhaps a piece of the president's skull.[15] He jumped onto the back of the limousine, pushed Mrs. Kennedy back into her seat, and clung to the car as it exited Dealey Plaza and sped to Parkland Memorial Hospital. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Badge man. ... Secret Service agent Clint Hill riding behind the presidents limousine moments before Kennedy was shot. ... Parkland Memorial Hospital is a hospital located at 5201 Harry Hines Boulevard in Dallas, Texas. ...


Others wounded

Governor Connally, riding in the same limousine in a seat in front of the President, was also critically injured but survived. Doctors later stated that after the governor was shot, Mrs. Connally pulled the governor onto her lap, and the resulting posture helped close his front chest wound (which was causing air to be sucked directly into his chest around his collapsed right lung).


James Tague, a spectator and witness to the assassination, also received a minor wound to his right cheek while standing 270 feet (82 m) in front of where Kennedy was shot. The injury resulted from debris ejected when a bullet or bullet fragment struck a nearby curb.[16] James Jim Thomas Tague (born 1937) was a witness to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, on November 22, 1963. ...


Aftermath in Dealey Plaza

The Presidential limousine was passing a grassy knoll on the north side of Elm Street at the moment of the fatal head shot. As the motorcade left the plaza, police officers and spectators ran up the knoll and from a railroad bridge over Elm Street (the Triple Underpass), to the area behind a five-foot (1.5 m) high stockade fence atop the knoll, separating it from a parking lot. No sniper was found.[17] S. M. Holland, who had been watching the motorcade on the Triple Underpass, testified that "immediately" after the shots were fired, he went around the corner where the overpass joined the fence but did not see anyone running from the area.[18] Dealey Plaza (Warren Commission exhibit #876) Dealey Plaza (IPA pronunciation: ), in the historic West End district of downtown Dallas, Texas (USA), is infamous as the location of the John F. Kennedy assassination on November 22, 1963. ...


Lee Bowers, a railroad switchman sitting in a two-story tower, had an unobstructed view of the rear of the stockade fence atop the grassy knoll during the shooting. He saw a total of four men in the area between his tower and Elm Street: a middle-aged man and a younger man, standing 10 to 15 feet (3 to 5 m) apart near the Triple Underpass, who did not seem to know each other, and one or two uniformed parking lot attendants. At the time of the shooting, he saw "something out of the ordinary, a sort of milling around", which he could not identify, but he did not see a gunman. Bowers testified that one or both of the men were still there when motorcycle officer Clyde Haygood ran up the grassy knoll to the back of the fence.[19] In a 1966 interview, Bowers clarified that the two men he saw were on the opposite side of the stockade fence from him, and that no one was behind the fence at the time the shots were fired.[20] Lee Bowers (1925 - August 9, 1966) was a witness to the assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963. ...

Howard Brennan sitting across from the Texas School Book Depository. Circle "A" indicates where he saw a man fire a rifle at the motorcade
Howard Brennan sitting across from the Texas School Book Depository. Circle "A" indicates where he saw a man fire a rifle at the motorcade

Meanwhile, Howard Brennan, a steamfitter who was sitting across the street from the Texas School Book Depository, notified police that as he watched the motorcade go by, he heard a shot come from above, and looked up to see a man with a rifle make another shot from a corner window on the sixth floor. He had seen the same man minutes earlier looking out the window.[21] Brennan gave a description of the shooter, which was broadcast to all Dallas police at 12:45 p.m., 12:48 p.m., and 12:55 p.m. Howard Leslie Brennan (Oklahoma, March 20, 1919 – Kaufman, Texas, December 22, 1983) was a witness to the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. ... A pipefitter (also called steamfitter) is someone who lays out, assembles, fabricates, maintains and repairs piping systems. ...


As Brennan spoke to the police in front of the building, they were joined by Harold Norman and James Jarman, Jr.,[22] two employees of the Texas School Book Depository who had watched the motorcade from windows at the southeast corner of the fifth floor.[23] The two reported that they and a third companion, Bonnie Ray Williams, heard three gunshots come from directly over their heads, and that plaster fell from the ceiling.[24] Norman also heard the sounds of a bolt action rifle and those of cartridges dropping on the floor above them.[25]


Estimates of when Dallas police sealed off the entrances to the Texas School Book Depository range from 12:33 to after 12:50 p.m.[26][27]


Of the 104 earwitnesses in Dealey Plaza who are on record with an opinion as to the direction from which the shots came, 56 (53.8%) thought that they came from the direction of the Texas School Book Depository, 35 (33.7%) thought that they came from the area of the grassy knoll or the Triple Underpass, 8 (7.7%) thought the shots came from a location entirely distinct from the knoll or the Depository, and 5 (4.8%) thought they heard shots from two locations.[5]


Lee Harvey Oswald

Main article: Lee Harvey Oswald

Lee Harvey Oswald, reported missing to the Dallas police by his supervisor at the Depository,[28] was arrested an hour and 20 minutes after the assassination for killing a Dallas police officer, J.D. Tippit, who had spotted Oswald walking along a sidewalk. He was captured in a nearby movie theater. Oswald resisted, attempting to shoot the arresting officer with a pistol, and was forcibly restrained by the police. He was charged with the murders of Tippit and Kennedy later that night.[29] Oswald denied shooting anyone and claimed he was a patsy.[30][31][32] Oswald's case never came to trial because two days later, while being escorted to an armored van for transfer from Dallas Police Headquarters to the Dallas County Jail, he was shot and killed by Jack Ruby. Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to four United States government investigations, the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. ... J. D. Tippit (September 18, 1924-November 22, 1963) was a police officer with the Dallas Police Department, USA, who was slain by Lee Harvey Oswald after Oswald was stopped by Tippit following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. ... The Scapegoat by William Holman Hunt, 1854. ... Jacob Rubenstein (March 25, 1911 – January 3, 1967), who legally changed his name to Jack Leon Ruby in 1947, was an American business analyst and nightclub owner from Dallas, Texas. ...


Carcano rifle

The rifle found in the Texas School Book Depository

A 6.5 x 52 mm Italian Carcano (sometimes improperly called a Mannlicher-Carcano) M91/38 bolt-action rifle was found on the 6th floor of the Texas Book Depository by Deputy Constable Seymour Weitzman and Deputy Sheriff Eugene Boone soon after the assassination of President Kennedy.[33] The recovery was filmed by Tom Alyea of WFAA-TV.[34] This footage shows the rifle to be a Mannlicher-Carcano, and it was later verified by photographic analysis commissioned by the HSCA that the rifle filmed was the same one later identified as the assassination weapon.[35] Against the Oswald backyard photographs, "one notch in the stock at [a] point that appears very faintly in the photograph" matched,[36] as well as the rifle's dimensions.[37] The rifle and Oswald’s marksmanship Lee Harvey Oswalds Mannlicher-Carcano rifle, in the US National Archives Left side view In March 1963, Oswald used his Fair Play for Cuba Committee alias Alek J. Hidell to purchase the rifle which was later identified by Lieutenant Day of the Dallas... For a discussion of this weapon as it pertains to the John F. Kennedy assassination, see John F. Kennedy assassination rifle. ... Categories: Stub | Bolt-action rifles | World War II Italian infantry weapons | JFK assassination | World War I guns ... For the painter, see John Constable. ... Look up Sheriff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... WFAA-TV (WFAA 8) is the ABC television affiliate serving the Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas DMA (5th largest nationwide). ...


A bullet found on Connally's hospital stretcher was ballistically matched to this rifle.[38] The previous March, the rifle had been bought by Lee Harvey Oswald under the name "A. Hidell" and delivered to a post office box in Dallas.[39] According to the Warren Commission Report, a partial palm print of Oswald was also found on the barrel of the gun.[40][41] A Post Office box is a uniquely-addressable lockable box located on the premises of a Post Office station. ...


Kennedy declared dead in the emergency room

Further information: Timeline of the John F. Kennedy assassination

The staff at Parkland Hospital's Trauma Room 1 who treated Kennedy observed that his condition was "moribund", meaning that he had no chance of survival upon arriving at the hospital. Dr. George Gregory Burkley,[42] determined the head wound was the cause of death. Dr. Burkley signed President Kennedy's death certificate.[43] John F. Kennedy This article considers the detailed timeline of events before, during, and after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States. ... A language is usually considered moribund (literally, dying) when it is no longer the language of the community, and is no longer learned by children, so that without massive intervention it will likely become extinct when the last of its current speakers dies. ...


