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Encyclopedia > John F. Kennedy
John Fitzgerald Kennedy
John F. Kennedy

In office
January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963
Vice President(s) Lyndon B. Johnson
Preceded by Dwight D. Eisenhower
Succeeded by Lyndon B. Johnson

In office
January 3, 1953 – December 22, 1960
Preceded by Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
Succeeded by Benjamin A. Smith

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 11th district
In office
1947 – 1953
Preceded by James Michael Curley
Succeeded by Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr.

Born May 29, 1917(1917-05-29)
Brookline, Massachusetts
Died November 22, 1963 (aged 46)
Dallas, Texas
Political party Democratic
Spouse Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy
Alma mater Harvard University
Religion Roman Catholic
Signature

John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, Kennedy, John Kennedy, Jack Kennedy, or JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of the United States. In 1960 he became the youngest person ever to be elected as President of the United States, and the second youngest, after Theodore Roosevelt, to serve. Kennedy served from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. The Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the American Civil Rights Movement and early events of the Vietnam War took place during his presidency. There have been several John Kennedys: John F. Kennedy, American president John F. Kennedy, Jr. ... JFK is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: John F. Kennedy, 35th President of the United States John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City (IATA airport code) John F. Kennedy Stadium in Philadelphia, Pennslvania JFK (film), a 1991 film directed by Oliver Stone USS... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (760x1133, 710 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Talk:John F. Kennedy President of the United States John F. Kennedy Template:POTUSgallery Metadata This file contains... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seal of the office of the Vice-President of the United States The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. ... “LBJ” redirects here. ... Dwight David Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... “LBJ” redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. ... Benjamin Atwood Smith II (March 16, 1916 - September 6, 1991) was a United States Senator from the U.S. State of Massachusetts. ... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... Massachusetts Congressional District 11 is an obsolete congessional district in eastern Massachusetts. ... James Michael Curley (November 20, 1874-November 12, 1958) was an American political figure who served in the United States House of Representatives, as the mayor of Boston, Massachusetts, and as governor of Massachusetts. ... Thomas Philip ONeill, Jr. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Norfolk County Settled 1638 Incorporated 1705 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Town  6. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Dallas” redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... “Jacqueline Bouvier” redirects here. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Image File history File links John_F._Kennedy_signature. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Combatants Cubans trained by Soviet advisers Cuban exiles trained by the United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 51,000 1,500 Casualties various estimates; over 1,600 dead (Triay p. ... President Kennedy in a crowded Cabinet Room during the Cuban Missile Crisis. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Kennedy's leadership as commander of USS PT-109 during Second World War in the South Pacific, in which he swam with an injured shipmate to a nearby island after his ship had been split in two by a Japanese gunboat attack, turned his sights toward public service. Kennedy represented the state of Massachusetts as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953 and in the U.S. Senate from 1953 until his inauguration in 1961. Kennedy, 43, the Democratic candidate in the 1960 presidential election, defeated Republican candidate Richard Nixon, 47, in one of the closest presidential elections in American history. Kennedy is the most recent to be elected while serving in the Senate. He is, to date, the only practicing Roman Catholic to be elected U.S president. He was also the first 20th century-born American president and the fourth to be assassinated in the history of the U.S. PT-109 redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... South West Pacific Area (SWPA) was the name given to one of the four major Allied commands in the Pacific theatre of World War II, during 1942-45. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D. Eisenhowers two terms as President. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ...


Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas, United States. Lee Harvey Oswald was charged with the crime, but Oswald was murdered two days later by Jack Ruby before Oswald could be put on trial. The Warren Commission concluded that Oswald had acted alone in killing the president. However, the House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded in 1979 that there may have been a conspiracy. The entire subject remains controversial, with multiple theories about the assassination still being debated. The assassination itself proved to be a defining moment in U.S. history due to its traumatic impact on the psyche of the nation and the ensuing political fallout, which continues to influence the temperament of American society. Many regarded President Kennedy as an icon of American hopes and aspirations; he continues to rate highly in public opinion rankings of former U.S. presidents.[1] President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine just moments before his assassination The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Dallas” redirects here. ... Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to two United States government investigations, the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... Jack Leon Ruby (1911 – January 3, 1967) was born Jacob Rubenstein, and changed his name to Jack Leon Ruby in December 1947. ... Warren Commission report cover page The Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... The U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... In a political sense, conspiracy refers to a group of persons united in the goal of usurping or overthrowing an established political power. ... For the Wikipedia policy regarding controversial issues in articles, see Wikipedia:Guidelines for controversial articles. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... “American history” redirects here. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Sculptor Gutzon Borglum and President Calvin Coolidge selected Washington, Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Lincoln to appear on Mount Rushmore. ...

Contents

Early life and education

Kennedy was born at 83 Beals Street in Brookline, Massachusetts on Tuesday, May 29, 1917, at 3:00pm, the second son of Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., and Rose Fitzgerald; Rose, in turn, was the eldest child of John "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald, a prominent Boston political figure who was the city's mayor and a three-term member of Congress. Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Norfolk County Settled 1638 Incorporated 1705 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Town  6. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Joseph Patrick Joe Kennedy, Sr. ... Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy (July 22, 1890 – January 22, 1995) married into the Kennedy family and became its matriarch in the 20th century, when its members helped shape American politics. ... For the American author John Fitzgerald, see John D. Fitzgerald. ... “Boston” redirects here. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...


Kennedy lived in Brookline for his first ten years. He attended Brookline's public Edward Devotion School from kindergarten through the beginning of 3rd grade, then Noble and Greenough Lower School and its successor, the Dexter School, a private school for boys, through 4th grade. The Edward Devotion Elementary School is an elementary school located in at 345 Harvard Street, Brookline, Massachusetts, USA. The school was founded in 1894 on land bequeathed to the town by Edward Devotion (1667–1744), and is probably named for his eponymous grandfather (1621–1685)[1] the Constable for what... The Noble and Greenough School, popularly referred to as Nobles, is a coeducational, nonsectarian day and boarding school for students in grades seven through twelve. ... Founded in 1926, the Dexter School is located in Brookline, Massachusetts. ...


In September 1927, Kennedy moved with his family to a rented 20-room mansion in Riverdale, Bronx, New York City, then two years later moved five miles (8 km) northeast to a 21-room mansion on a six-acre estate in Bronxville, New York, purchased in May 1929. He was a member of Scout Troop 2 at Bronxville from 1929 to 1931 and was to be the first Scout to become President.[2] Kennedy spent summers with his family at their home in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, also purchased in 1929, and Christmas and Easter holidays with his family at their winter home in Palm Beach, Florida, purchased in 1933. He attended Riverdale Country School, a private school for boys in Riverdale, for 5th through 7th grade. Riverdale Riverdale (population approximately 45,000, according to the 2000 U.S. Census) is a middle- and upper-class residential neighborhood in the northwest Bronx, New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Bronxville is a village in Westchester County, New York, United States, located 15 miles north of midtown Manhattan. ... Hyannis is a village in the city of Barnstable, Massachusetts. ... Being largely seasonal, downtown Palm Beachs streets are virtually vacant in the summer. ... The Lower Campus of Riverdale Country School Riverdale Country School is a co-educational college preparatory day school in New York City. ...


For 8th grade in September 1930, Kennedy was sent fifty miles away to Canterbury School, a lay Catholic boarding school for boys in New Milford, Connecticut. In late April 1931, he had appendicitis requiring an appendectomy, after which he withdrew from Canterbury and recuperated at home. In September 1931, Kennedy was sent over sixty miles away to The Choate School, an elite private university preparatory boarding school for boys in Wallingford, Connecticut for 9th through 12th grades, following his older brother, Joe, who was two years ahead of him. In January 1934 during his junior year at Choate, he became ill, lost a lot of weight, was hospitalized at Yale-New Haven Hospital until Easter, and spent most of June 1934 hospitalized at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota for evaluation of colitis. Canterbury School is a college preparatory, coeducational boarding and day school for students in grades 9-12. ... New Milford (Incorporated 1712) is a town in Litchfield County, Connecticut, United States 14 miles (23 km) north of Danbury, on the Housatonic River. ... Appendicitis (or epityphlitis) is a condition characterized by inflammation of the appendix[1]. While mild cases may resolve without treatment, most require removal of the inflamed appendix, either by laparotomy or laparoscopy. ... An appendicectomy (or appendectomy) is the surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. ... Choate Rosemary Hall Choate Rosemary Hall (commonly referred to as Choate) is a New England preparatory school for students (who call themselves Choaties) in grades 9-12, known as the third through sixth forms at the school. ... A university-preparatory school or college-preparatory school (usually abbreviated to preparatory school, college prep school, or prep school) is a private secondary school designed to prepare a student for higher education. ... Wallingford is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. ... Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. ... Yale-New Haven Hospital is a large hospital in southern Connecticut. ... Main campus in downtown Rochester, Minnesota. ... Coordinates: Country United States State Minnesota County Olmsted Founded 1854 Mayor Ardell Brede Area    - City 103. ... Colitis is a digestive disease characterized by inflammation of the colon. ...


He graduated from Choate in June 1935. Kennedy's superlative in his yearbook was "Most likely to become President". In September 1935, he sailed on the SS Normandie on his first trip abroad with his parents and his sister Kathleen to London with the intent of studying for a year with Professor Harold Laski at the London School of Economics (LSE) as his older brother Joe had done, but after a brief hospitalization with jaundice after less than a week at LSE, he sailed back to America only three weeks after he had arrived. In October 1935, Kennedy enrolled late and spent six weeks at Princeton University, but was then hospitalized for two months observation for possible leukemia at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston in January and February 1936, recuperated at the Kennedy winter home in Palm Beach in March and April, spent May and June working as a ranch hand on a 40,000 acre (160 km²) cattle ranch outside Benson, Arizona, then July and August racing sailboats at the Kennedy summer home in Hyannis Port. The Normandie was a French ocean liner built in Saint-Nazaire France for Compagnie Générale Transatlantique. ... Kathleen Agnes Cavendish, Marchioness of Hartington (February 20, 1920 – May 13, 1948), born Kathleen Agnes Kennedy, was the second daughter of Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... Harold Joseph Laski (Manchester, June 30, 1893 – March 24, 1950 in London) was an English political theorist, economist, author, and lecturer, and served as the 1945-1946 chairman of the Labour Party. ... Mascot Beaver Affiliations University of London Russell Group EUA ACU CEMS APSIA Golden Triangle G5 Group Website http://www. ... Jaundice, also known as icterus (attributive adjective: icteric), is a yellowing of the skin, conjunctiva (a clear covering over the sclera, or whites of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in red blooded animals). ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Brigham and Womens Hospital (BWH) is a hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Ranching is the raising of cattle or sheep on rangeland, although one might also speak of ranching with regard to less common livestock such as elk, bison or emu. ... Benson is a city in Cochise County, Arizona, in the United States, 45 miles east-southeast of Tucson. ...


In September 1936 he enrolled as a freshman at Harvard College, residing in Winthrop House during his sophomore through senior years, again following two years behind his older brother Joe. In early July 1937, Kennedy took his convertible, sailed on the SS Washington to France, and spent ten weeks driving with a friend through France, Italy, Germany, Holland and England. In late June 1938, Kennedy sailed with his father and his brother Joe on the SS Normandie to spend July working with his father, recently appointed U.S. Ambassador to the Court of St. James's by President Roosevelt, at the American embassy in London, and August with his family at a villa near Cannes. From February through September 1939, Kennedy toured Europe, the Soviet Union, the Balkans and the Middle East to gather background information for his Harvard senior honors thesis. He spent the last ten days of August in Czechoslovakia and Germany before returning to London on September 1, 1939, the day Germany invaded Poland. On September 3, 1939, Kennedy, along with his brother Joe, his sister Kathleen, and his parents were in the Strangers Gallery of the House of Commons to hear speeches in support of the United Kingdom's declaration of war on Germany. Kennedy was sent as his father's representative to help with arrangements for American survivors of the SS Athenia, before flying back to the U.S. on Pan Am's Dixie Clipper from Foynes, Ireland to Port Washington, New York on his first transatlantic flight at the end of September. Harvard Yard Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, founded in 1636. ... Winthrop House Crest John Winthrop House is the one of the twelve undergraduate residences at Harvard College and home to slightly under 400 students. ... Saab 900 Convertible 1962 Rambler American 1981 AMC Eagle 4-WD convertible Convertible can also refer to a convertible security A convertible (sometimes called cabriolet in British English) is a car body style with a folding or retracting roof (aka soft top or top in USA, hood in UK). ... SS Washington was a 24,189-ton luxury liner of the United States Lines, named after the US capital city. ... The American Embassy in London The Embassy of the United States of America to the Court of St. ... Cannes - receding storm Cannes, as seen from a ferry speeding towards lÎle Saint-Honorat Cannes (pronounced ) (Provençal Occitan: Canas in classical norm or Cano in Mistralian norm) is a city and commune in southern France, located on the Riviera, in the Alpes-Maritimes département and the r... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Poland Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalev (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolák) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft Total... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Strangers Gallery is set aside for members of the public at the British House of Commons, and is intended for both invited and uninvited members of the public to watch the proceedings of the House. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... The S.S. Athenia was the first British ship to be sunk by Germany in World War II. Athenia was built by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, Ltd. ... Pan Ams seaplane terminal at Dinner Key in Miami, Florida, was a hub of inter-American travel during the 1930s and 1940s. ... The Boeing 34114 Clipper was a long-range flying boat produced by Boeing from 1938 to 1941. ... Foynes (Faing in Irish) is a small town and major port in County Limerick in the midwest of Ireland, located at the edge of hilly land on the southern bank of the Shannon Estuary. ... Port Washington is a hamlet and Census Designated Place in Nassau County, New York on the North Shore of Long Island. ...