At 1:00 p.m., CST (19:00 UTC), after all heart activity had ceased and after a priest administered the last rites, the President was pronounced dead. "We never had any hope of saving his life", one doctor said.[44] The priest who administered the last rites to Kennedy told The New York Times that the President was already dead by the time he had arrived at the hospital, and he had to draw back a sheet covering the President's face to administer the sacrament of Extreme Unction. Kennedy's death was officially announced by White House Acting Press Secretary Malcolm Kilduff [45] at 1:33 p.m. CST (19:33 UTC).[46] Governor Connally, meanwhile, was taken to emergency surgery, where he underwent two operations that day. ... This article is about religious workers. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Anointing of the Sick is the ritual anointing of a sick person and is a Sacrament of the Catholic Church. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... ...

Lyndon B. Johnson is sworn in as U.S. President aboard Air Force One in Dallas
Lyndon B. Johnson is sworn in as U.S. President aboard Air Force One in Dallas

A few minutes after 2:00 p.m. CST (20:00 UTC), and after a confrontation between Dallas police and Secret Service agents, Kennedy's body was placed in a casket and taken from Parkland Hospital and driven to Air Force One. The casket was then loaded aboard the airplane through the rear door, where it remained at the rear of the passenger compartment, in place of a removed row of seats. The body was removed before a forensic examination could be conducted by the Dallas County coroner, which violated Texas state law (the murder was a state crime and occurred under Texas legal jurisdiction). At that time, it was not a federal offense to kill the President of the United States.[47][48] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1100, 324 KB) Description: Lyndon B. Johnson taking the oath of office on Air Force One following the assassination of John F. Kennedy, Dallas, Texas, November 22, 1963 ARC identifier for use at NARA: 194235 Photographer: Cecil Stoughton Date: November 22... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1100, 324 KB) Description: Lyndon B. Johnson taking the oath of office on Air Force One following the assassination of John F. Kennedy, Dallas, Texas, November 22, 1963 ARC identifier for use at NARA: 194235 Photographer: Cecil Stoughton Date: November 22... ... For the current aircraft, see Boeing VC-25. ...


Vice-President Johnson (who had been riding two cars behind Kennedy in the motorcade through Dallas and was not injured) became President of the United States upon Kennedy's death. At 2:38 p.m. Johnson took the oath of office on board Air Force One just before it departed Love Field.


Autopsy

Drawing depicting the posterior head wound of President Kennedy. Made from an autopsy photograph
Drawing depicting the posterior head wound of President Kennedy. Made from an autopsy photograph

After Air Force One landed at Andrews Air Force Base, just outside Washington, D.C., Kennedy's body was taken to Bethesda Naval Hospital for an immediate autopsy. The autopsy (about 8 to 11 p.m. EST on November 22) was followed by embalming and cosmetic funeral preparation (about 11 p.m. to 4 a.m.) in the morgue at Bethesda, in a room adjacent to the autopsy theater. This was done by a team of private mortuary personnel, who made an unusual trip to the hospital for this procedure. The autopsy of President Kennedy performed the night of November 22 at the Bethesda Naval Hospital led the three examining pathologists to conclude that the bullet wound to the head was fatal, and the bullet had: This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Emblem of the AFDW Andrews Air Force Base (ICAO code KADW) is a United States Air Force base near Washington, DC and the home base of the U.S. presidential aircraft, Air Force One. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Bethesda is an urbanized, but unincorporated, area in southern Montgomery County, Maryland, near Washington, D.C. It takes its name from a church located there, the Bethesda Presbyterian Church, built in 1820 and rebuilt in 1850, which in turn took its name from Jerusalems Pool of Bethesda. ... The National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, also known as the Bethesda Naval Hospital, is considered the flagship of the United States Navys system of medical centers. ... This article is about the medical procedure. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"[E]ntered Kennedy's head through a small hole in the scalp in the rear of the president's head, on the right hand side'.... [with a] final exit of this missile, or fragments of it, through a large lateral defect in the right parietal region of the skull over the right ear".[49]

The report addressed a second missile which "entered Kennedy's upper back above the shoulder blade, passed through the strap muscles at the base of his neck, bruising the upper tip of the right lung without puncturing it, then exiting the front (anterior) neck", in a wound that was destroyed by the tracheotomy incision.[50] This autopsy finding was not corroborated by the President's personal physician, Dr Burkley, who recorded, on the death certificate, a bullet to have hit Kennedy at "about" the level of the third thoracic vertebra (Image). Supporting this location along with the bullet hole in the shirt worn by Kennedy (Image) and the bullet hole in the suit jacket worn by Kennedy (Image) which show bullet holes between 5 and 6 inches (12.5-15 cm) below Kennedy's collar (Image). However, photographic analysis of the motorcade, including a new pre-assassination film released in 2006 (color film), shows that the President's jacket was bunched below his neckline, and was not lying smoothly along his skin, so the clothing measurements have been subject to historical criticism as being untrustworthy on the matter of the exact location of the back wound.[51] Dr. J. Thornton Boswell's face sheet diagram from the autopsy sheet is sometimes used to support a lower back wound (Image). However, in 1966 Boswell noted that this drawing was never intended to be scale-exact, and he re-drew it for the benefit of The Baltimore Sun on November 25, 1966, placing an X at the higher spot(Image). Boswell stated that his measurements of 5.5 inches(14 cm) from the ear and shoulder properly locate the wound, and these are inconsistent with a wound at the third thoracic vertebra.[52] Moreover, all three Bethesda doctors authenticated for the HSCA autopsy photographs showing an entry wound at the level of C6 (the sixth cervical vertebra, at the base of the neck), which is the entry level as determined by the HSCA investigation on the basis of photographic and X-ray evidence from the autopsy. The Sun is the newspaper of record for Baltimore, Maryland, with a daily press run of 247,193 copies and a Sunday run of 418,670 copies (9/30/05 Audit Bureau of Circulations report). ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... The United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


Later federal agencies such as the Assassination Records Review Board[53] criticized the autopsy on several grounds including destruction from burning of the original draft of the autopsy report and notes taken by Cmdr. James Humes at the time of the autopsy, and failure to maintain a proper chain of custody of all of the autopsy materials.[54] // The 1963 assassination of President Kennedy Congress created the Assassination Records Review Board as “a unique solution to the problem of [government] secrecy” relating to the murder of President Kennedy. ...


Funeral

The President's body was then brought back to the White House and placed in the East Room in a closed casket for 24 hours but was privately and briefly viewed during this time by the Kennedy family and some close friends. The Sunday following the assassination, his flag-draped closed casket was moved to the Capitol for public viewing. Throughout the day and night, hundreds of thousands lined up to view the guarded casket. An aerial view of the casket of JFK during his funeral at St. ... The south facade of the United States Capitol Capitol Hill redirects here. ...


Representatives from over 90 countries, including the Soviet Union, attended the funeral on November 25 (which was his son's third birthday). After the service, the casket was taken by caisson to Arlington National Cemetery for burial. is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John F. Kennedy, Jr. ... Caisson is a two-wheeled, horse-drawn carriage used to hold and transport the coffin during a military funeral or a state funeral. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Recordings of the assassination

Dealey Plaza, with Elm Street on the right and the underpass in the middle
Dealey Plaza, with Elm Street on the right and the underpass in the middle

No radio or television stations broadcasted the assassination live because the area through which the motorcade was traveling was not considered important enough for a live broadcast. Most media crews were not even with the motorcade but were waiting instead at the Dallas Trade Mart in anticipation of Kennedy's arrival. Those members of the media that were with the motorcade were riding at the rear of the procession. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (6662x1204, 2691 KB) Summary Main Street of Dallas, Texas as of June 10th, 2006. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (6662x1204, 2691 KB) Summary Main Street of Dallas, Texas as of June 10th, 2006. ...


The Dallas police were recording their radio transmissions over two channels. A frequency designated as Channel One was used for routine police communications. A second channel, designated Channel Two, was an auxiliary channel, which was dedicated to the president's motorcade. Up until the time of the assassination, most of the broadcasts on this channel consisted of Police Chief Jesse Curry's announcements of the location of the motorcade as it wound through the streets of Dallas. Recordings exist from both police channels. John F. Kennedy This article examines the dictabelt evidence relating to the assassination of John F. Kennedy. ...

Looking south, with the pergola and knoll behind the photographer: the X on the street marks the position of the final head shot (photo taken in July 2006)
Looking south, with the pergola and knoll behind the photographer: the X on the street marks the position of the final head shot (photo taken in July 2006)

President Kennedy's last seconds traveling through Dealey Plaza were recorded on silent 8 mm film for the 26.6 seconds before, during, and immediately following the assassination. This famous film footage was taken by garment manufacturer and amateur cameraman Abraham Zapruder, in what became known as the Zapruder film. Frame enlargements from the Zapruder film were published by Life magazine shortly after the assassination. The footage was repeatedly shown on television, starting in 1975, sometimes omitting the fatal head shot. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 276 KB) Summary Looking in the opposite direction of the white pergola building, an X on the street marks the position of JFK during the final shot. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 276 KB) Summary Looking in the opposite direction of the white pergola building, an X on the street marks the position of JFK during the final shot. ... This article is about the 8 mm film format. ... Abraham Zapruder Abraham Zapruder (May 15, 1905 – August 30, 1970), a manufacturer of womens clothing, filmed U.S. President John F. Kennedys motorcade traveling through Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas and unexpectedly recorded the entire John F. Kennedy assassination. ... This article is about the famous home movie. ... Philippe Halsmans famous portrait of Marilyn Monroe Life generally refers to two American magazines: A humor and general interest magazine published from 1883 to 1936; A publication created by Time founder Henry Luce in 1936, with a strong emphasis on photojournalism. ...


Zapruder was not the only one who photographed at least part of the assassination. A total of 32 photographers were in Dealey Plaza. Amateur movies taken by Orville Nix, Marie Muchmore, and Charles Bronson (not the actor) captured the fatal shot, although at a greater distance than Zapruder. Other motion picture films were taken in Dealey Plaza at or around the time of the shooting by Robert Hughes, F. Mark Bell, Elsie Dorman, John Martin Jr., Patsy Paschall, Tina Towner, James Underwood, Dave Wiegman, Mal Couch, Thomas Atkins, and an unknown woman in a blue dress on the south side of Elm Street.[55] Still photos were taken by Phillip Willis, Mary Moorman, Hugh W. Betzner Jr., Wilma Bond, Robert Croft, and many others. The lone professional photographer in Dealey Plaza who was not in the press cars was Ike Altgens, photo editor for the Associated Press in Dallas. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Marie M. Muchmore (5 August 1909, Ardmore, Oklahoma – 26 April 1990, Dallas, Texas)[1] was one of the witnesses to the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. ... For other persons named Charles Bronson, see Charles Bronson (disambiguation). ... Mal Couch is the founder and former president of the Tyndale Theological Seminary, which has chosen to be unaccredited for doctrinal reasons. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Badge man. ... Altgens photograph taken during the assassination of John F. Kennedy. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...


An unidentified woman, nicknamed the Babushka Lady by researchers, might have been filming the presidential motorcade during the assassination because she was seen apparently doing so on film and photographs taken by the others. The Babushka Lady is a nickname for an unknown woman who might have filmed the presidential motorcade in Dealey Plaza during the John F. Kennedy assassination. ...


Previously unknown, color footage filmed on the assassination day by George Jefferies was released on February 20, 2007 by the Sixth Floor Museum, Dallas, Texas. The film does not include depiction of the actual shooting, having been taken roughly 90 seconds beforehand and a couple of blocks away. The only detail relevant to the investigation of the assassination is a clear view of Kennedy's bunched suit jacket, just below the collar, which has led to different calculations about how low in the back Kennedy was first shot (see discussion above). is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Official investigations

Dallas Police

After arresting Oswald and collecting physical evidence at the crime scenes, the Dallas Police held Oswald at the police headquarters for interrogation. Oswald was questioned all afternoon about both the Tippit shooting and the assassination of the President. He was questioned intermittently for approximately 12 hours between 2:30 p.m., on November 22, and 11 a.m., on November 24.[56] Throughout this interrogation Oswald denied any involvement with either the assassination of President Kennedy or the murder of Patrolman Tippit.[56] Captain Fritz of the homicide and robbery bureau did most of the questioning, keeping only rudimentary notes.[57] Days later he wrote a report of the interrogation from notes he made afterwards.[58] There were no stenographic or tape recordings. Representatives of other law enforcement agencies were also present, including the FBI and the U.S. Secret Service, and occasionally participated in the questioning.[59] Several of the FBI agents present wrote contemporaneous reports of the interrogation.[60] is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...


During the evening of November 22, the Dallas Police Department performed paraffin tests on Oswald's hands and right cheek in an apparent effort to determine, by means of a scientific test, whether Oswald had recently fired a weapon.[59] The results were positive for the hands and negative for the right cheek.[59] However, because of the unreliability of these tests, the Warren Commission did not rely on the results of the test in making their findings.[59] is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Paraffin (disambiguation). ...


Oswald provided little information during his questioning. Frequently, however, he was confronted with evidence which he could not explain, and he resorted to statements which were found to be false.[59] Dallas authorities were not able to complete their investigation into the assassination of Kennedy because of interruptions from the FBI and the murder of Oswald by Jack Ruby.


FBI investigation

The FBI was the first authority to complete an investigation. On November 24, 1963, just hours after Lee Harvey Oswald was murdered, FBI Director, J. Edgar Hoover, said that he wanted "something issued so we can convince the public that Oswald is the real assassin."[61] On December 9, 1963, only 17 days after the assassination, the FBI report was issued and given to the Warren Commission. Then, the FBI stayed on as the primary investigating authority for the commission. is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972), known popularly as J. Edgar Hoover, was the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. ... Jack Ruby murdered the assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ...


The FBI stated that only three bullets were fired during the assassination; the Warren Commission agreed with the FBI investigation that only three shots were fired but disagreed with the FBI report on which shots hit Kennedy and which hit Governor Connally. The FBI report claimed that the first shot hit President Kennedy, the second shot hit Governor Connally, and the third shot hit Kennedy in the head, killing him. In contrast, the Warren Commission concluded that one of the three shots missed, one of the shots hit Kennedy and then struck Connally, and a third shot struck Kennedy in the head, killing him.


Criticism of FBI

The FBI's murder investigation was reviewed by the House Select Committee on Assassinations in 1979. The congressional Committee concluded:

  • The Federal Bureau of Investigation adequately investigated Lee Harvey Oswald prior to the assassination and properly evaluated the evidence it possessed to assess his potential to endanger the public safety in a national emergency.
  • The Federal Bureau of Investigation conducted a thorough and professional investigation into the responsibility of Lee Harvey Oswald for the assassination.
  • The Federal Bureau of Investigation failed to investigate adequately the possibility of a conspiracy to assassinate the President.
  • The Federal Bureau of Investigation was deficient in its sharing of information with other agencies and departments.[62]

The FBI has received added scrutiny by Kennedy assassination researchers because of the actions of FBI agent James Hosty. Hosty appeared in Oswald's address book. The FBI provided to the Warren Commission a typewritten transcription of Oswald's address book, in which Hosty's name and phone number were omitted. Two days before the assassination, Oswald went to the FBI office in Dallas to meet with Hosty, and when he found that Hosty was not in the office at the time, Oswald left an envelope for Hosty with a letter inside. After Oswald was murdered by Jack Ruby, Hosty's supervisor ordered Hosty to destroy the letter, and he did so by tearing the letter up and flushing it down the toilet. Months later, when Hosty testified before the Warren Commission, he did not disclose this connection with Oswald. This information became public later and was investigated by the U.S. House Select Committee on Assassinations.[63] Jacob Rubenstein (March 25, 1911 – January 3, 1967), who legally changed his name to Jack Leon Ruby in 1947, was an American business analyst and nightclub owner from Dallas, Texas. ...

Warren Commission

Main article: Warren Commission
The Warren Commission presents its report to President Johnson
The Warren Commission presents its report to President Johnson

The first official investigation of the assassination was established by President Johnson on November 29, 1963, a week after the assassination. The commission was headed by Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States and became universally (but unofficially) known as the Warren Commission. Warren Commission report cover page The Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... For the swing saxophonist and occasional singer, see Earle Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial...


In late September 1964, after a 10-month investigation, the Warren Commission Report was published. The Commission concluded that it could not find any persuasive evidence of a domestic or foreign conspiracy involving any other person(s), group(s), or country(ies). The Commission found that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in the murder of Kennedy, and that Jack Ruby acted alone in the murder of Oswald. The theory that Oswald acted alone is informally called the Lone gunman theory. The commission also concluded that only three bullets were fired during the assassination and that Lee Harvey Oswald fired all three bullets from the Texas School Book Depository behind the motorcade. The Commission also laid out several scenarios concerning the timing of the shots, but that the three shots were fired in a time period ranging from approximately 4.8 to in excess of 7 seconds.[64] The Lone gunman theory (a. ...