In 1940, Kennedy completed his thesis, "Appeasement in Munich," about British participation in the Munich Agreement. He initially intended his thesis to be private, but his father encouraged him to publish it as a book. He graduated cum laude from Harvard with a degree in international affairs in June 1940, and his thesis was published in July 1940 as a book entitled Why England Slept,[3] and became a bestseller.[4] For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of academic distinction with which an academic degree was earned. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... Why England Slept cover Why England Slept (ISBN 0313228744) is the published version of a thesis written by John F. Kennedy while in his senior year at Harvard College. ... A bestseller is a book that is identified as extremely popular by its inclusion on lists of currently top selling titles that are based on publishing industry and booktrade figures and published by newspapers, magazines, or bookstore chains. ...


From September to December 1940, Kennedy was enrolled and audited classes at the Stanford Graduate School of Business. In early 1941, he helped his father complete the writing of a memoir of his three years as ambassador. In May and June 1941, Kennedy traveled throughout South America. Stanford GSB The Stanford Graduate School of Business (also known as Stanford Business School or Stanford GSB) is one of the professional schools of Stanford University, in Stanford, California. ...


Military service

Main article: Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109

In the spring of 1941, Kennedy volunteered for the U.S. Army, but was rejected, mainly because of his troublesome back. Nevertheless, in September of that year, the U.S. Navy accepted him, due to the influence of the director of the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), a former naval attaché to the Ambassador, his father. As an ensign, Kennedy served in the office which supplied bulletins and briefing information for the Secretary of the Navy. It was during this assignment that the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred. He attended the Naval Reserve Officers Training School and Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Training Center before being assigned for duty in Panama and eventually the Pacific theater. He participated in various commands in the Pacific theater and earned the rank of lieutenant, commanding a patrol torpedo (PT) boat.[5] PT-109 redirects here. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... USN redirects here. ... The Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) was established in the United States Navy in 1882. ... An attaché is a person who is assigned to the staff of a diplomatic mission and often has special responsibilities or expertise. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... Ensign is a junior rank of commissioned officer in the militaries of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... The Pacific Theater of Operations (PTO) is the term used in the United States for all military activity in the Pacific Ocean and the countries bordering it, in World War II. Pacific War is a more common name, around the world, for the broader conflict between the Allies and Japan... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... PT boats in line astern. ...

Lt. Kennedy on his navy patrol boat, the PT-109.
Lt. Kennedy on his navy patrol boat, the PT-109.

On August 2, 1943, Kennedy's boat, the PT-109, was taking part in a nighttime patrol near New Georgia in the Solomon Islands. It was rammed by the Japanese destroyer Amagiri.[6][7] Kennedy was thrown across the deck, injuring his already-troubled back. Nonetheless, he swam, towing a wounded man, to an island and later to a second island where his crew was subsequently rescued. For these actions, Kennedy received the Navy and Marine Corps Medal under the following citation: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (760x1094, 531 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John F. Kennedy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (760x1094, 531 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John F. Kennedy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Oceania geography stubs | Solomon Islands ... Many people know the story of how the PT-109 commanded by future United States President, then Lieutenant, John F. Kennedy was cut in half by a destroyer in the Blackett Strait on the night of 2 August 1943. ... The Navy and Marine Corps Medal is the second highest non-combatant medal awarded by the United States Department of the Navy to members of the U.S. Navy and the United States Marine Corps. ...

For extremely heroic conduct as Commanding Officer of Motor Torpedo Boat 109 following the collision and sinking of that vessel in the Pacific War Theater on August 1-2, 1943. Unmindful of personal danger, Lieutenant (then Lieutenant, Junior Grade) Kennedy unhesitatingly braved the difficulties and hazards of darkness to direct rescue operations, swimming many hours to secure aid and food after he had succeeded in getting his crew ashore. His outstanding courage, endurance and leadership contributed to the saving of several lives and were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.

Kennedy's other decorations in World War II included the Purple Heart, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal and the World War II Victory Medal. He was honorably discharged in early 1945, just a few months before Japan surrendered. The incident was popularized when he became president and would be the subject of several magazine articles, books, comic books, TV specials and a feature length movie, making the PT-109 one of the most famous U.S. Navy ships of the war. Scale models and even G.I. Joe figures based on the incident were still being produced in the 2000s. The coconut which was used to scrawl a rescue message given to Solomon Islander scouts who found him was kept on his presidential desk and is still at the John F. Kennedy Library. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other meanings see Purple Heart (disambiguation). ... The Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal is a service decoration of the Second World War which was awarded to any member of the United States military who served in the Pacific Theater from 1941 to 1945. ... WWII Victory Medal The World War II Victory Medal is a decoration of the United States military which was created by an act of Congress in July 1945. ... For the homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal in 1946, see G.I. Joe (pigeon). ... Buiki Gasa would be remembered as the man who found the shipwrecked John F. Kennedy and his PT-109 crew. ... The John F Kennedy Library The John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library is the presidential library and museum of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. ...


During his presidency, Kennedy privately admitted to friends that he didn't feel that he deserved the medals he had received, because the PT-109 incident had been the result of a botched military operation that had cost the lives of two members of his crew. When asked by a reporter how he became a war hero, Kennedy joked: "It was involuntary. They sank my boat."


In May 2002, a National Geographic expedition found what is believed to be the wreckage of the PT-109 in the Solomon Islands. One of the Kennedy family also returned to the islands to give a gift to the scouts who are still alive today, but were turned away when they traveled to the inauguration because of communication problems. The Australian coastwatcher who dispatched the natives was also invited to the White House.[8] The National Geographic Society, headquartered in Washington, D.C. in the United States, is one of the worlds largest not-for-profit educational and scientific organizations. ... An inauguration is a ceremony of formal investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority or power. ... Captain Martin Clemens (rear centre), a coastwatcher on Guadalcanal, provided intelligence to Allied forces during the battle for the island (August 1942-February 1943). ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...


Early political career

After World War II, Kennedy considered becoming a journalist before deciding to run for political office. Prior to the war, he hadn't really considered becoming a politician because the family had already pinned its political hopes on his older brother, Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Joseph, however, was killed in World War II, making John tops in seniority. When in 1946 U.S. Representative James Michael Curley vacated his seat in an overwhelmingly Democratic district to become mayor of Boston, Kennedy ran for the seat, beating his Republican opponent by a large margin. He was a congressman for six years but had a mixed voting record, often diverging from President Harry S. Truman and the rest of the Democratic Party. In 1952, he defeated incumbent Republican Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. for the U.S. Senate. Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. ... James Michael Curley (November 20, 1874-November 12, 1958) was an American political figure who served in the United States House of Representatives, as the mayor of Boston, Massachusetts, and as governor of Massachusetts. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. ...


Kennedy married Jacqueline Lee Bouvier on September 12, 1953. He underwent several spinal operations over the following two years, nearly dying (in all he received the Catholic Church's "last rites" four times during his life), and was often absent from the Senate. During his convalescence, he wrote Profiles in Courage, a book describing eight instances in which U.S. Senators risked their careers by standing by their personal beliefs. The book was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Biography in 1957.[9] “Jacqueline Bouvier” redirects here. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Extreme Unction, part of The Seven Sacraments (1445) by Roger van der Weyden. ... Profiles in Courage book cover Profiles in Courage is a book by John F. Kennedy, describing acts of bravery and integrity by eight United States Senators from throughout the Senate’s history. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ...


In 1956, presidential nominee Adlai Stevenson left the choice of a Vice Presidential nominee to the Democratic convention, and Kennedy finished second in that balloting to Senator Estes Kefauver of Tennessee. Despite this defeat, Kennedy received national exposure from that episode that would prove valuable in subsequent years. His father, Joseph Kennedy, Sr., pointed out that it was just as well that John did not get that nomination, as some people sought to blame anything they could on Catholics, even though it was privately known that any Democrat would have trouble running against Eisenhower in 1956. Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American politician, noted for intellectual demeanor and advocacy of liberal causes in the Democratic party. ... The issue of Time Magazine in which Kefauvers victory in the New Hampshire primary was reported. ...


John F. Kennedy voted for final passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1957 after having earlier voted for the "Jury Trial Amendment", which effectively rendered the Act toothless because convictions for violations could not be obtained. Staunch segregationists such as senators James Eastland and John McClellan and Mississippi Governor James Coleman were early supporters of Kennedy's presidential campaign.[10] In 1958, Kennedy was re-elected to a second term in the United States Senate, defeating his Republican opponent, Boston lawyer Vincent J. Celeste, by a wide margin. The Civil Rights Act of 1957, primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted in the United States since Reconstruction. ... Racial segregation is a kind of formalized or institutionalized discrimination on the basis of race, characterized by the races separation from each other. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... John Little McClellan (25 February 1896 – 28 November 1977) was a member of the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives from Arkansas. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... James Coleman born in Ballaghadereen, Co. ...


Years later it was revealed that in September 1947 when he was 30 years old and during his first term as a congressman, Kennedy had been diagnosed by Sir Daniel Davis at The London Clinic with Addison's disease, a rare endocrine disorder. The nature of this and other medical problems were kept secret from the press and public throughout Kennedy's lifetime.[11] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Addisons disease (also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism or hypocorticism) is a rare endocrine disorder in which the adrenal gland produces insufficient amounts of steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids). ...


Sen. Joseph McCarthy was a friend of the Kennedy family: Joe Kennedy was a leading McCarthy supporter; Robert F. Kennedy worked for McCarthy's subcommittee, and McCarthy dated Patricia Kennedy. In 1954, when the Senate was poised to condemn McCarthy, John Kennedy drafted a speech calling for McCarthy censure but never delivered it. When on December 2, 1954, the Senate rendered its highly publicized decision to censure McCarthy, Senator Kennedy was in the hospital. Though absent, Kennedy could have "paired" his vote against that of another senator, but chose not to; neither did he ever indicate then nor later how he would have voted. The episode seriously damaged Kennedy's support in the liberal community, especially with Eleanor Roosevelt, as late as the 1960 election.[12] For other persons named Joseph McCarthy, see Joseph McCarthy (disambiguation). ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... Patricia Kennedy Lawford For other persons named Patricia Kennedy, see Patricia Kennedy (disambiguation). ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (IPA: ; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American political leader who used her influence as an active First Lady from 1933 to 1945 to promote the New Deal policies of her husband, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, as well as taking a prominent role as an...


1960 presidential election

John and Jackie Kennedy campaigning in Appleton, Wisconsin in March 1960.
John and Jackie Kennedy campaigning in Appleton, Wisconsin in March 1960.