The commission also concluded that:

  • one shot likely missed the motorcade (it could not determine which of the three),
  • the first shot to hit anyone struck Kennedy in the upper back, exited near the front of his neck and likely continued on to cause all of Governor Connally's injuries, and
  • the last shot to hit anyone struck Kennedy in the head, fatally wounding him.

It noted that three empty shells were found in the sixth floor in the book depository, and a rifle identified as the one used in the shooting – Oswald's Italian military surplus 6.5x52 mm Model 91/38 Carcano – was found hidden nearby. The Commission offered as a likely explanation that the same bullet that wounded Kennedy also caused all of Governor Connally's wounds. This single bullet then backed out of Connally's left thigh and was found on a stretcher in the hospital. This theory has become known as the "single bullet theory" or the "magic" bullet theory (as it is commonly referred to by its critics and detractors). The Single Bullet Theory (pejoratively referred to as the magic bullet theory by critics and conspiracy theorists) is thought to be an essential element of the Warren Commission theory that only one assassin was responsible for the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy. ...


The Commission also looked into other matters beside who killed the President and criticized weaknesses in security, which has resulted in greatly increased security whenever the President travels. The unpublished supporting documents for the Warren Commission Report are due to be released by 2017. The Commission's unpublished records were initially sealed for 75 years (to 2039) under a general National Archives policy that applied to all federal investigations by the executive branch of government,[65] a period "intended to serve as protection for innocent persons who could otherwise be damaged because of their relationship with participants in the case.”[66] More than one country maintains a national archive: The Canadian Library and Archives Canada The New Zealand Archives New Zealand (formerly National Archives) The United States National Archives and Records Administration The United Kingdom National Archives This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might...


Public response to the Warren Report

Almost immediately after the Warren Commission Report was issued, some began seriously questioning its conclusions. A multitude of books and articles criticizing the Warren Commission's findings have been written. The Commission's conclusions have also gradually but continually lost widespread acceptance from the American public and various prominent government officials. Yet subsequent reinvestigations by special panels on the Kennedy assassination have, with one exception – the HSCA's controversial Dictabelt evidence – come to the same main conclusions as the Warren Commission did in 1964. John F. Kennedy This article examines the dictabelt evidence relating to the assassination of John F. Kennedy. ...


Ramsey Clark Panel

In 1968 a panel of four medical experts appointed by Attorney General Ramsey Clark met in Washington, D.C. to examine various photographs, X-ray films, documents, and other evidence pertaining to the death of President Kennedy. The Clark Panel determined that Kennedy was struck by two bullets fired from above and behind him, one of which traversed the base of the neck on the right side without striking bone and the other of which entered the skull from behind and destroyed its upper right side.[67] The chain of custody of the evidence on which the panel reached its conclusions has been called into question. Clark raised this issue with President Johnson.[68] In 1979 the House Select Committee on Assassinations subjected the photos and X-rays from the autopsy to scientific investigation by a panel of experts and concluded the materials were authentic.[69] However, in contrast with this view, the Assassination Records Review Board said in 1998: "[T]he persons handling the autopsy records did not create a complete and contemporaneous accounting of the number of photographs nor was a proper chain of custody established for all of the autopsy materials."[70] Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... William Ramsey Clark (born December 18, 1927) is a lawyer and activist. ...


Rockefeller Commission

The U.S. President's Commission on CIA activities within the United States was set up under President Gerald Ford in 1975 to investigate the activities of the CIA within the United States. The commission was led by Vice President Nelson Rockefeller, and is sometimes referred to as the Rockefeller Commission. For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... CIA redirects here. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... Rockefeller Commission can refer to either of two commissions in the US Congress, although it is not the proper name of either: The 1972 Presidents Commission on Population Growth and the American Future, headed by John D. Rockefeller 3rd. ...


Part of the commission's work dealt with the Kennedy assassination, specifically the head snap as seen in the Zapruder film (first shown to the general public in 1975), and the possible presence of E. Howard Hunt and Frank Sturgis in Dallas.[71] The commission concluded that neither Hunt nor Sturgis were in Dallas at the time of the assassination, and that the head snap did not necessarily imply a shot from the front.[72] This article is about the famous home movie. ... -1... Frank Anthony Sturgis , born as Frank Angelo Fiorini, (December 9, 1924 - December 4, 1993) was one of the Watergate burglars. ...


House Select Committee on Assassinations

Fifteen years after the Warren Commission issued its report, a congressional committee named the House Select Committee on Assassinations reviewed the Warren Commission report and the underlying FBI report on which the Commission heavily relied. The Committee criticized the performance of both the Warren Commission and the FBI for failing to investigate whether other people conspired with Oswald to murder President Kennedy.[73] The Committee Report concluded that: The U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... The U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


"[T]he FBI's investigation of whether there had been a conspiracy in President Kennedy's assassination was seriously flawed. The conspiracy aspects of the investigation were characterized by a limited approach and an inadequate application and use of available resource." (footnote 12)


The Committee found the Warren Commission's investigation equally flawed: "[T]he subject that should have received the Commission's most probing analysis — whether Oswald acted in concert with or on behalf of unidentified co-conspirators the Commission's performance, in the view of the committee, was in fact flawed." (footnote 13)


The Committee believed another primary cause of the Warren Commission's failure to adequately probe and analyze whether or not Oswald acted alone arose out of the lack of cooperation by the CIA. Finally, the Committee found that the Warren Commission inadequately investigated for a conspiracy because of: "[T]ime pressures and the desire of national leaders to allay public fears of a conspiracy."


The committee concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald fired three shots at President John F. Kennedy. The second and third shots he fired struck the President. The third shot he fired killed him. The HSCA agreed with the single bullet theory but concluded that it occurred at a time during the assassination that differed from what the Warren Commission had theorized. Their theory, based primarily on Dictabelt evidence, was that President Kennedy was assassinated probably as a result of a conspiracy. They proposed that four shots had been fired during the assassination; Oswald fired the first, second, and fourth bullets, and that (based on the acoustic evidence) there was a high probability that an unnamed second assassin fired the third bullet, but missed, from President Kennedy's right front, from a location concealed behind the grassy knoll picket fence. John F. Kennedy This article examines the dictabelt evidence relating to the assassination of John F. Kennedy. ... In a political sense, conspiracy refers to a group of persons united in the goal of usurping or overthrowing an established political power. ...


Many years after the House Select Committee on Assassinations issued its report, the attorney G. Robert Blakey for the House Select Committee on Assassinations issued a statement to the news media calling into question the honesty of the CIA in its dealings with the Committee and the accuracy of the information given to it.


Response to the Dictabelt evidence

Blakey told ABC News that the conclusion that a conspiracy existed in the assassination was established by both witness testimony and acoustic evidence: ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ...

The shot from the grassy knoll is not only supported by the acoustics, which is a tape that we found of a police motorcycle broadcast back to the district station. It is corroborated by eyewitness testimony in the plaza. There were 20 people, at least, who heard a shot from the grassy knoll.[74]

The sole acoustic evidence relied on by the committee to support its conclusion of a fourth gunshot (and a gunman on the grassy knoll) in the JFK assassination, was a Dictabelt recording alleged to be from a stuck transmitter on a police motorcycle in Dealey Plaza during the assassination.[75] The evidence was presented by Mark R. Weiss and Ernest Aschkenasy, acoustical experts from Queens College,[76] who would later become part of the 1974 panel that concluded that the 18½ minute gap in the Watergate tapes was because that section was erased.[77] Queens College, Queens College or Queens College is the name of more than one institution, see: Queens College, Cambridge Queens College, Charlotte Queens College, Hong Kong Queens College, London Queens College, New York Queens College, Nassau The Queens College, Oxford Queens College was the... The Watergate tapes, also known as the Nixon tapes, are a collection of conversations between President Nixon and various White House staff members, recorded on the White House taping system and White House dictabelts. ...


After the committee finished its work, however, an amateur researcher listened to the recording and discovered faint crosstalk of transmissions from another police radio channel known to have been made a minute after the assassination.[75] Further, the Dallas motorcycle policeman thought to be the source of the sounds followed the motorcade to the hospital at high speed, his siren blaring, immediately after the shots were fired. Yet the recording is of a mostly idling motorcycle, eventually determined to have been at JFK's destination, the Dallas Trade Mart, miles from Dealey Plaza.


Several years later, in 1981, a special panel of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) disputed the evidence of a fourth shot, contained on the police Dictabelt.[75] The panel concluded it was simply random noise, perhaps static, recorded about a minute after the shooting while Kennedy's motorcade was en route to Parkland Hospital. President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ...


The NAS experts, headed by physicist Norman F. Ramsey of Harvard, reached that conclusion after studying the sounds on the two radio channels Dallas police were using that day. Routine transmissions were made on Channel One and recorded on a Dictaphone machine at police headquarters. An auxiliary frequency, Channel Two, was dedicated to the president's motorcade and used primarily by Dallas Police Chief Jesse Curry; its transmissions were recorded on a separate Gray Audograph disc machine. The Gray Audograph was a dictation format introduced in 1945. ...


The conclusion by the NAS was then rebutted in 2001 in a Science and Justice article by D.B. Thomas, a government scientist and JFK assassination researcher.[78] Thomas concluded the HSCA finding of a second shooter was correct and that the NAS panel's study was flawed. Thomas surmises that the Dictaphone needle jumped and created an overdub on Channel One.[79] In response to Thomas's findings, Michael O'Dell concluded in his report that the prior reports relied on incorrect timelines and made unfounded assumptions that, when corrected, do not support the identification of gunshots on the recording.[80]


In 2003, ABC News aired the results of their investigation of the assassination in a news-documentary program called Peter Jennings Reporting: The Kennedy Assassination — Beyond Conspiracy. Based on computer diagrams and recreations done by Dale K. Myers, ABC News concluded that the sound recordings on the Dictabelt could not have come from Dealey Plaza and that the Police Officer H.B. McLain was correct in his assertions that he had not yet entered Dealey Plaza at the time of the assassination.[81] Peter Charles Archibald Ewart Jennings, CM (July 29, 1938 – August 7, 2005) was a Canadian-American journalist and news anchor. ... Dale K. Myers is a 30 year veteran of radio and television. ...


In 2005, an article in Science & Justice by Ralph Linsker, Richard Garwin, Herman Chernoff, Paul Horowitz, and Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr. re-analyzed the acoustic synchronization evidence, rebutting Thomas' 2001 argument as well as correcting errors in the 1982 NAS report, while supporting the NAS report's finding that the sounds alleged to be gunshots occurred about a minute after the assassination.[82] Followup articles in Science & Justice have been published.[83] Science & Justice is a British forensics journal. ... Richard L. Garwin (born 1928), is an American physicist. ... Herman Chernoff (born July 1, 1923) is an American applied mathematician, statistician and physicist latterly working at Harvard University. ... Paul Horowitz (born 1942) is a U.S. physicist and electrical engineer, known primarily for his work in electronics design, as well as for his role in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (see SETI). ... Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr. ...


Sealing of assassination records

All of the Warren Commission's records were submitted to the National Archives in 1964. The unpublished portion of those records was initially sealed for 75 years (to 2039) under a general National Archives policy that applied to all federal investigations by the executive branch of government,[84] a period "intended to serve as protection for innocent persons who could otherwise be damaged because of their relationship with participants in the case.”[66] The 75-year rule no longer exists, supplanted by the Freedom of Information Act of 1966 and the JFK Records Act of 1992. By 1992, 98% of the Warren Commission records had been released to the public.[85] Six years later, at the conclusion of the Assassination Records Review Board's work, all Warren Commission records, except those records that contained tax return information, were available to the public with only minor redactions.[86] The remaining Kennedy assassination related documents are scheduled to be released to the public by 2017, twenty-five years after the passage of the JFK Records Act. More than one country maintains a national archive: The Canadian Library and Archives Canada The New Zealand Archives New Zealand (formerly National Archives) The United States National Archives and Records Administration The United Kingdom National Archives This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... More than one country maintains a national archive: The Canadian Library and Archives Canada The New Zealand Archives New Zealand (formerly National Archives) The United States National Archives and Records Administration The United Kingdom National Archives This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with freedom of information legislation. ... // The 1963 assassination of President Kennedy Congress created the Assassination Records Review Board as “a unique solution to the problem of [government] secrecy” relating to the murder of President Kennedy. ... Tax returns (in the United States) are reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) or with the state or local tax collection agency (California Franchise Tax Board, for example) containing information used to calculate income tax or other taxes. ... Redaction generally refers to the editing of text to turn it into a form suitable for publication, or to the result of such an effort. ...


Several pieces of evidence and documentation are described to have been lost, cleaned, or missing from the original chain of evidence (e.g., limousine cleaned out at hospital, Connally's suit dry-cleaned, Oswald's military intelligence file destroyed in 1973,[87] Connally's Stetson hat and shirt sleeve gold cufflink missing, etc.)


On May 19, 2044, the 50th anniversary of the death of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, if her last child has died, the Kennedy library will release to the public a 500-page transcript of an oral history about John F. Kennedy given by Mrs. Kennedy before her death in 1994.[citation needed] is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2044 (MMXLIV) will be a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jacqueline Bouvier redirects here. ... The John F Kennedy Library The John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library is the presidential library and museum of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. ...


Assassination Records Review Board

The Assassination Records Review Board was not commissioned to make any findings or conclusions. Its purpose was to release documents to the public in order to allow the public to draw its own conclusions. From 1992 until 1998, the Assassination Records Review Board gathered and unsealed about 60,000 documents, consisting of over 4 million pages.[1][2] All remaining documents are to be released by 2017. // The 1963 assassination of President Kennedy Congress created the Assassination Records Review Board as “a unique solution to the problem of [government] secrecy” relating to the murder of President Kennedy. ...


Assassination theories

A handbill circulated on November 21, 1963, in Dallas one day before the assassination of John F. Kennedy
A handbill circulated on November 21, 1963, in Dallas one day before the assassination of John F. Kennedy

An official investigation by the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA), conducted from 1976 to 1979, concluded that Oswald assassinated President Kennedy as a result of a probable conspiracy. This conclusion of a likely conspiracy contrasts with the earlier conclusion by the Warren Commission that the President was assassinated by a lone gunman. President Kennedy, Jackie Kennedy, Nellie Connally and Governor John Connally, shortly before the assassination. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Wanted_for_treason. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Wanted_for_treason. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ...


In the ensuing four decades since the assassination, theories have been proposed or published that detail organized conspiracies to kill the President. These theories implicate, among others, Cuban President Fidel Castro, the anti-Castro Cuban community,[88][89] President Johnson, the Mafia, the FBI, the CIA, the masonic order and the Soviet Bloc – or perhaps some combination of these. Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... This article is about the criminal society. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ...


Others claim that Oswald was not involved at all. Shortly after his arrest, Oswald insisted he was a "patsy". Oswald never admitted any participation in the assassination and was murdered two days after being taken into police custody. The Scapegoat by William Holman Hunt, 1854. ...


Some polls indicate a large number of Americans are suspicious of official government conclusions – primarily the Warren Commission's findings – regarding the assassination. A 2003 ABC News poll found that 70% of respondents suspected there was an assassination plot.[90] These same polls also show that there is no agreement on who else may have been involved.


President's motorcade

The motorcade consisted of numerous cars, police motorcycles and press buses:

  • The pilot car, a white Ford sedan: Dallas Police Deputy Chief George L. Lumpkin, Dallas homicide detectives Billy L. Senkel and F.M. Turner, and Lt. Col. George Whitmeyer, commander of the local Army Intelligence reserve unit.[91]
  • Three two-wheel Dallas police motorcycle officers under the command of Sgt. S. Q. Bellah.
  • Five two-wheel motorcycle officers.
  • The lead car, an unmarked white Ford police sedan: Dallas Police Chief Jesse Curry (driver), Secret Service Agent Winston Lawson (right front), Sheriff Bill Decker (left rear), Agent Forrest Sorrels (right rear).[92]
  • Two-wheel motorcycle officer Sgt. Stavis "Steve" Ellis.[93]
  • Four Dallas Police motorcycle escorts, two on each side of the presidential limousine, flanking the rear bumper: Billy Joe Martin and Robert W. “Bobby” Hargis (left), and James M. Chaney and Douglas L. Jackson (right).[94]
  • Halfback (a Secret Service code name), a black 1955 Cadillac convertible: Agent Sam Kinney (driver), Agent Emory Roberts (right front), Agent Clint Hill (left front running board), Agent Bill McIntyre (left rear running board), Agent John D. Ready (right front running board), Agent Paul Landis (right rear running board), Presidential aide Kenneth O'Donnell (left middle), Presidential aide David Powers (right middle), Agent George Hickey (left rear), Agent Glen Bennett (right rear).[95]
  • 1961 light blue Lincoln four door convertible: Hurchel Jacks of the Texas Highway Patrol (driver), Agent Rufus Youngblood (right front), Senator Ralph Yarborough (left rear), Lady Bird Johnson (center rear), Vice-President Lyndon Johnson (right rear).[96]
  • Varsity (Secret Service code name), a yellow 1963 Ford Mercury hardtop: Joe H. Rich of the Texas Highway Patrol (driver), Vice Presidential aide Cliff Carter (front middle), Secret Service agents Jerry Kivett (right front), Warren W. "Woody" Taylor (left rear), and Thomas L. "Len" Johns (right rear).[97]
  • First camera car, a yellow 1964 Chevrolet Impala Convertible: a Texas Ranger (driver); David Wiegman Jr., NBC; Thomas J. Craven Jr., CBS; Thomas "Ollie" Atkins, White House photographer; John Hofan, an NBC sound engineer; Cleveland Ryan, a lighting technician.
  • Second camera car: Frank Cancellare, UPI; Cecil Stoughton, White House photographer; Henry Burroughs, AP; Art Rickerby, Life magazine; Donald C. “Clint” Grant, Dallas Morning News.
President Kennedy's motorcade on Main Street in Dallas, seen from the second camera car
President Kennedy's motorcade on Main Street in Dallas, seen from the second camera car
  • Dallas Police motorcycle escorts H.B. McLain and Marion L. Baker.
  • First car of Congressmen.
  • Second car of Congressmen.
  • Third car of Congressmen.
  • VIP staff car carrying a governor's aide and the military and Air Force aides to the president.
  • Dallas Police motorcycle escorts J.W. Courson and C.A. Haygood.
  • First White House press bus: Mary Barelli Gallagher, Jacqueline Kennedy's personal secretary; Pamela Turnure, Jacqueline Kennedy's press secretary; Marie Fehmer Chiarodo, the Vice President's secretary; Liz Carpenter, staff director for Lady Bird Johnson; Jack Valenti, in charge of press relations during President Kennedy's visit to Texas; Robert MacNeil, NBC News; and a few others.[100]
  • Local press car with four Dallas Morning News reporters.
  • Second White House press bus.
  • Dallas Police motorcycle escorts R. Smart and B.J. Dale.
  • Chevrolet sedan: Evelyn Lincoln, the President's personal secretary; Dr. George Burkley, the President's personal physician.
  • 1957 black Ford hardtop: Two representatives from Western Union.
  • 1964 white-top, dark-body Chevrolet Impala.
  • 1963 black and white Ford police car.
  • Solo three-wheel Dallas Police motorcycle escort.

The Army intelligence logo. ... Ford may mean a number of things: A ford is a river crossing. ... Lyndon Johnson being sworn in. ... USSS redirects here. ... ... The Lincoln Continental, an automobile produced by the Lincoln division of Ford Motor Company, began for the 1939 model year. ... William Greer (1910-February 23, 1985) was the driver of U.S. President John F. Kennedys automobile, a specially adapted 1961 Lincoln Continental, when the president was assassinated on November 22, 1963. ... Roy Kellerman was a U.S. Secret Service Agent and witness to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... President Kennedy, with his wife Jackie Kennedy, and the Connallys in the Presidential limousine shortly before the assassination Idanell Brill Nellie Connally (24 February 1919 – 1 September 2006) was the First Lady of Texas from 1963 to 1969. ... First Lady Laura Bush and former first ladies (from left to right) Rosalynn Carter, Sen. ... Secret Service agent Clint Hill riding behind the presidents limousine moments before Kennedy was shot. ... Kenneth Patrick ODonnell (March 4, 1924-September 9, 1977) was a top aide to US President John F. Kennedy, part of the group of Kennedys close advisors who were called the Irish Mafia. Born Patrick Kenneth ODonnell in Worcester, Massachusetts, he had his first two names legally... We dont have an article called David Powers Start this article Search for David Powers in. ... Lincoln is an American luxury automobile brand, operated under the Ford Motor Company. ... Texas politician Ralph Yarborough Ralph Webster Yarborough (June 8, 1903 – January 27, 1996) was a Texas Democratic politician who served in the United States Senate (1957 until 1971) and was a leader of the progressive or liberal wing of the Democratic Party in Texas in his many races for statewide... Claudia Alta Lady Bird Taylor Johnson (December 22, 1912 – July 11, 2007)[1] was First Lady of the United States from 1963 to 1969, having been the wife of U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... Mercury is an automobile marque of the Ford Motor Company founded in 1939 to market entry-level-luxury cars slotted between Ford-branded regular models and Lincoln-branded luxury vehicles, similar to General Motors Buick (and former Oldsmobile) brand and Chryslers Chrysler brand. ... 1960 promotional art used in Comet advertising The Mercury Comet was an automobile produced by the Mercury division of the Ford Motor Company between 1960 and 1977. ... Earle Cabell (October 27, 1906 – September 24, 1975) was a Texas politician who served as mayor of Dallas, Texas during the assassination of John F. Kennedy and was later a U.S. Representative. ... Herbert Ray Roberts (March 28, 1913 - April 13, 1992) represented Texass 4th congressional district from 1962 to 1981. ... 1955 Chevrolet Bel Air Convertible 1956 Chevrolet Bel Air Hardtop 1956 Chevrolet Bel Air Interior 1956 Chevrolet Bel Air 2-door sedan 1957 Chevrolet Bel Air Convertible 1958 Chevrolet Bel Air Sport Sedan The Chevrolet Bel Air was an automobile series produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors from... President Kennedy, with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine shortly before his assassination The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p. ... Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C. “UPI” redirects here. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... The Dallas Morning News is the major daily newspaper serving the Dallas, Texas area. ... ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... 1958 Chevrolet Impala Convertible 1958 Chevrolet Impala Convertible The Chevrolet Impala is an automobile built for the Chevrolet division by General Motors. ... This article is about the television network. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Philippe Halsmans famous portrait of Marilyn Monroe Life generally refers to two American magazines: A humor and general interest magazine published from 1883 to 1936; A publication created by Time founder Henry Luce in 1936, with a strong emphasis on photojournalism. ... The Texas Department of Public Safety (DPS) is a department of the government of the state of Texas. ... The Dallas Times Herald, founded in 1888, was one of two major daily newspapers serving the Dallas, Texas (USA) area. ... KXAS-TV/KXAS-DT, channel 5, is the NBC station for the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. ... Mal Couch is the founder and former president of the Tyndale Theological Seminary, which has chosen to be unaccredited for doctrinal reasons. ... WFAA is the ABC affiliate serving the Dallas/Fort Worth DMA with its transmitter located in the Cedar Hill. ... KDFW, channel 4, is the Fox owned and operated television station in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex designated market area. ... White House portrait Claudia Alta Taylor Johnson, known commonly as Lady Bird Johnson, (born December 22, 1912), as the wife of Lyndon B. Johnson, was First Lady of the United States from 1963-1969. ... Jack Joseph Valenti (September 5, 1921 – April 26, 2007) was an influential corpse and a long-time president of the Motion Picture Association of America. ... Robert Breckenridge Ware MacNeil, sometimes called by his nickname Robin, (born January 19, 1931) is a television news anchor and journalist who paired with Jim Lehrer to create The MacNeil/Lehrer Report in 1975. ... NBC News endcap, used from 2002 to present. ... Evelyn Maurine Norton Lincoln (June 25, 1909 - May 11, 1995) was the personal secretary for John F. Kennedy from his election to the United States Senate in 1953 until his 1963 assassination in Dallas. ... Western Union (NYSE: WU) is a financial services and communications company based in the United States. ... Branch insignia of the U.S. Army Signal Corps, representing Myers Wigwag The U.S. Army Signal Corps was founded in 1861 by United States Army Major Albert J. Myer, a physician by training. ... For other uses of Warrant Officer, see Warrant Officer. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic...

Reaction to the assassination

In North America and around the world, there was a stunned reaction to the assassination. Schools across the U.S. and Canada dismissed their students early,[101] and 54% of Americans stopped their normal activities on the day.[102] In the days following people wept, lost their appetite, found difficulty sleeping, and suffered nausea, nervousness, and sometimes anger.[103] John F. Kennedy Around the world, there was a stunned reaction to the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the President of the United States, on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. ...