On January 2, 1960, Kennedy declared his intent to run for President of the United States. In the Democratic primary election, he faced challenges from Senator Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota and Senator Wayne Morse of Oregon. Kennedy defeated Humphrey in Wisconsin and West Virginia and Morse in Maryland and Oregon, although Morse's candidacy is often forgotten by historians. He also defeated token opposition (often write-in candidates) in New Hampshire, Indiana and Nebraska. In West Virginia, Kennedy visited a coal mine and talked to mine workers to win their support; most people in that conservative, mostly Protestant state were deeply suspicious of Kennedy's Catholicism. His victory in West Virginia cemented his credentials as a candidate with broad popular appeal. The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D. Eisenhowers two terms as President. ... Image File history File links Jfk-appleton. ... Image File history File links Jfk-appleton. ... Appleton is a city in the U.S. state of Wisconsin, on the Fox River, 100 miles (161 km) north of Milwaukee. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A primary election is an election in which voters in a jurisdiction select candidates for a subsequent election (nominating primary). ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey, Jr. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Wayne Lyman Morse (October 20, 1900 – July 22, 1974) was a United States Senator from Oregon from 1945 to 1969. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to 92° 53′ W Population  Ranked... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,350 sq mi (24,217 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... Wyoming coal mine Coal mining is the mining of coal. ... American conservatism is a constellation of political ideologies within the United States under the blanket heading of conservative. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


With Humphrey and Morse out of the race, Kennedy's main opponent at the convention in Los Angeles was Senator Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas. Adlai Stevenson, the Democratic nominee in 1952 and 1956, was not officially running but had broad grassroots support inside and outside the convention hall. Senator Stuart Symington of Missouri was also a candidate, as were several favorite sons. On July 13, 1960, the Democratic convention nominated Kennedy as its candidate for President. Kennedy asked Johnson to be his Vice Presidential candidate, despite opposition from many liberal delegates and Kennedy's own staff, including Robert Kennedy. He needed Johnson's strength in the South to win what was considered likely to be the closest election since 1916. Major issues included how to get the economy moving again, Kennedy's Catholicism, Cuba, and whether the Soviet space and missile programs had surpassed those of the U.S. To address fears that his Catholicism would impact his decision-making, he famously told the Greater Houston Ministerial Association on September 12, 1960, "I am not the Catholic candidate for President. I am the Democratic Party's candidate for President who also happens to be a Catholic. I do not speak for my Church on public matters — and the Church does not speak for me."[13] Kennedy also brought up the point of whether one-quarter of Americans were relegated to second-class citizenship just because they were Catholic. “LBJ” redirects here. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American politician, noted for intellectual demeanor and advocacy of liberal causes in the Democratic party. ... William Stuart Symington William Stuart Symington (June 26, 1901–December 14, 1988) was a businessman and political figure from Missouri. ... Favorite son is a political term that can refer to two different types of politicians: A politician whose electoral appeal is mostly driven from his regional appeal, rather than his political views. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is 88 kilobytes or more in size. ... The United States presidential election of 1916 took place while Europe was embroiled in World War I. Public sentiment in the still neutral United States leaned towards the British and French (allied) forces, due to the harsh treatment of civilians by the German Army, which had invaded and occupied large... Soviet redirects here. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In September and October, Kennedy debated Republican candidate and Vice President Richard Nixon in the first televised U.S. presidential debates in U.S. history. During these programs, Nixon, nursing an injured leg and sporting "five o'clock shadow", looked tense and uncomfortable, while Kennedy appeared relaxed, leading the huge television audience to deem Kennedy the winner. Radio listeners, however, either thought Nixon had won or that the debates were a draw.[14] Nixon did not wear make-up during the initial debate, unlike Kennedy. The debates are now considered a milestone in American political history--the point at which the medium of television began to play a dominant role in national politics.[15] After the first debate Kennedy's campaign gained momentum and he pulled slightly ahead of Nixon in most polls. On Tuesday, November 8, Kennedy defeated Nixon in one of the closest presidential elections of the twentieth century. In the national popular vote Kennedy led Nixon by just two-tenths of one percent (49.7% to 49.5%), while in the Electoral College he won 303 votes to Nixon's 219 (269 were needed to win). Another 14 electors from Mississippi and Alabama refused to support Kennedy because of his support for the civil rights movement; they voted for Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. of Virginia. John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon debate in 1960 Every presidential election in the United States, the two main candidates (almost always the candidates of the two main parties, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party) engage in a debate. ... An electoral college is a set of electors, who are empowered as a deliberative body to elect a candidate to a particular office. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Historically, the civil rights movement was a period of time around the world of approximately one generation (1954–1980) wherein there was much worldwide civil unrest and popular rebellion. ... Harry Flood Byrd, Sr. ...


Presidency (1961–1963)

John F. Kennedy was sworn in as the 35th President at noon on January 20, 1961. In his inaugural address he spoke of the need for all Americans to be active citizens, famously saying, "Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country." He also asked the nations of the world to join together to fight what he called the "common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself."[16] In closing, he expanded on his desire for greater internationalism: "Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you." For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An inauguration is a ceremony of formal investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority. ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ...


Foreign policy

Cuba and the Bay of Pigs Invasion

Main article: Bay of Pigs Invasion

Prior to Kennedy's election to the presidency, the Eisenhower Administration created a plan to overthrow the Fidel Castro regime in Cuba. Central to such a plan, which was structured and detailed by the CIA with minimal input from the State Department, was the arming of a counter-revolutionary insurgency composed of anti-Castro Cubans.[17] U.S.-trained Cuban insurgents were to invade Cuba and instigate an uprising among the Cuban people in hopes of removing Castro from power. On April 17, 1961, Kennedy ordered the previously planned invasion of Cuba to proceed. With support from the CIA, in what is known as the Bay of Pigs Invasion, 1,500 U.S.-trained Cuban exiles, called "Brigade 2506," returned to the island in the hope of deposing Castro. However, Kennedy ordered the invasion to take place without U.S. air support. By April 19, 1961, the Cuban government had captured or killed the invading exiles, and Kennedy was forced to negotiate for the release of the 1,189 survivors. The failure of the plan originated in a lack of dialog among the military leadership, a result of which was the complete lack of naval support in the face of organized artillery troops on the island who easily incapacitated the exile force as it landed on the beach.[18] After 20 months, Cuba released the captured exiles in exchange for $53 million worth of food and medicine. The incident was a major embarrassment for Kennedy, but he took full personal responsibility for the debacle. Furthermore, the incident made Castro wary of the U.S. and led him to believe that another invasion would occur.[19][20] Combatants Cubans trained by Soviet advisers Cuban exiles trained by the United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 51,000 1,500 Casualties various estimates; over 1,600 dead (Triay p. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... “CIA” redirects here. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Cuban Missile Crisis

Main article: Cuban Missile Crisis
Kennedy's Cabinet meets during the Cuban Missile Crisis on October 29, 1962.
Kennedy's Cabinet meets during the Cuban Missile Crisis on October 29, 1962.
Meeting Nikita Khrushchev in 1961.
Meeting Nikita Khrushchev in 1961.

The Cuban Missile Crisis began on October 14, 1962, when American U-2 spy planes took photographs of a Soviet intermediate-range ballistic missile site under construction in Cuba. The photos were shown to Kennedy on October 16, 1962. America would soon be posed with a serious nuclear threat. Kennedy faced a dilemma: if the U.S. attacked the sites, it might lead to nuclear war with the U.S.S.R., but if the U.S. did nothing, it would endure the threat of nuclear weapons being launched from close distance. Because the weapons were in such close proximity, the U.S. might have been unable to retaliate if they were launched pre-emptively. Another consideration was that the U.S. would appear to the world as weak in its own hemisphere. President Kennedy in a crowded Cabinet Room during the Cuban Missile Crisis. ... Image File history File linksMetadata EXCOMM_meeting,_Cuban_Missile_Crisis,_29_October_1962. ... Image File history File linksMetadata EXCOMM_meeting,_Cuban_Missile_Crisis,_29_October_1962. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1212x1025, 326 KB) John F. Kennedy meeting with Nikita Khrushchev in Vienna, June, 1961. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1212x1025, 326 KB) John F. Kennedy meeting with Nikita Khrushchev in Vienna, June, 1961. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed Dragon Lady, is a single-seat, single-engine, high-altitude aircraft flown by the United States Air Force. ... A military aircraft used for monitoring enemy activity, usually carrying no armament. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up Dilemma in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the Nelly song, see Dilemma (song). ... Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ...


Many military officials and cabinet members pressed for an air assault on the missile sites, but Kennedy ordered a naval quarantine in which the U.S. Navy inspected all ships arriving in Cuba. He began negotiations with the Soviets and ordered the Soviets to remove all defensive material that was being built on Cuba. Without doing so, the Soviet and Cuban peoples would face naval quarantine. A week later, he and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev reached an agreement. Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles subject to U.N. inspections if the U.S. publicly promised never to invade Cuba and quietly remove US missiles stationed in Turkey. Following this crisis, which brought the world closer to nuclear war than at any point before or since, Kennedy was more cautious in confronting the Soviet Union.


Latin America and Communism

Arguing that "those who make peaceful revolution impossible, make violent revolution inevitable", Kennedy sought to contain communism in Latin America by establishing the Alliance for Progress, which sent foreign aid to troubled countries in the region and sought greater human rights standards in the region. He worked closely with Puerto Rican Governor Luis Muñoz Marín for the development of the Alliance of Progress, as well as developments in the autonomy of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The Alliance for Progress initiated by President John F. Kennedy in 1961 aimed to establish economic cooperation between North and South America. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Development aid. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Seal of the Governor of Puerto Rico The Governor of Puerto Rico is the Head of Government of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. ... José Luis Alberto Muñoz Marín (February 18, 1898 – April 30, 1980) was a poet, journalist and politician. ...


Peace Corps

As one of his first presidential acts, Kennedy created the Peace Corps. Through this program, Americans volunteered to help underdeveloped nations in areas such as education, farming, health care and construction. It has been suggested that Crisis corps be merged into this article or section. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Vietnam

In South East Asia, Kennedy followed Eisenhower's lead by using limited military action to fight the Communist forces ostensibly led by Ho Chi Minh. Proclaiming a fight against the spread of Communism, Kennedy enacted policies providing political, economic, and military support for the unstable French-installed South Vietnamese government, which included sending 16,000 military advisors and U.S. Special Forces to the area. Kennedy also agreed to the use of free-fire zones, napalm, defoliants and jet planes. U.S. involvement in the area continually escalated until regular U.S. forces were directly fighting the Vietnam War in the next administration. The Kennedy Administration increased military support, but the South Vietnamese military was unable to make headway against the pro-independence Viet-Minh and Viet Cong forces. By July 1963, Kennedy faced a crisis in Vietnam. The Administration's response was to assist in the coup d'état of the Catholic President of South Vietnam, Ngo Dinh Diem.[21] In 1963, South Vietnamese generals overthrew the Diem government, arresting Diem and later killing him (though the exact circumstances of his death remain unclear).[22] Kennedy sanctioned Diem's overthrow. One reason for the support was a fear that Diem might negotiate a neutralist coalition government which included Communists, as had occurred in Laos in 1962. Dean Rusk, Secretary of State, remarked "This kind of neutralism...is tantamount to surrender." For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A simulated Napalm explosion during MCAS Air Show in 2003. ... A defoliant is any chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause its leaves to fall off. ... Jet aircraft are aircraft with jet engines. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Viet Minh flag The Việt Minh   (abbreviated from Việt Nam Ðộc Lập Ðồng Minh Há»™i, English League for the Independence of Vietnam) was a communist revolutionary national liberation movement formed by Hồ Chí Minh in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France as well... A Viet Cong soldier, heavily guarded, awaits interrogation following capture in the attacks on Saigon during the festive Tet holiday period of 1968. ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ...   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909 – December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. ...


It remains a point of controversy among historians whether or not Vietnam would have escalated to the point it did had Kennedy served out his full term and possibly been re-elected in 1964.[23] Fueling this speculation are statements made by Kennedy's and Johnson's Secretary of Defense Robert MacNamara that Kennedy was strongly considering pulling out of Vietnam after the 1964 election. In the film "The Fog of War", not only does McNamara say this, but a tape recording of Lyndon Johnson confirms that Kennedy was planning to withdraw from Vietnam, a position Johnson states he disapproved of.[24] Additional evidence is Kennedy's National Security Action Memorandum (NSAM) #263 on October 11, 1963 that gave the order for withdrawal of 1,000 military personnel by the end of 1963. Nevertheless, given the stated reason for the overthrow of the Diem government, such action would have been a dramatic policy reversal, but Kennedy was generally moving in a less hawkish direction in the Cold War since his acclaimed speech about World Peace at American University the previous June 10, 1963. Robert McNamara in 1964 Robert Strange McNamara (born June 9, 1916) is an American business executive and a former United States Secretary of Defense. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After Kennedy's assassination, new President Lyndon B. Johnson immediately reversed Kennedy's order to withdraw 1,000 military personnel by the end of 1963 with his own NSAM #273 on November 26, 1963. is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


West Berlin speech

Kennedy meeting with West Berlin governing mayor Willy Brandt, March 1961
Kennedy meeting with West Berlin governing mayor Willy Brandt, March 1961

Under simultaneous and opposing pressures from the Allies and the Soviets, Germany was divided. The Berlin Wall separated West and East Berlin, the latter being under the control of the Soviets. On June 26, 1963, Kennedy visited West Berlin and gave a public speech criticizing communism. Kennedy used the construction of the Berlin Wall as an example of the failures of communism: "Freedom has many difficulties and democracy is not perfect, but we have never had to put a wall up to keep our people in." The speech is known for its famous phrase "Ich bin ein Berliner". Nearly five-sixths of the population was on the street when Kennedy said the famous phrase. He remarked to aides afterwards: "We'll never have another day like this one."[25] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3648x2353, 456 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Willy Brandt John F. Kennedy ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3648x2353, 456 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Willy Brandt John F. Kennedy ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992), was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a citizen of Berlin) is a famous quotation from a June 26, 1963 speech of U.S. President John F. Kennedy in West Berlin. ...


Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

Troubled by the long-term dangers of radioactive contamination and nuclear weapons proliferation, Kennedy pushed for the adoption of a Limited or Partial Test Ban Treaty, which prohibited atomic testing on the ground, in the atmosphere, or underwater, but did not prohibit testing underground. The United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union were the initial signatories to the treaty. Kennedy signed the treaty into law in August 1963. The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... The Treaty Banning poop, in Outer Space, and Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), although the former also refers to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), is a treaty intended to obtain an agreement...


Ireland

Further information: The Ireland Funds
President Kennedy in motorcade in Ireland on June 27, 1963.
President Kennedy in motorcade in Ireland on June 27, 1963.

On the occasion of his visit to Ireland in 1963, President Kennedy joined with Irish President Éamon de Valera to form The American Irish Foundation. The mission of this organization was to foster connections between Americans of Irish descent and the country of their ancestry. Kennedy furthered these connections of cultural solidarity by accepting a grant of armorial bearings from the Chief Herald of Ireland. The Ireland Funds is the largest fundraising organization in the world for people of Irish ancestry and friends of Ireland dedicated to raising funds to support programs of peace and reconciliation, arts and culture, education and community development in Ireland. ... Image File history File links JFKIreland2. ... Image File history File links JFKIreland2. ... Éamon de Valera (born with the name Edward George de Valera, IPA: [1][2]) (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ... Heraldry is the science and art of describing coats-of-arms, also referred to as achievements or armorial bearings. ... The office of the Chief Herald of Ireland, (sometimes, though incorrectly, called the Office of Arms) is the Republic of Irelands authority on all heraldic matters relating to Ireland and is located at the National Library of Ireland. ...


He also visited the original cottage where previous Kennedys had lived before emigrating to America, and said: "This is where it all began ..."


On December 22, 2006, the Irish Justice Department released declassified police documents that indicated that Kennedy was the subject of three death threats during this visit. It was interpreted as a hoax.[1] December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Iraq

In 1963, the Kennedy administration backed a coup against the government of Iraq headed by General Abdel Karim Kassem, who five years earlier had deposed the Western-allied Iraqi monarchy. The CIA helped the new Baath Party government in ridding the country of suspected leftists and Communists. In a Baathist bloodbath, the government used lists of suspected Communists and other leftists provided by the CIA, to systematically murder untold numbers of Iraq's educated elite--killings in which Saddam Hussein himself is said to have participated. The victims included hundreds of doctors, teachers, technicians, lawyers and other professionals as well as military and political figures.[26] [27] [28] According to an op-ed in the New York Times, the U.S. sent arms to the new regime, weapons later used against the same Kurdish insurgents the U.S. supported against Kassem and then abandoned. American and U.K. oil and other interests, including Mobil, Bechtel and British Petroleum, were conducting business in Iraq.[29] Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... An Op-Ed is a piece of writing expressing an opinion. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ...


Domestic policy

Kennedy called his domestic program the "New Frontier". It ambitiously promised federal funding for education, medical care for the elderly, and government intervention to halt the recession. Kennedy also promised an end to racial discrimination. In 1963, he proposed a tax reform which included income tax cuts, but this was not passed by Congress until 1964, after his death. Few of Kennedy's major programs passed Congress during his lifetime, although, under his successor Johnson, Congress did vote them through in 1964–65. The term New Frontier was used by John F. Kennedy in his acceptance speech in 1960 to the Democratic National Convention at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum as the Democratic nominee and was used as a label for his administrations domestic and foreign programs. ... See also Healing, North East Lincolnshire Healing is the process where the cells in the body regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or necrotic area. ... An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ... Tax reform is the process of changing the way taxes are collected or managed by the government. ... A tax cut is a reduction in the rate of tax charged by a government, for example on personal or corporate income. ...


As President, Kennedy oversaw the last pre-Furman federal execution, and last, to date, military execution. In both cases he refused to ask for commutation of the death sentences (Iowa governor Harold Hughes personally contacted Kennedy to request clemency for Victor Feguer, who was sentenced to death under federal law in Iowa, and executed on March 15, 1963). Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Victor Feguer (1935 - March 15, 1963) was the last federal inmate in the United States before Timothy McVeigh to be executed, and the last person put to death in the state of Iowa. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Civil rights

The turbulent end of state-sanctioned racial discrimination was one of the most pressing domestic issues of Kennedy's era. The United States Supreme Court had ruled in 1954 that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. However, many schools, especially in southern states, did not obey the Supreme Court's judgment. Segregation on buses, in restaurants, movie theaters, bathrooms, and other public places remained. Kennedy supported racial integration and civil rights, and during the 1960 campaign he telephoned Coretta Scott King, wife of the jailed Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., which perhaps drew some additional black support to his candidacy. John and Robert Kennedy's intervention secured the early release of King from jail.[30] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (760x759, 245 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John F. Kennedy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (760x759, 245 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John F. Kennedy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... 2003 State of the Union address given by U.S. President George W. Bush The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home[1]. Segregation... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation). ... Coretta Scott King (April 27, 1927 – January 30, 2006) was the wife of the assassinated civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr. ... “MLK” redirects here. ...


In 1962, James Meredith tried to enroll at the University of Mississippi, but he was prevented from doing so by white students. Kennedy responded by sending some 400 federal marshals and 3,000 troops to ensure that Meredith could enroll in his first class. Kennedy also assigned federal marshals to protect Freedom Riders. Meredith walking to class accompanied by U.S. marshals James Howard Meredith (born June 25, 1933) is an American civil rights movement figure, although he vocally prefers not to be regarded as such. ... The University of Mississippi, also known as Ole Miss, is a public, coeducational research university located in Oxford, Mississippi. ... The United States Marshals Service, part of the United States Department of Justice, is the United States oldest federal law enforcement agency. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Freedom rides. ...


As President, Kennedy initially believed the grassroots movement for civil rights would only anger many Southern whites and make it even more difficult to pass civil rights laws through Congress, which was dominated by Southern Democrats, and he distanced himself from it. As a result, many civil rights leaders viewed Kennedy as unsupportive of their efforts.


On June 11, 1963, President Kennedy intervened when Alabama Governor George Wallace blocked the doorway to the University of Alabama to stop two African American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood, from enrolling. George Wallace moved aside after being confronted by federal marshals, Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach and the Alabama National Guard. That evening Kennedy gave his famous civil rights address on national television and radio.[31] Kennedy proposed what would become the Civil Rights Act of 1964.[32][33] is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... George Corley Wallace, Jr. ... The University of Alabama (also known as Alabama, UA or colloquially as Bama) is a public coeducational university located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA. Founded in 1831, UA is the flagship campus of the University of Alabama System. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Vivian Malone became the first African-American to graduate from the University of Alabama. ... Jimmy Hood (born 16 May 1948) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... Nicholas deBelleville Katzenbach (born January 17, 1922) was a American lawyer and United States Attorney General. ... The United States National Guard is a reserve forces component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ...


Immigration

John F. Kennedy initially proposed an overhaul of American immigration policy that later was to become The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, sponsored by Kennedy's brother Senator Edward Kennedy. It dramatically shifted the source of immigration from Northern and Western European countries towards immigration from Latin America and Asia and shifted the emphasis of selection of immigrants towards facilitating family reunification.[34] Edward Kennedy Edward Moore Ted Kennedy, (born February 22, 1932, in Brookline, Massachusetts) is a Democratic U.S. senator from Massachusetts. ...


There is debate about how closely the legislation that resulted actually reflected John F. Kennedy's wishes.[citation needed] It is clear that he wanted to dismantle the selection of immigrants based on country of origin and saw this as an extension of his civil rights policies.[35]


Space program

President Kennedy looks at the spacecraft Friendship 7, the spacecraft which made three earth orbits, piloted by astronaut John Glenn, February 23, 1962, Cape Canaveral, Florida, Hangar S. Photo by Cecil Stoughton.
President Kennedy looks at the spacecraft Friendship 7, the spacecraft which made three earth orbits, piloted by astronaut John Glenn, February 23, 1962, Cape Canaveral, Florida, Hangar S. Photo by Cecil Stoughton.

Kennedy was eager for the United States to lead the way in the space race. Sergei Khrushchev says Kennedy approached his father, Nikita, twice about a "joint venture" in space exploration—in June 1961 and autumn 1963. On the first occasion, Russia was far ahead of America in terms of space technology. Kennedy first made the goal for landing a man on the Moon in speaking to a Joint Session of Congress on May 25, 1961, saying Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (760x773, 746 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John F. Kennedy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (760x773, 746 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John F. Kennedy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... // Crew John Glenn (flew on Mercury 6 & STS-95) Backup Crew M. Scott Carpenter Mission parameters Mass: 1,352 kg Perigee: 159 km Apogee: 265 km Inclination: 32. ... For other persons named John Glenn, see John Glenn (disambiguation). ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cape Canaveral is a city in Brevard County, Florida, USA. The population was 8,829 at the 2000 census. ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... Dr. Sergei Khrushchev (Серге́й Ники́тович Хрущёв) (b. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

"First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him back safely to the earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish."[36]

Kennedy later made a speech at Rice University in September 12, 1962, in which he said Lovett Hall William Marsh Rice University (commonly called Rice University and opened in 1912 as The William Marsh Rice Institute for the Advancement of Letters, Science and Art) is a private, comprehensive research university located in Houston, Texas, USA, near the Museum District and adjacent to the Texas Medical Center. ...

"No nation which expects to be the leader of other nations can expect to stay behind in this race for space."

and

"We choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard."[37]

On the second approach to Khrushchev, the Russian was persuaded that cost-sharing was beneficial and American space technology was forging ahead. The U.S. had launched a geostationary satellite and Kennedy had asked Congress to approve more than $25 billion for the Apollo Project. A geostationary orbit (abbreviated GEO) is a circular orbit in the Earths equatorial plane, any point on which revolves about the Earth in the same direction and with the same period as the Earths rotation. ... Description Role: Earth and Lunar Orbit Crew: 3; CDR, CM pilot, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 36. ...


Khrushchev agreed to a joint venture in Autumn 1963, but Kennedy died before the agreement could be formalized. On July 20, 1969, almost six years after JFK's death, Project Apollo's goal was finally realized when men landed on the Moon. is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


Cabinet

The Kennedy Cabinet
OFFICE NAME TERM
President John F. Kennedy 1961–1963
Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson 1961–1963
State Dean Rusk 1961–1963
Treasury C. Douglas Dillon 1961–1963
Defense Robert S. McNamara 1961–1963
Justice Robert F. Kennedy 1961–1963
Postmaster General J. Edward Day 1961–1963
  John A. Gronouski 1963
Interior Stewart L. Udall 1961–1963
Agriculture Orville L. Freeman 1961–1963
Commerce Luther H. Hodges 1961–1963
Labor Arthur J. Goldberg 1961–1962
  W. Willard Wirtz 1962–1963
HEW Abraham A. Ribicoff 1961–1962
  Anthony J. Celebrezze 1962–1963


For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Seal of the office of the Vice-President of the United States The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. ... “LBJ” redirects here. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909 – December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Dillons signature, as used on American currency Clarence Douglas Dillon (August 21, 1909 – January 10, 2003) son of Clarence and Ann (Douglass) Dillon, was U.S. Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to France (1953-1957) and 57th secretary of the United States Department of the Treasury (1961-1965). ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense... Robert McNamara in 1964 Robert Strange McNamara (born June 9, 1916), American businessman and politician, was United States Secretary of Defense from 1961 to 1968. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... The Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... James Edward Day (October 11, 1914 - October 29, 1996) was an American businessman and political office-holder. ... John Austin Gronouski (October 26, 1919 - January 7, 1996) had been the Wisconsin state commissioner of taxation, and the United States Postmaster General Biography Gronouski was born in Dunbar, Wisconsin. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Categories: Stub | 1920 births | U.S. Secretaries of the Interior | World War II veterans ... Orville Freeman Orville Lothrop Freeman (May 9, 1918 - February 20, 2003) was an American Democratic politician who served as the 29th Governor of Minnesota from January 5, 1955 to January 2, 1961 and as the US Secretary of Agriculture from 1961-1969. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Luther Hartwell Hodges Luther Hartwell Hodges (9 March 1898 – 6 October 1974) was the Democratic governor of the state of North Carolina from 1954 to 1961 and United States Secretary of Commerce from 1961 to 1965. ... Arthur Joseph Goldberg (August 8, 1908 _ January 19, 1990) was an American statesman. ... The official portrait of W. Willard Wirtz hangs in the Department of Labor W. Willard Wirtz (born March 14, 1912) was a U.S. administrator. ... The United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare was the head of the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. ... Abraham Alexander Ribicoff (April 9, 1910 – February 22, 1998) was an American Democratic Party politician. ... Anthony Joseph Celebrezze Sr. ...