The event left a lasting impression on many people. It is said that everyone remembers where they were when they heard about the Kennedy assassination.[104]


See also

The term Curse of Tippecanoe (also known as Tecumsehs curse, the presidential curse, zero-year curse, or the twenty-year curse) is sometimes used to describe the pattern where, from 1840 to 1960, every United States President elected (or reelected) every twentieth year died in office. ... The assassination of President John F. Kennedy has been referenced or recreated in popular culture several times. ... This is a list of assasinated American politicians. ... This is a list of U.S. Presidential assassination attempts. ... Robert Kennedy The assassination of Robert F. Kennedy, a United States Senator and brother of assassinated President John F. Kennedy took place shortly after midnight on June 5, 1968 following celebrations of a successful campaign in the Californian primary elections while seeking the Democratic nomination for President of the United...

Notes

  1. ^ Gary Langer, Legacy of Suspicion, ABC News, November 16, 2004.
  2. ^ Jarrett Murphy, 40 Years Later: Who Killed JFK?, CBS News, November 21, 2003.
  3. ^ Changed Motorcade Route in Dallas?
  4. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony Of Jesse Edward Curry.
  5. ^ a b Dealey Plaza Earwitnesses
  6. ^ Although some witnesses to the assassination recall seeing the limousine slow down or stop, the Warren Commission, based on the Zapruder film, found that the limousine maintained an average speed of 11.2 miles per hour over the 186 ft of Elm Street immediately preceding the fatal head shot. Warren Commission Report, chapter 2, p. 49. Other research from the Zapruder film found the car's speed to range from 8.3 mph to 14.4 mph. See the "Limo Speed" notation, on Main Street below Houston, on the Roberdeau Professionally Surveyed Map of Dealey Plaza.
  7. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Mrs. John Connally. Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Jacqueline Kennedy. Connally believed he said it after he was struck by the second bullet.
  8. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 1: Summary and Conclusions, p. 18–19.
  9. ^ HSCA Report, p. 41–46.
  10. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Governor John Connally.
  11. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Dr. Shaw.
  12. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Bobby Hargis. Interview of Abraham Zapruder, WFAA-TV, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 22, 1963.
  13. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Clinton J. Hill.
  14. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Jacqueline Kennedy.
  15. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. II, p. 140, Testimony of Clinton J. Hill.
  16. ^ William M. Goggins, James Tague: Unintended Victim in Dealey Plaza.
  17. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Clyde Haygood.
  18. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 6, pp. 244–245, Testimony of S. M. Holland. Photographs of the Triple Underpass and rear fence area.
  19. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Lee E. Bowers, Jr.
  20. ^ Dale K. Myers, Secrets of a Homicide: Badge ManThe Testimony of Lee E. Bowers, Jr.
  21. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Howard Brennan.
  22. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 17, p. 209, CE 494, Photograph of James Jarman, showing his position at a fifth floor window of the Texas School Book Depository.
  23. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 17, p. 202, CE 485, Photograph of Harold Norman, Bonnie Ray Williams, and James Jarman, Jr. showing their positions on the fifth floor of the Texas School Book Depository as the motorcade passed.
  24. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Bonnie Ray Williams. Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of James Jarman, Jr.
  25. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Harold Norman.
  26. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Welcome Eugene Barnett.
  27. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Forrest V. Sorrels.
  28. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. III, p. 230, Testimony of Roy Truly
  29. ^ Tippit murder affidavit: text, cover. Kennedy murder affidavit: text, cover.
  30. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 20, p. 366, Kantor Exhibit No. 3 — Handwritten notes made by Seth Kantor concerning events surrounding the assassination.
  31. ^ Lee Oswald claiming innocence (film), YouTube.com.
  32. ^ Lee Oswald's Midnight Press Conference, YouTube.com.
  33. ^ John F. Kennedy Assassination Homepage :: Warren Commission :: Report :: Page 645
  34. ^ Tom Alyea, "Facts and Photos"
  35. ^ HSCA Appendix to Hearings, vol. VI, p. 66–107.
  36. ^ Warren Commission Report Chapter 4 - Photograph
  37. ^ The Assassin
  38. ^ Warren Commission Report Chapter 3 - Bullet
  39. ^ Warren Commission Report Chapter 4 - Purchase
  40. ^ Warren Commission Report Chapter 4 - Palm print
  41. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Lt. J.C. Day.
  42. ^ http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/ggburkle.htm Biographical sketch of Dr. George Gregory Burkley, Arlington the back of the President
  43. ^ History Matters Archive - MD 6 - White House Death Certificate (Burkley - 11/23/63), pg
  44. ^ Testimony Of Dr. Robert Nelson Mcclelland
  45. ^ http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/mmkiluffjr.htm Biographical sketch of Malcolm MacGregor Kilduff, Jr., Arlington National Cemetery
  46. ^ Kilduff was serving as the press secretary because the chief press secretary, Pierre Salinger, was traveling to Japan with Secretary of State Dean Rusk and other Cabinet officers.
  47. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 8: The Protection of the President, Recommendations, pp. 454–455.
  48. ^ Bugliosi, pp. 92f–93f.
  49. ^ http://jfkassassination.net/russ/jfkinfo3/exhibits/ce386.jpg
  50. ^ http://www.aarclibrary.org/publib/jfk/wc/wcvols/wh16/pdf/WH16_CE_387.pdf
  51. ^ Was Kennedy's Jacket Bunched When He Was Hit in the Back? - 2
  52. ^ The JFK Assassination Single Bullet Theory
  53. ^ Final Report of the Assassination Records Review Board
  54. ^ Final Report of the Assassination Records Review Board, Chapter 6, Part II
  55. ^ A different person than the so-called "Babushka Lady".
  56. ^ a b Warren Commission Report pp. 181
  57. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of J.W. Fritz. Captain Fritz told the Warren Commission that “I kept no notes at the time” of his several interrogations of Oswald (4 H 209). However, many years later, someone discovered a little over two and a half pages of Fritz’s contemporaneous handwritten notes at the National Archives. Fritz also said that “several days later” he wrote more extensive notes of the interrogations (4 H 209).
  58. ^ Warren Commission Report, Report of Capt. J.W. Fritz, Dallas Police Department, p. 13.
  59. ^ a b c d e Warren Commission Report, Statements of Oswald During Detention.
  60. ^ Warren Commission Report, Reports of Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
  61. ^ Report of the Select Committee on Assassinations of the U.S. House of Representatives, p. 244.
  62. ^ Findings
  63. ^ Findings
  64. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 3.
  65. ^ Vincent Bugliosi, Reclaiming History, endnotes, p. 136–137. The 75-year rule no longer exists, supplanted by the Freedom of Information Act of 1966. All Warren Commission records, with the exception of tax returns, have now been released to the general public, with only minor redactions.
  66. ^ a b National Archives Deputy Archivist Dr. Robert Bahmer, interview in New York Herald Tribune, December 18, 1964, p.24
  67. ^ 1968 Panel Review of Photographs, X-Ray Films, Documents and Other Evidence Pertaining to the Fatal Wounding of President John E Kennedy on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas.
  68. ^ Phone Conversation between Acting Attorney General Ramsey Clark and President Lyndon Johnson Re: Autopsy Photos
  69. ^ Authentication of the Kennedy Autopsy Photographs and X-rays.
  70. ^ Final Report of the Assassination Records Review Board.
  71. ^ Rockefeller Commission Report.
  72. ^ Were Watergate Conspirators Also JFK Assassins?
  73. ^ Report of the Select Committee on Assassinations of the U.S. House of Representatives, Findings — CIA.
  74. ^ Spartacus Educational, House Selection Committee on Assassinations.
  75. ^ a b c National Academy of Sciences, Report of the Committee on Ballistic Acoustics.
  76. ^ Mark R. Weiss and Ernest Aschkenasy, An Analysis of Recorded Sounds Relating to the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy, 1979.
  77. ^ A Fourth Shot?. Time (1979-01-01). Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  78. ^ D.B. Thomas, Echo correlation analysis and the acoustic evidence in the Kennedy assassination revisited.
  79. ^ George Lardner Jr., Study Backs Theory of 'Grassy Knoll'.
  80. ^ Michael O'Dell, The acoustic evidence in the Kennedy assassination.
  81. ^ Frank Warner, More Kennedy assassination facts in: Oswald acted alone.
  82. ^ Ralph Linsker, Richard L. Garwin, Herman Chernoff, Paul Horowitz, Norman F. Ramsey. Synchronization of the acoustic evidence in the assassination of President Kennedy. Science and Justice 45(4):207-26 (2005).
  83. ^ Science & Justice 46(3):199 (2006); Correspondence by Thomas; Reply by Linsker et al..
  84. ^ Vincent Bugliosi, Reclaiming History, endnotes, p. 136–137.
  85. ^ Final Report of the Assassination Records Review Board (1998), p.2.
  86. ^ ARRB Final Report, p. 2. Redacted text includes the names of living intelligence sources, intelligence gathering methods still used today and not commonly known, and purely private matters. The Kennedy autopsy photographs and X-rays were never part of the Warren Commission records and were deeded separately to the National Archives by the Kennedy family in 1966 under restricted conditions.
  87. ^ HSCA Report, pp.222–224.
  88. ^ James Chace, "Betrayals and Obsession", NY Times, October 25, 1987, on Joan Didion's book MIAMI
  89. ^ Joan Didion, "MIAMI", New York, Simon & Schuster, 238pp. 1987
  90. ^ ABC News:JFK assassination public opinion overview
  91. ^ Warren Commission Testimony of F.M. Turner, April 3, 1964. Detective Senkel's surname is misspelled as "Shekel" in Turner's Warren Commission testimony.
  92. ^ Statement of Winston G. Lawson, Dec. 1, 1963. Warren Commission Testimony of Forrest V. Sorrels, May 7, 1964.
  93. ^ Interview of Stavis Ellis by Larry A. Sneed, No More Silence: An Oral History of the Assassination of President Kennedy, University of North Texas Press, 2002, p. 144.
  94. ^ Warren Commission Testimony of B.J. Martin, April 3, 1964. Warren Commission Testimony of Bobby W. Hargis, April 8, 1964. Gary Savage, JFK First Day Evidence, Shoppe Press, 1993, p. 363. ISBN 0-963-81165-7.
  95. ^ Statement of Emory P. Roberts, Nov. 29, 1963. Statement of Samuel A. Kinney, Nov. 30, 1963.
  96. ^ [Statement of Hurchel Jacks], Nov. 28, 1963. Statement of Rufus W. Youngblood, Nov. 29, 1963.
  97. ^ Statement of Joe Henry Rich, Nov. 28, 1963. Statement of Jerry D. Kivett, Nov. 29, 1963. Statement of Thomas L. Johns, Nov. 29, 1963. Report of Clifton C. Carter, May 20, 1964.
  98. ^ Statement of Milton T. Wright, Nov. 28, 1963. Warren Commission Testimony of Earle Cabell, July 13, 1964.
  99. ^ Warren Commission Testimony of Robert Hill Jackson. Warren Commission Testimony of Tom C. Dillard, April 1, 1964.
  100. ^ Transcript, Marie Fehmer Chiarodo Oral History Interview II, August 16, 1972, by Joe B. Frantz, Internet Copy, Lyndon B. Johnson Library.
  101. ^ BBC ON THIS DAY | 22 | 1963: 'Stunned into silence' by JFK's death
  102. ^ Historical Perspectives - Americans' reactions to Kennedy assassination, September 11 terrorist attacks, charted - Brief Article - Statistical Data Included | American Demographics | Find Articles at BNET.com
  103. ^ Mourning population: Some considerations of historically comparable assassinations - Death Studies
  104. ^ Where Were You When President Kennedy Was Shot?: Memories and Tributes to a Slain President, Abigail Van Buren (Pauline Phillips), Andrews Mcmeel Pub, August 1993, ISBN 978-0836262469

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References

  • The Warren Commission Report (1964) (ISBN 0-31208-257-6)
  • Vincent Bugliosi, Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Norton, 2007, 1632 p. ISBN 0393045250.
  • James DiEugenio and Lisa Pease, The Assassinations: JFK, MLK, RFK, and Malcolm X (2003) (ISBN 978-0922915828)
  • David S. Lifton, Best Evidence: Disguise and Deception in the Assassination of John F. Kennedy (1980) (ISBN 0-88184-438-1)
  • Harrison Edward Livingstone, High Treason 2 — The Great Cover-Up:The Assassination of John F. Kennedy (1992) (ISBN 0-88184-809-3)
  • William Manchester, The Death of a President (1967) (ISBN 0-88365-956-5)
  • Jim Marrs, Crossfire: The Plot that Killed Kennedy (New ed. 1990) (ISBN 0-88184-648-1)
  • Gerald Posner, Case Closed: Lee Harvey Oswald and the Assassination of JFK (1993) (ISBN 0-679-41825-3)
  • Larry M. Sturdivan, The JFK Myths: A Scientific Investigation of the Kennedy Assassination (2005) (ISBN 1-557-78847-2)
  • Josiah Thompson, Six Seconds in Dallas (1968) (ISBN 0-425-03255-8)
  • Richard B. Trask, Pictures of the Pain: Photography and the Assassination of President Kennedy (1994) (ISBN 0-963-85950-1)
  • Lamar Waldron, Thom Hartman, Ultimate Sacrifice: John and Robert Kennedy, the Plan for a Coup in Cuba, and the Murder of JFK (2005) (ISBN 0-7867-1441-7)

Vincent Bugliosi (born August 18, 1934 in Hibbing, Minnesota) is an American attorney and author, best known for prosecuting Charles Manson and other defendants accused of the Tate-LaBianca murders. ... David S. Lifton (born 1939) is a researcher and author on the topic of the assassination of John F. Kennedy. ... This Article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Jim Marrs (December 5, 1943) is a news reporter, college teacher, and author of books and articles on conspiracy theories. ... Gerald Posner and his wife Trisha. ... External links Hartmanns official site Categories: Stub | Radio programs ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Assassination of John F. Kennedy
  • JFK Assassination Records Collection at the National Archives
  • PBS Frontline: Who Was Lee Harvey Oswald?
  • Historical TV Footage from Dallas TV Station KDFW Exclusive television coverage -- most from the KRLD -TV/KDFW Collection at the Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza
  • "Facts and Fiction in the Kennedy Assassination" – Skeptical Enquirer, January 2005
  • The Unofficial JFK Assassination FAQ #19 by John Locke
  • The Kennedy Assassination by John McAdams
  • The Kennedy Assassination Encyclopaedia by John Simkin
  • JFK Online: JFK Assassination Resources Online by David A. Reitzes
  • November 22, 1963: A Lone-Assassin Point-Of-View by David Von Pein
  • The John F. Kennedy Assassination Homepage by Ralph Schuster
  • "Assassination and Funeral of John F. Kennedy", Thomas Doherty, Encyclopedia of Television
  • JFK Assassination Photographs and Film archive – A film archive from before, during and after the assassination
  • Mary Ferrell Foundation
  • Secrets of a Homicide Computer reconstruction by Dale K. Myers
  • Celebrity Morgue: John F. Kennedy Assassination
  • Kennedy Assassination Newspaper Articles Archive
  • History Matters by Rex Bradford
  • BBC article on Kennedy's assassination
  • BBC article on Kennedy's funeral
  • The Coalition on Political Assassintions, A research and lobby group that also organize a conference on the assassination of President Kennedy.
  • Kenneth A. Rahn's Academic JFK Assassination Site
  • Map of motorcade route

Coordinates: 32.77903° N 96.80867° W Cover to the May/June 2006 Skeptical Enquirer magazine. ... John Simkin is a history teacher and the webmaster of Spartacus Education and one of the most knowlegable experts on the John F. Kennedy assassination. ... Dale K. Myers is a 30 year veteran of radio and television. ... John F. Kennedy This article considers the detailed timeline of events before, during, and after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... John F. Kennedy Around the world, there was a stunned reaction to the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the President of the United States, on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. ... An aerial view of the casket of JFK during his funeral at St. ... Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to four United States government investigations, the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. ... Warren Commission report cover page The Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... The United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... John F. Kennedy This article examines the dictabelt evidence relating to the assassination of John F. Kennedy. ... President Kennedy, Jackie Kennedy, Nellie Connally and Governor John Connally, shortly before the assassination. ... This article is about the famous home movie. ... The Single Bullet Theory (pejoratively referred to as the magic bullet theory by critics and conspiracy theorists) is thought to be an essential element of the Warren Commission theory that only one assassin was responsible for the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy. ... The assassination of President John F. Kennedy has been referenced or recreated in popular culture several times. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



 
 

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