Supreme Court appointments

Kennedy appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States: Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries  Atlas  Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym...

Byron Raymond White (June 8, 1917 - April 15, 2002) won fame both as a bruising running back and as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Arthur Goldberg Arthur Joseph Goldberg (August 8, 1908 – January 19, 1990) was an American statesman and jurist who served as the U.S. Secretary of Labor, Supreme Court Justice, and Ambassador to the United Nations. ...

Image, social life and family

Further information: Kennedy political family
John F. Kennedy with wife Jacqueline and children, 1962.
John F. Kennedy with wife Jacqueline and children, 1962.

Kennedy and his wife "Jackie" were very young in comparison to earlier presidents and first ladies, and were both extraordinarily popular in ways more common to pop singers and movie stars than politicians, influencing fashion trends and becoming the subjects of numerous photo spreads in popular magazines. Jacqueline bought new art and furniture, and eventually restored all the rooms in the White House. John, Robert, and Edward Kennedy The Kennedy family is a prominent family in American politics and government descending from the marriage of Joseph P. and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (760x777, 676 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John F. Kennedy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (760x777, 676 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John F. Kennedy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... In music a singer or vocalist is a type of musician who sings, i. ... A movie star or film star is a celebrity who is a person known for his or her roles in motion pictures. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... welcome:: This is an article about items in a room. ...


Outside the White House lawn the Kennedys established a preschool, swimming pool and tree house. Jacqueline allowed very few photographs of the children to be taken of them but when she was gone, the President would allow the White House photographer Cecil Stoughton to take pictures of the children. The resulting photos are probably the most famous of the children, and especially of John Jr., after he was photographed playing underneath the President’s desk.


The President was closely tied to popular culture. Things such as "Twisting at the White House" and "Camelot" (the popular Broadway play) were part of the JFK culture. Vaughn Meader's "First Family" comedy album – an album parodying the President, First Lady, their family and administration – sold about 4 million copies. On May 19, 1962, Marilyn Monroe sang for the president at a large birthday party in Madison Square Garden. The 1960 Original Broadway cast recording album cover Camelot is a 1960 musical play by Alan Jay Lerner (book and lyrics) and Frederic Loewe (music). ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... Vaughn Meader (center, right) featured on the cover of The First Family, c. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson on June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962), was a Golden Globe Award-winning American actress, singer, model and pop icon. ... Marilyn Monroe singing Happy Birthday, Mr. ... Madison Square Garden, often abbreviated as MSG, known colloquially simply as The Garden, has been the name of four arenas in New York City, United States. ...


Behind the glamorous facade, the Kennedys also suffered many personal tragedies. Jacqueline suffered a miscarriage in 1955 and gave birth to a stillborn daughter, Arabella Kennedy, in 1956. The death of their newborn son, Patrick Bouvier Kennedy, in August 1963, was a great loss. Since Kennedy's death, allegations have been made that Kennedy carried on numerous extramarital dalliances during his presidency with women such as Hollywood actress Marilyn Monroe and socialite Mary Pinchot Meyer.[38] Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy Onassis (July 28, 1929 – May 19, 1994) was the wife of John F. Kennedy from 1953 to 1963 and was known as Jacqueline Kennedy or Jackie Kennedy. ... For other persons named Patrick Kennedy, see Patrick Kennedy (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson on June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962), was a Golden Globe Award-winning American actress, singer, model and pop icon. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mary Pinchot (14 October 1920-12 October 1964) was born on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, United States. ...


The charisma of Kennedy and his family led to the figurative designation of "Camelot" for his administration, credited by his widow to his affection for the contemporary Broadway musical of the same name. She gave an interview to Theodore White, where she mentioned the musical Camelot,[39] and White later said that he had "found the headline". The word charisma (from the Greek word χάρισμα (kharisma), gift or divine favor, from kharizesthai, to favor, from kharis, favor: see also charism) refers to a rare trait found in certain human personalities usually including extreme charm and a magnetic quality of personality and/or appearance along with innate and powerfully... The Fantasticks is the longest-running musical in history Musical theatre is a form of theatre combining music, songs, spoken dialogue and dance. ... Theodore White on a book cover Theodore Harold White (May 6, 1915 – May 9, 1986) was an American political journalist, historian, and novelist, best known for his acclaimed accounts of the 1960, 1964, 1968, and 1972 presidential elections. ...


He holds a record acknowledged by the Guinness Book of World Records as the world's fastest speaker in public life, with a speed of 327 words in one minute in a speech given in December 1961.[40] The Guinness Book of Records (or in recent editions Guinness World Records, and in previous US editions Guinness Book of World Records) is a book published annually, containing an internationally recognized collection of superlatives: both in terms of human achievement and the extrema of the natural world. ...


In October 1951, during his third term as Massachusetts 11th district congressman, the then 34-year-old Kennedy embarked on a seven-week Asian trip to Israel, India, Vietnam and Japan with his then 25-year-old brother Robert (who had just graduated from law school four months earlier) and his then 27-year-old sister Patricia. Because of their eight-year separation in age, the two brothers had previously seen little of each other. This 25,000 mile (40,000 km) trip was the first extended time they had spent together and resulted in their becoming best friends in addition to being brothers. Robert was campaign manager for Kennedy's successful 1952 Senate campaign and successful 1960 Presidential campaign. The two brothers worked closely together from 1957 to 1959 on the Senate Select Committee on Improper Activities in the Labor and Management Field (Senate Rackets Committee) when Robert was its chief counsel. During Kennedy's presidency, Robert served in his Cabinet as Attorney General and was his closest advisor. Massachusetts Congressional District 11 is an obsolete congessional district in eastern Massachusetts. ... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... // A law school is an institution where future lawyers obtain legal degrees. ... Patricia Kennedy Lawford For other persons named Patricia Kennedy, see Patricia Kennedy (disambiguation). ... In United States and other democracies, political campaigns larger than a few individuals generally include a campaign manager whose role is to coordinate the campaigns operations. ... The Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (PSI) is the oldest subcommittee of the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (formerly the Committee on Government Operations). ... Cabinet meeting on May 16, 2001. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ...


Kennedy came third (behind Martin Luther King, Jr. and Mother Teresa) in a Gallup list of the most admired people of the twentieth century.[41][42][43] Mother Teresa (born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu IPA: ) (August 26, 1910 – September 5, 1997), was a Roman Catholic nun who founded the Missionaries of Charity and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work. ... A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ... Gallups List of Widely Admired People, a poll of United States citizens to volunteer the names of the individuals whom they most admire, is a list compiled annually by The Gallup Organization. ...


Assassination

JFK, Jackie, and Connally in the Presidential limousine before the assassination.

President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas at 12:30pm Central Standard Time on November 22, 1963, while on a political trip through Texas. He was pronounced dead at 1:00pm. President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine just moments before his assassination The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p. ... Image File history File links JFKmotorcade. ... Image File history File links JFKmotorcade. ...  CST or UTC-6 The Central Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time (UTC-6) and five hours during daylight saving time (UTC-5). ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested, in a theatre about 80 minutes after the assassination and was charged by Dallas police for the murder of Dallas policeman J.D. Tippit, before eventually being charged for the murder of Kennedy. Oswald denied shooting anyone, claiming he was a patsy, and was killed by Jack Ruby before he could be indicted or tried. Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to two United States government investigations, the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... J. D. Tippit (September 18, 1924-November 22, 1963) was a police officer with the Dallas Police Department, USA, who was slain by Lee Harvey Oswald after Oswald was stopped by Tippit following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. ... Jack Leon Ruby (1911 – January 3, 1967) was born Jacob Rubenstein, and changed his name to Jack Leon Ruby in December 1947. ... In the common law legal system, an indictment (IPA: ) is a formal charge of having committed a most serious criminal offense. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


On November 29, 1963, President Johnson created the Warren Commission—chaired by Chief Justice Earl Warren—to investigate the assassination. It concluded that Oswald was the lone assassin, but this remains widely disputed by some scholars and eye witnesses of the assassination. Approximately 80% of the American people have consistently not believed the Commission's findings since the mid-1960s in many Gallup Polls taken on the issue of Oswald's guilt or innocence, partly due to the findings in the Zapruder film that many believe shows the fatal shot being fired from the front, allege many witnesses who ran towards the infamous grassy knoll area. is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Warren Commission report cover page The Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... For the swing saxophonist and occasional singer, see Earle Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ... Frame 150 from the Zapruder Film The Zapruder film is a silent, 8 mm color home movie, shot by a private citizen named Abraham Zapruder, of the presidential motorcade of John F. Kennedy through Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963. ...


Burial

Kennedy's grave at Arlington National Cemetery.
Kennedy's grave at Arlington National Cemetery.

On March 14, 1967, Kennedy's body was moved to a permanent burial place and memorial at Arlington National Cemetery. Kennedy is buried with his wife and their deceased minor children, and his brother, the late Senator Robert Kennedy is also buried nearby. His grave is lit with an "Eternal Flame". In the film The Fog of War, then Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara claims that he picked the location in the cemetery — a location which Jackie agreed was suitable. Kennedy and William Howard Taft are the only two U.S. Presidents buried at Arlington. Download high resolution version (900x575, 152 KB)Large version, by [email protected] ... Download high resolution version (900x575, 152 KB)Large version, by [email protected] ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Robert Kennedy Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy, also called RFK (November 20, 1925–June 6, 1968) was the younger brother of President John F. Kennedy, and was appointed by his brother as Attorney General for his administration. ... The eternal flame The John F. Kennedy eternal flame is a United States Presidential Memorial at the gravesite of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, in Arlington National Cemetery. ... This article is about the documentary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American politician, the twenty-seventh President of the United States, the tenth Chief Justice of the United States, a leader of the progressive conservative wing of the Republican Party in the early 20th century, a pioneer in international arbitration...


Legacy

Kennedy's casket departs the White House.
Kennedy's casket departs the White House.

Television became the primary source by which people were kept informed of events surrounding John F. Kennedy's assassination. Newspapers were kept as souvenirs rather than sources of updated information. All three major U.S. television networks suspended their regular schedules and switched to all-news coverage from 22 November through 25 November 1963. Kennedy's state funeral procession and the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald were all broadcast live in America and in other places around the world. The state funeral was the first of three in a span of 12 months: The other two were for General Douglas MacArthur and Herbert Hoover. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (760x605, 394 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John F. Kennedy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (760x605, 394 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John F. Kennedy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... An aerial view of the casket of JFK during his funeral at St. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ...


The assassination had an effect on many people, not only in the U.S. but also among the world population. Many vividly remember where they were when first learning of the news that Kennedy was assassinated, like with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 before it and the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon on September 11, 2001 after it. U.N. Ambassador Adlai Stevenson said of the assassination, "all of us... will bear the grief of his death until the day of ours." This article is about the actual attack. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American politician, noted for intellectual demeanor and advocacy of liberal causes in the Democratic party. ...


Ultimately, the death of President Kennedy and the ensuing confusion surrounding the facts of his assassination are of political and historical importance insofar as they marked a decline in the faith of the American people in the political establishment — a point made by commentators from Gore Vidal to Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born October 3, 1925) (pronounced , occasionally , , etc) is an American author of novels, stage plays, screenplays, and essays. ... This article is about the Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. ...


Coupled with the murder of his own brother, Sen. Robert F. Kennedy, D-N.Y., and that of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., the five tumultuous years from 1963 to 1968 signaled a growing disillusionment within the well of hope for political and social change which so defined the lives of those who lived through the 1960s[citation needed]. Kennedy's continuation of previous presidents Truman's and Eisenhower's policy of giving economic and military aid to the Vietnam War preceded President Johnson's escalation of a conflict which contributed to a decade of national difficulties and disappointment on the political landscape. The Watergate scandal of President Richard Nixon's administration is widely recognized as being the final stroke in this process of diminishing trust in the government, which didn't deserve it as much as was commonly ascribed to it previously by the average person--following many revelations of wrongdoing, chicanery, and other illegal activities by the CIA and other federal intelligence-gathering agencies in the U.S., especially with its foreign policy, in the 1970s by the Church Committee[citation needed]. For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Watergate scandal was a 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at a Watergate Office Building in Washington, D.C. by members of Richard Nixons administration and the resulting cover-up which led to the resignation of the President. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a U.S. Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (D-ID) in 1975. ...

Official Presidential portrait
Official Presidential portrait

Many of Kennedy's speeches (especially his inaugural address) are considered iconic; and despite his relatively short term in office and lack of major legislative changes during his term, Americans regularly vote him as one of the best presidents, in the same league as Abraham Lincoln, George Washington and Franklin D. Roosevelt. Some excerpts of Kennedy's inaugural address are engraved on a plaque at his grave at Arlington. Image File history File links Jk35_1. ... Image File history File links Jk35_1. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... FDR redirects here. ...


He was posthumously awarded the Pacem in Terris Award. It was named after a 1963 encyclical letter by Pope John XXIII that calls upon all people of goodwill to secure peace among all nations. Pacem in Terris is Latin for 'Peace on Earth.' The Pacem in Terris Award has been awarded annually since 1964 in commemoration of the Encyclical Pacem in Terris of Pope John XXIII by Davenport (Iowa) Diocese. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... The Blessed John XXIII wearing a Papal Tiara Angelo Roncalli was born in Sotto il Monte (province of Bergamo), Italy on November 25, 1881. ... A visibly ill Pope John XXIII, who died shortly afterwards, signing Pacem in Terris. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


President Kennedy is the only president to have predeceased both his mother and father. He is also the only president to have predeceased his grandparent. His grandmother, Mary Josephine Hannon Fitzgerald, died in 1964, just 8.5 months after his assassination. An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy a proposed guideline for notability (see Wikipedia:Notability (people)). If you are familiar with the subject matter, please expand the article to establish its notability, citing reliable sources. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...


Children

John F. Kennedy had 2 children that survived. Caroline was born in 1957 and John was born in 1960, just a couple of weeks after his father was elected. Both kids were young when JFK was assassinated in November of 1963, and John died in 1999. Caroline is the only Kennedy that was part of JFK's immediate family that is alive today


Memorials

Kennedy has appeared on the U.S. half-dollar coin since 1964
Kennedy has appeared on the U.S. half-dollar coin since 1964

John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA: JFK, ICAO: KJFK, FAA LID: JFK), originally known as Idlewild Airport (IATA: IDL, ICAO: KIDL, FAA LID: IDL) and colloquially known as Kennedy or simply JFK, is an international airport located in Jamaica, Queens, in southeastern New York City about 12 miles (19 km... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kennedy Expressway is a 16 mile (26 km) long highway that travels northwest from the Chicago loop to OHare Airport. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... John F. Kennedy Boulevard (better known as Kennedy Boulevard), is a major east-west corridor in Tampa, Florida. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nickname: Location in Hillsborough County and the state of Florida. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Interstate 65 (abbreviated I-65) is an Interstate Highway in the United States. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... “Louisville” redirects here. ... Jeffersonville is a city located in Clark County, Indiana, along the Ohio River. ... The John F. Kennedy Memorial Bridge in 2006 as seen from Louisville Waterfront Park The John F. Kennedy Memorial Bridge is a six-lane, single-deck cantilever bridge that carries Interstate 65 across the Ohio River. ... A map of Padre Island. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... Cape Canaveral from space, August 1991 Cape Canaveral (Cabo Cañaveral in Spanish) is a strip of land in Brevard County, Florida, United States, near the center of that states Atlantic coast. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... Runnymede is a water-meadow alongside the River Thames in the English county of Surrey. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Magna Carta Magna Carta (Latin for Great Charter, literally Great Paper), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Great Charter of Freedoms), is an English charter originally issued in 1215. ... Routes junctioned Termini are bolded Highways in Maryland Numbered highways - State highways - Minor state highways In Maryland, Interstate 95 runs diagonally from the border with Delaware in northeast to the Woodrow Wilson Bridge before entering Virginia. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... The Baltimore Beltway, Interstate 695, is a full beltway interstate highway extending around Baltimore, Maryland. ... The Delaware Turnpike is an 11 mile-long tolled freeway which carries Interstate 95 between Marylands John F. Kennedy Memorial Highway and Wilmington, Delaware. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The John F. Kennedy Memorial Highway (also known as JFK Memorial Highway) is a 50-mile section of Interstate 95 traversing northeastern Maryland from the northern Baltimore City line to the Delaware State line where it meets the Delaware Turnpike. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... USS (CVA/CV-67) (or Big John) is a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1180x1180, 1281 KB) Source United States Mint Date 2006-04-06 Author United States Mint Permission File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Half dollar (United States coin... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1180x1180, 1281 KB) Source United States Mint Date 2006-04-06 Author United States Mint Permission File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Half dollar (United States coin... The Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum is on the campus of the University of Texas at Austin. ... John F. Kennedy University is a private university located in Pleasant Hill, California, and an annex located in an office park in Berkeley in the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Pleasant Hill is a city located in Contra Costa County, California, in the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Located in Brookline, Massachusetts, John F. Kennedy National Historic Site commemorates the life of President John F. Kennedy. ... The Kennedy family and its friends founded Harvards Institute of Politics (IOP) to serve as a living memorial to President John F. Kennedy shortly after his death. ... John F. Kennedy School of Government The John F. Kennedy School of Government is a public policy school and one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ... The Kennedy Center as seen from the Potomac River. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Sports field of Kennedy with the Regnart neighborhood as the backdrop The John F. Kennedy Middle School (KMS) is a middle school located in Cupertino, California which educates grades six through eight, and feeds nearby Monta Vista High School. ... Location of Cupertino within Santa Clara County, California. ... Uptown Butte 1942 view of the city Butte is a city in Silver Bow County, Montana and is the county seat. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources. ... John F. Kennedy Stadium (or JFK Stadium, originally known as Philadelphia Municipal Stadium) was an open-air stadium in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania that stood from 1925 to 1992. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... The Half Dollar of the United States has been produced nearly every year since the inception of the United States Mint in 1793. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... Yad Kennedy is a memorial to John F. Kennedy, near Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Amminadab, the ancestor of David (fresco by Michelangelo) Amminadab (Hebrew: עמינדב,  ; my people are generous) is a biblical name. ... Kennedy Island is an island in the Solomon Islands that was named after John F. Kennedy. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Indiana Country State County Vanderburgh Government  - Mayor Jonathan Weinzapfel (D) Area  - City 40. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Massachusetts Amherst (otherwise known as UMass Amherst or UMass) is a research and land-grant university in Amherst, USA. The University of Massachusetts Amherst offers over 90 undergraduate and 65 graduate areas of study. ... This page is about the proposed lunar spacecraft. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... This article is in need of attention. ... unit crest John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School (USAJFKSWCS) trains United States Army personnel for the United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) and Army Special Operation Forces (ARSOF). ... The United States Army Special Forces —Special Forces or SF — is an elite Special Operations Force of the United States Army trained for unconventional warfare and special operations. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Alfred Beckley Beckley is a city in Raleigh County, West Virginia, USA and founded on April 4, 1838. ...

Criticism

A right-wing anti-Kennedy handbill/poster circulated on November 21, 1963 in Dallas, Texas — one day before the assassination of John F. Kennedy.
A right-wing anti-Kennedy handbill/poster circulated on November 21, 1963 in Dallas, Texas — one day before the assassination of John F. Kennedy.

The Civil Rights Act which he sent to Congress in June 1963 was, in large part, conceived by his brother, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, and it was signed into law by his successor to the Presidency, Lyndon B. Johnson, in 1964. Image File history File linksMetadata Wanted_for_treason. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Wanted_for_treason. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ...


Kennedy dated actress Gene Tierney, who was separated from her then husband fashion designer Oleg Cassini in 1946. In her book Self-portrait Ms. Tierney recalls how over an informal brunch Jack stated that he could never marry her because of her pending divorce, if he was to be the first elected Catholic President (moreover, she was also a Protestant). Subsequently, Tierney folded her napkin and left the cafe. Mr. Cassini was hired as the exclusive designer for the First Lady after the election. Gene Tierney (November 19, 1920 – November 6, 1991) was an American Film and Stage actress. ... Oleg Cassini (April 11, 1913 – March 17, 2006) was an American fashion designer noted for being chosen by Jacqueline Kennedy to design her state wardrobe in the 1960s. ...


Seymour Hersh's The Dark Side of Camelot (1998) presents a critical analysis of the Kennedy administration, stating that Kennedy "was probably one of the unhealthiest men ever to sit in the Oval Office". Robert Dallek's An Unfinished Life (2003) is a more traditional biography, but it contains many details about Kennedy's health issues.


Noam Chomsky, in his book Rethinking Camelot: JFK, the Vietnam War, and U.S. Political Culture (1993),[47] presents a thesis on the Kennedy administration in opposition to the one that lingers in the memory of many Americans.[citation needed] Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew :אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ...


See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Family

Transportation

History of

Political policy

Staff

Assassination

Memorials/legacy

Coincidences/trivia

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Caroline Bouvier Kennedy Schlossberg (born November 27, 1957) is the daughter and only surviving child of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and his wife, Jacqueline. ... “Jacqueline Bouvier” redirects here. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Jr. ... The Irish Catholic political dynasty, John, Robert, and Edward Kennedy The Kennedy family is a prominent Irish-American family in American politics and government descending from the marriage of Joseph P. and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... Edward Moore Ted Kennedy (born February 22, 1932) is the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Joseph Joe Patrick Kennedy, Sr. ... Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Jr. ... Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy (July 22 , 1890 - January 22, 1995) married into the Kennedy family and became its matriarch in the second half of the 20th century, when its members helped shape American politics. ... Zurab Tsereteli with Eunice Kennedy Shriver (right) Eunice Mary Kennedy Shriver (born July 10, 1921 in Brookline, Massachusetts), USA, is a member of the Kennedy family. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... William Kennedy Smith (born September 4, 1960) is an American physician whose work focuses on landmines and the rehabilitation of people disabled by them. ... Ethel Skakel Kennedy (born April 11, 1928 in Chicago, Illinois) is a member of the Kennedy political family by her marriage to Robert F. Kennedy. ... Rose Marie Kennedy (September 13, 1918 – January 7, 2005) was the third child and first daughter of Joseph and Rose Kennedy, born a year after the U.S. President John F. Kennedy. ... Patricia Kennedy Lawford For other persons named Patricia Kennedy, see Patricia Kennedy (disambiguation). ... John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA: JFK, ICAO: KJFK, FAA LID: JFK), originally known as Idlewild Airport (IATA: IDL, ICAO: KIDL, FAA LID: IDL) and colloquially known as Kennedy or simply JFK, is an international airport located in Jamaica, Queens, in southeastern New York City about 12 miles (19 km... The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D. Eisenhowers two terms as President. ... This article covers the history of the United States from 1945 through 1964, Cold War Beginnings and the Civil Rights Movement. ... An aerial view of the casket of JFK during his funeral at St. ... Boston College The Jesuit Ivy is a nickname given to Boston College in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. ... It has been suggested that Crisis corps be merged into this article or section. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... Evelyn Maurine Norton Lincoln (June 25, 1909 - May 11, 1995) was the personal secretary for John F. Kennedy from his election to the United States Senate in 1953 until his 1963 assassination in Dallas. ... President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine just moments before his assassination The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p. ... President Kennedy, with his wife Jackie Kennedy, and the Connallys in the Presidential limousine shortly before the assassination Idanell Brill Nellie Connally (24 February 1919 – 1 September 2006) was the First Lady of Texas from 1963 to 1969. ... John Bowden Connally, Jr. ... Frame 150 from the Zapruder Film The Zapruder film is a silent, 8 mm color home movie, shot by a private citizen named Abraham Zapruder, of the presidential motorcade of John F. Kennedy through Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... President Kennedy, Jackie Kennedy, Nellie Connally and Governor John Connally, shortly before the assassination. ... Robert Kennedy The assassination of Robert F. Kennedy ocurred on June 5, 1968. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of assasinated American politicians. ... The eternal flame The John F. Kennedy eternal flame is a United States Presidential Memorial at the gravesite of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, in Arlington National Cemetery. ... Runnymede is a water-meadow alongside the River Thames in the English county of Surrey. ... Yad Kennedy is a memorial to John F. Kennedy, near Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Kennedy Memorial Trust was founded in 1964 to commemorate the US President John F. Kennedy who had been assassinated in 1963. ... The John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial is a monument to the late U.S. President John Fitzgerald Kennedy in the West End Historic District of downtown Dallas, Texas (USA) erected in 1970. ... Dallas redirects here. ... Obverse Reverse Evolving from the Franklin half dollar, the Kennedy half dollar is a coin of the United States first minted in 1964. ... The five cents John Kennedy is the first United States postage stamp to pay tribute to President John Fitzgerald Kennedy. ... This is a list of people on the postage stamps of the Republic of Ireland, including the years when they appeared on a stamp. ... The Kennedy Center as seen from the Potomac River. ... The John F Kennedy Library The John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library is the presidential library and museum of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. ... Sculptor Gutzon Borglum and President Calvin Coolidge selected Washington, Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Lincoln to appear on Mount Rushmore. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Senator, you are no Jack Kennedy was a famous statement made by U.S. Democratic vice-presidential candidate Senator Lloyd Bentsen to Republican vice-presidential candidate Senator J. Danforth Quayle during the 1988 vice-presidential debate. ... Lloyd Millard Bentsen Jr. ... For the homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal in 1946, see G.I. Joe (pigeon). ... Categories: Computer and video game stubs | First-person shooters | JFK assassination ... “Computer and video games” redirects here. ...

Kennedy in fiction and song

Cartoons and comic books:

  • In the South Park episode Weight Gain 4000, Kennedy's assassination is parodied when schoolteacher Mr. Garrison goes into the Book Depository in an attempt to shoot Kathie Lee Gifford during a motorcade.
  • In an episode of The Simpsons, Homer Simpson and Abraham Lincoln sneak up on Lee Harvey Oswald and, in so doing, prevent the assassination of President Kennedy.
  • In "Superman" No. 170 and Action Comics Nos. 285 and 309 published by DC Comics, President Kennedy appears as himself within fictional comic story lines.
  • On the cartoon show Clone High, one of the main characters, "JFK", is a young, aggressive, hyper macho clone of Kennedy's who seems to very much look up to his forefather and namesake. Like Kennedy, he was outgoing, charismatic, a ladies man and athletic. Unfortunately, the clone only recognized those particular aspects of Kennedy's personality, and when told that Kennedy was a caring leader who inspired a generation of young people, the clone responded "I thought he was a macho womanizing stud who conquered the moon".
  • Kennedy's ghost appears in the comic book Hellblazer, in "Damnation's Flame", where he accompanies protagonist John Constantine across a Hellish version of America.
  • Kennedy's assassination is parodied in the cartoon Robot Chicken, when a mongoose is shown to shoot President Kennedy and, in doing so, frames Lee Harvey Oswald.
  • In an episode of Family Guy, Lee Harvey Oswald is seen in the infamous book store window where he states, "Oh my god, that man on the grassy knoll is going to shoot President Kennedy!" He then takes up a rifle, looks through the scope, and utters the words: "C'mon Lee, time to become an American hero..."
  • In the episode of Sealab 2021 titled "Craptastic Voyage", Captain Shanks yells out "Ich bin ein Berliner" when the miniaturized Deep Diver crashes into the language center of his brain, prompting JFK to appear and say "That's my line, tumourface!" He is then almost destroyed by Shanks when the Deep Diver runs into the testosterone center of Shanks's brain.

This article is about the TV series. ... TV Show Reference Episode is the word usually used to refer to a part of a serial television or radio program. ... Weight Gain 4000 is the second episode of Comedy Centrals animated series South Park. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... Mr. ... VHS box cover of Kathie Lees Rock n Tots Cafe: A Christmas Giff starring Kathie Lee Gifford, copyright 1995 Rock n Tots Joint Venture. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Homer Jay Simpson is a fictional character in the animated television series The Simpsons voiced by Dan Castellaneta. ... Superman is a fictional character and comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ... Cover of Action Comics #1, which featured the debut of Superman. ... DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... Clone High is an American animated series that aired for one season (November 2002—April 2003) on MTV and Teletoon. ... JFK on Clone High JFK is a fictional animated character on Clone High, a parody of John F. Kennedy. ... This article is about the series of human spaceflight missions. ... Hellblazer is a contemporary horror comic book series published by the Vertigo imprint of DC Comics. ... John Constantine (born May 10, 1953 in Liverpool, England) is the fictional protagonist of the comic series Hellblazer. ... Robot Chicken is an American stop motion animated television series produced by Stoop!d Monkey, ShadowMachine Films, Williams Street, and Sony Pictures Digital, currently airing in the US as a part of Cartoon Networks Adult Swim line-up, in Britain as part of Bravos Adult Swim line-up... For other uses, see Mongoose (disambiguation). ... Family Guy is an Emmy award winning American animated television series about a nuclear family in the fictional town of Quahog (IPA or ), Rhode Island. ... Sealab 2021 is an American animated television series shown on Cartoon Networks adult-oriented programming block, Adult Swim. ...

Films and television productions

  • In the 1986 episode "Profile in Silver" in The New Twilight Zone series, a future distantly-related descendant goes back to November 22, 1963 in Dallas to observe the murder.
  • In the 1997 episode "Tikka to Ride" of the British comedy series Red Dwarf, the main characters accidentally foil the Kennedy assassination, causing severe problems with their own timeline. They return, and after several failed attempts to correct the timeline, enlist the help of Kennedy, who survives to become his own second gunman. Kennedy dresses as a police officer, a reference to the Badge man photograph, and shoots from the "Grassy Knoll." This was a highly controversial episode.
  • At the end of the 1996 film The Rock, the main character Stanley Goodspeed discovers a roll of microfilm, and - when he examines it - asks his girlfriend 'You wanna know who killed JFK?'. He does not give the answer to this question.
  • In the 2002 film Timequest, a time-traveler arrives back in time and thwarts Kennedy's assassination.
  • On the soap opera "Passions", Rebecca Hotchkiss revealed to her daughter Gwen Winthrop on December 28, 2006, that her mother had slept with Kennedy during his marriage to Jacqueline.
  • The spitting scene in theSeinfeld sitcom The Boyfriend, Part 1 was a reference to the Kennedy assassination and the magic bullet theory, as dramatized in the movie JFK.

Profile in Silver is an episode of The Twilight Zone, part of the mid-80s revival of the show. ... The New Twilight Zone is the popular nickname for the 1985 revival of Rod Serlings acclaimed 1950/60s television series, The Twilight Zone; it was officially titled the same as the original. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tikka to Ride was the first episode to air in the seventh series of Red Dwarf. ... For the type of star, see Red dwarf. ... Badge man is the title given to a photographic image that some President John F. Kennedy assassination researchers claim is a grassy knoll assassin seen within a polaroid photograph that close witness Mary Moorman captured on November 22, 1963 within Dealey Plaza in Dallas Texas. ... The Rock (1996) is an action movie that primarily takes place on Alcatraz Island, and the San Francisco Bay area. ... Microfilm machines may be available at libraries or record archives. ... Timequest is a film released in 2002, directed by Robert Dyke and starring popular b-movie actor Bruce Campbell. ... For Philippine soap opera, see Teleserye. ... Passions is a multi-Daytime Emmy Award-winning American television soap opera created by veteran writer James E. Reilly. ... Information Rebecca Hotchkiss Crane is a fictional character on NBCs daytime drama Passions. ... Information Gender female Age 32 Date of birth 1975 Occupation businesswoman Family Jonathan Hotchkiss (father) Rebecca Hotchkiss Crane (mother) Spouse(s) Ethan Winthrop (2002 — 2007; divorced) Children Sarah Winthrop (2003, with Ethan; stillborn) Nathan Winthrop (2004, with Ethan; medical abortion) Portrayed by Liza Huber (1999 — 2000, 2002 — present) Natalie Zea... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Jacqueline Bouvier” redirects here. ... This article is about the sitcom. ... The Boyfriend, Part 1 is the thirty-fifth episode of the sitcom Seinfeld. ... The Single Bullet Theory (pejoratively referred to as the magic bullet theory by critics and conspiracy theorists) is thought to be an essential element of the Warren Commission theory that only one assassin was responsible for the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy. ... JFK is an American film directed by Oliver Stone, first released on December 20, 1991. ...

Songs:

  • Several popular songs deal with Kennedy and his assassination. These include:
    • "PT-109" by Jimmy Dean in 1962 became a Top 10 single and was written in honor of President Kennedy.
    • "Crucifixion" and "That was the President" by Phil Ochs.
    • "1963." by New Order. The song is loosely a fantasy about JFK having his wife killed so he could be with Marilyn Monroe.
    • "Abraham, Martin and John" by Dion, a memorial to Kennedy, his brother Robert, Abraham Lincoln and Martin Luther King.
    • "What the World Needs Now/Abraham, Martin and John" is an audio montage assembled by Tom Clay with the two songs in the title combined with radio soundbites from the Kennedy Assassinations, and Martin Luther King's mountaintop speech.
    • "Foreign Policy" by The Buckinghams released in 1968 has a portion of a speech made by JFK on the flip side of "Susan".
    • "The Day John Kennedy Died" by Lou Reed, in which Reed lists some things he dreamed he forgot.
    • "Brain of J." by Pearl Jam.
    • "Sympathy for the Devil" by the Rolling Stones contains the line "I shouted out, 'Who killed the Kennedys?' when after all, it was you and me."
    • "We Didn't Start the Fire" by Billy Joel, which lists 20th century events.
    • "Family Snapshot" by Peter Gabriel is an account of the assassination from the perspective of Oswald.
    • "Civil War" by Guns N' Roses contains the line "In my first memories, they shot Kennedy."
    • Rock singer Marilyn Manson referenced John F. Kennedy numerous times in his work:
      • "Valentine's Day" containing the line "[S]he was the color of TV. Her mouth curled under like a metal snake. Although Holy Wood was sad, they'd remember this as Valentine's day" which refers to JFK's wife Jackie and the grief that the country felt for the loss of their president on Valentine's day.
      • The music video for "Coma White" generated controversy as it featured a reenactment of the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Manson said the video used the Kennedy assassination "as a metaphor for America's obsession and worship of violence." "My statement was always intended to make people think of how they view and sometimes participate in these events." Further, the video, "is in no way a mockery. In fact, it is a tribute to men like Jesus Christ and JFK who have died at the hands of mankind's unquenchable thirst for violence."
      • "Posthuman" opens with the line, "She's got eyes like Zapruder, a mouth like heroin, she wants me to be perfect like Kennedy" ("Zapruder" being a reference to the Zapruder film). The song also contains a reference to Kennedy's wife: "In all of her dreams, she's a saint like Jackie-O."
      • "Lamb of God" alludes to the martyrdom of JFK with the line, "The camera will make you god, that's how Jack became sainted."
      • The title of the song "King Kill 33" is a reference to JFK conspiracy theorist James Shelby Downard.
      • The album artwork for Holy Wood (In the Shadow of the Valley of Death) includes an autopsy report for John F. Kennedy. The enhanced CD also contains a video of Manson's artistic interpretation of the JFK autopsy.
    • The song "Bullet" by "The Misfits" is about the assassination of Kennedy as well as a fictitious account of his wife's slip into despondency following the assassination

Jimmy Dean (b. ... Philip David Ochs (December 19, 1940–April 9, 1976) was a U.S. protest singer (or, as he preferred, a topical singer), songwriter, musician and recording artist who was known for his sharp wit, sardonic humor, earnest humanism, political activism, insightful and alliterative lyrics, and haunting voice. ... New Order are an English rock group formed in 1980 from the remaining members of Joy Division—Bernard Sumner (vocals, guitars, synthesizers), Peter Hook (bass, electronic drums), and Stephen Morris (drums, synthesizers). ... Abraham, Martin & John is a 1968 song written by Dick Holler. ... Dion may mean: People: Dion (tyrant of Syracuse) (408-354 BC), ancient Greek politician Adolphe de Dion (1823-1908), archaeologist who excavated the château of Montfort LAmaury Marquis Albert de Dion, founder of the automobile company de Dion-Bouton Dion DiMucci (b. ... Abraham, Martin & John is a 1968 song written by Dick Holler. ... Tom Clay (b. ... “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ... First album cover, 1967 The Buckinghams were an American pop rock band which saw enormous radio popularity in 1967 (see 1967 in music), selling more records that year than any American artist except The Monkees. ... Lewis Reed[1] (born March 2, 1942) is an American rock singer-songwriter and guitarist. ... Brain of J. is a song by Pearl Jam, from the album Yield. ... This article is about the rock group. ... Sympathy for the Devil is a song by The Rolling Stones. ... “Rolling Stones” redirects here. ... We Didnt Start the Fire is a song by Billy Joel that chronicles 120 well-known events, people, things, and places widely noted during his lifetime, from March 1949 to 1989, when the song was released on his album Storm Front. ... William Martin Billy Joel (born May 9, 1949) is an American singer, pianist, songwriter, composer and musician. ... Peter Brian Gabriel (born 13 February 1950, in Chobham,[1] Surrey, England) is an English musician. ... Civil War is a Guns N Roses song (written by Axl Rose, Slash and Duff McKagan), originally appearing on the 1990 album Nobodys Child, a fundraising compilation for Romanian orphans. ... Guns N Roses is an American hard rock band, formed in Los Angeles, California in 1985. ... This article is about the person. ... For other uses, see Valentines Day (disambiguation). ... Coma White is a single by the band Marilyn Manson about the numbing effects of drugs. ... Posthuman can have the following meanings: Posthuman (critical theory), a postmodern critique of human as a concept. ... Frame 150 from the Zapruder Film The Zapruder film is a silent, 8 mm color home movie, shot by a private citizen named Abraham Zapruder, of the presidential motorcade of John F. Kennedy through Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963. ... For the band, see Lamb of God (band). ... James Shelby Downard (1909-1996) was an American conspiracy theorist whose works, most of which have been published in various anthologies from Feral House, examined percieved occult symbolism and synchronicity behind historical events in the 21st century. ... Holy Wood (In the Shadow of the Valley of Death) is the fourth full-length album by rock band Marilyn Manson. ... For the movie of the same name, see The Misfits (film). ...

Kennedy portrayed in film and television

Film:

PT 109 is a 1963 biographical movie which shows the events of John F. Kennedys actions as a member of the United States Navy during World War II. The movie was adapted by Richard L. Breen, Vincent Flaherty and Howard Sheehan from the book by Robert J. Donovan. ... Cliff Robertson. ... JFK is an American film directed by Oliver Stone, first released on December 20, 1991. ... Steven Vincent Reed (born March 11, 1965 in Los Angeles, California) is a relief pitcher in Major League Baseball who currently plays for the Baltimore Orioles. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ruby is a film, released in the United States on March 27, 1992, about Jack Ruby, the Dallas, Texas nightclub owner who shot and killed Lee Harvey Oswald outside of a police station in 1963. ... Annunciation from 1506, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Gerard David (c. ... For the main character of the same name, see Forrest Gump (character) Forrest Gump is a 1994 drama film based on a 1986 novel by Winston Groom and the name of the title character of both. ... Thirteen Days (2000) is a Hollywood film about the Cuban Missile Crisis, directed by Roger Donaldson and starring Kevin Costner, Bruce Greenwood, and Steven Culp. ... Bruce Greenwood (born August 12, 1956 in Noranda, Quebec) is a Canadian actor. ... Timequest is a film released in 2002, directed by Robert Dyke and starring popular b-movie actor Bruce Campbell. ... Victor Slezak (born July 30, 1957, in Youngstown, Ohio) is an American stage and screen actor who has appeared in films including The Bridges of Madison County (1995), Beyond Rangoon (1995), The Devils Own (1997), The Seige (1998),The Cats Meow (2001), Timequest (2002), and The Notorious Bettie... Bubba Ho-tep is the title of a novella by Joe R. Lansdale which originally appeared in the anthology The King Is Dead: Tales of Elvis Post-Mortem (edited by Paul M. Sammon, Delta 1994) and was adapted as a 2002 horror-black comedy film starring Bruce Campbell as Elvis... Ossie Davis in The Green Pastures, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1951 Ossie Davis (December 18, 1917 – February 4, 2005) was an African American film actor, director and social activist. ... This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... Slave redirects here. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ...

TV:

  • The Missiles of October (1974, TV): played by William Devane
  • The Private Files of J. Edgar Hoover (1977): played by William Jordan
  • Johnny, We Hardly Knew Ye (1977, TV): played by Paul Rudd
  • Young Joe, the Forgotten Kennedy (1977, TV): played by Sam Chew, Jr.
  • King (1978, TV): played by William Jordan
  • Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy (1981, TV): played by James Franciscus
  • Blood Feud (1983, TV): played by Sam Groom
  • Kennedy (1983, TV): played by Martin Sheen
  • Prince Jack (1985, TV): played by Robert Hogan
  • Robert Kennedy & His Times (1985, TV): played by Cliff De Young
  • J. Edgar Hoover (1987, TV): played by Art Hindle
  • LBJ: The Early Years (1987, TV): played by Charles Frank
  • Onassis: The Richest Man in the World (1988, TV): played by David Gillum
  • The Kennedys of Massachusetts (1990, TV): played by Steven Weber
  • A Woman Named Jackie (1991, TV): played by Stephen Collins
  • Sinatra (1992, TV): played by James F. Kelly
  • J.F.K.: Reckless Youth (1993, TV): played by Patrick Dempsey
  • Norma Jean & Marilyn (1996, TV): played by Perry Stephens
  • Red Dwarf: Tikka to Ride (1997, TV): played by Michael Shannon
  • The Rat Pack (1998, TV): played by William L. Petersen
  • Bonanno: A Godfather's Story (1999, TV): played by Matt Norklun
  • Jackie Bouvier Kennedy Onassis (2000, TV): played by Tim Matheson, who at the time was also playing a fictional vice-president on the series The West Wing
  • How to Marry a Billionaire: A Christmas Tale (2000, TV): played by Dabney Coleman
  • Jackie, Ethel, Joan: The Women of Camelot (2001, TV): played by Daniel Hugh Kelly
  • Power and Beauty (2002, TV): played by Kevin Anderson
  • RFK (2002, TV): played by Martin Donovan
  • America's Prince: The John F. Kennedy Jr. Story (2003, TV): played by Randy Triggs
  • Days That Shook the World episode JFK (2003, TV): played by Karl J. Morris

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... William-Jordan (died 1109) was Count of Cerdagne and regent of County of Tripoli since 1105. ... Paul Stephen Rudd (born April 6, 1969) is an American film, television, and stage actor. ... James Grover Franciscus (January 31, 1934 – July 8, 1991) was a leading and supporting American actor. ... Sam Groom (born 1939) is an actor. ... Martin Sheen (born August 3, 1940 as Ramón Gerardo Antonio Estévez) is an Emmy- and Golden Globe Award-winning American actor. ... Robert Hogan can refer to: Robert J. Hogan, American actor Robert Hogan (psychologist), American psychologist Category: ... Cliff de Young is an American actor and musician, born Clifford Tobin DeYoung in Los Angeles, California on February 12, 1945. ... Art Hindle (Born July 21, 1948 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada) is a Canadian actor and director. ... Charles Frank (born April 17, 1947) is an American actor most noted for playing Bret Mavericks cousin Ben Maverick in the 1978 TV-movie The New Maverick with James Garner and Jack Kelly, and in a 1979 television series Young Maverick, which was cancelled quite quickly (since Garner had... Steven Weber (born March 4, 1961) is an American actor. ... Stephen Collins (born October 1, 1947) is an American actor. ... Patrick Galen Dempsey (born January 13, 1966) is a Golden Globe Award-nominated American actor who first became prominent in Hollywood during the late 1980s. ... Norma Jean & Marilyn is a 1996 made-for-TV biographical film, which was made by and premiered on HBO. Ashley Judd and Mira Sorvino played alter egos of Marilyn Monroe, with Judd playing her during Monroes early years when she was still known as Norma Jean. ... Perry Stephens (February 14, 1958 - September 8, 2005) was an American actor known primary for his roles on daytime soap operas, including roles on both Loving and The Bold and the Beautiful. ... For the type of star, see Red dwarf. ... Tikka to Ride was the first episode to air in the seventh series of Red Dwarf. ... Michael P. Shannon is the Republican candidate for congress in Illinois 9th Congressional District. ... William Petersen, an American actor, was born on February 21, 1953, in Evanston, Illinois. ... Tim Matheson, an American actor, was born Timothy Lewis Matthieson on December 31, 1947, in Glendale, California, a suburb of Los Angeles. ... “The West Wing” redirects here. ... Dabney Wharton Coleman (born January 3, 1932) is an American actor. ... Daniel Hugh Kelly (born on August 10, 1952 in Elizabeth, New Jersey) also known as Daniel Hugh-Kelly is an American film and television actor. ... Kevin Anderson (born January 13, 1960 in Gurnee, Illinois) is an American actor. ... Donovan in the movie Pipe Dream Martin Donovan (born August 19, 1957 in Reseda, California) is an American stage and movie actor. ...

References

Primary sources

  • Goldzwig, Steven R. and Dionisopoulos, George N., eds. In a Perilous Hour: The Public Address of John F. Kennedy, text and analysis of key speeches (1995)

Secondary sources

  • Brauer, Carl. John F. Kennedy and the Second Reconstruction (1977)
  • Burner, David. John F. Kennedy and a New Generation (1988)
  • Dallek, Robert (2003). An Unfinished Life : John F. Kennedy, 1917 – 1963. Brown, Little. ISBN 0-316-17238-3. 
  • Collier, Peter & Horowitz, David. The Kennedys (1984)
  • Cottrell, John. Assassination! The World Stood Still (1964)
  • Freedman, Lawrence. Kennedy's Wars: Berlin, Cuba, Laos and Vietnam (2000)
  • Fursenko, Aleksandr and Timothy Naftali. One Hell of a Gamble: Khrushchev, Castro and Kennedy, 1958–1964 (1997)
  • Giglio, James. The Presidency of John F. Kennedy (1991), standard scholarly overview of policies
  • Harper, Paul, and Joann P. Krieg eds. John F. Kennedy: The Promise Revisited (1988), scholarly articles on presidency
  • Harris, Seymour E. The Economics of the Political Parties, with Special Attention to Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy (1962)
  • Heath, Jim F. Decade of Disillusionment: The Kennedy–Johnson Years (1976), general survey of decade
  • Hersh, Seymour. The Dark Side of Camelot (1997), highly negative assessment
  • House Select Committee on Assassinations. Final Assassinations Report (1979)
  • Kunz, Diane B. The Diplomacy of the Crucial Decade: American Foreign Relations during the 1960s (1994)
  • O'Brien, Michael. John F. Kennedy: A Biography (2005), the most detailed biography
  • Parmet, Herbert. Jack: The Struggles of John F. Kennedy (1980)
  • Parmet, Herbert. JFK: The Presidency of John F. Kennedy (1983)
  • Piper, Michael Collins. Final Judgment (2004: sixth edition). American Free Press
  • Reeves, Richard. President Kennedy: Profile of Power (1993), balanced assessment of policies
  • Reeves, Thomas. A Question of Character: A Life of John F. Kennedy (1991) hostile assessment of his character flaws
  • Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr. A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House (1965), by a close advisor
  • Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr. Robert Kennedy And His Times (2002)
  • Smith, Jean Edward. Kennedy and Defense: The Formative Years. Air University Review (March–April 1967) [2]
  • Smith, Jean Edward. The Defense of Berlin, Baltimore. Johns Hopkins Press (1963)
  • Smith, Jean Edward. The Wall as Watershed, Arlington, Virginia. Institute for Defense Analysis (1966)
  • Smith, Jean Edward. "The Bay of Pigs: The Unanswered Questions". The Nation, pp. 360–363 (April 13, 1964)
  • Sorensen, Theodore. Kennedy (1966), by a close advisor
  • Walsh, Kenneth T. Air Force One: A History of the Presidents and Their Planes (2003)

Jean Edward Smith is an accomplished educator and biographer having authored such works as Grant, John Marshall: Definer of a Nation, and Presently he is the John Marshall Professor of Political Science at Marshall University. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...

Other sources

  1. ^ American Experience: John F. Kennedy, PBS. Retrieved on February 25, 2007.
  2. ^ http://post369.columbus.oh.us/scouting.d/fact.sheets.d/02-531.html
  3. ^ Why England Slept. Museum Store. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved on 2006-09-19.; Jean Edward Smith, "Kennedy and Defense: The Formative Years", Air University Review, (Mar.–Apr., 1967). http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/aureview/1967/mar-apr/smith.html
  4. ^ http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24144268
  5. ^ http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq60-2.htm
  6. ^ Hove, Duane (2003) American Warriors: Five Presidents in the Pacific Theater of World War II Bard Street Press ISBN 1-57249-307-0
  7. ^ http://www.americanwarriorsfivepresidents.com/
  8. ^ Ted Chamberlain (July 11, 2002) JFK's PT-109 Found, U.S. Navy Confirms (National Geographic News).
  9. ^ Jean Edward Smith, "Kennedy and Defense: The Formative Years", Air University Review, (March–April, 1967), http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/aureview/1967/mar-apr/smith.html
  10. ^ T. Reeves, A Question of Character, p. 140.
  11. ^ Online NewsHour with Senior Correspondent Ray Suarez and physician Jeffrey Kelman, Pres. Kennedy's Health Secrets, The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer transcript, November 18, 2002
  12. ^ O'Brien (2005) 274-79, 394-99.
  13. ^ http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/jfkhoustonministers.html
  14. ^ http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/K/htmlK/kennedy-nixon/kennedy-nixon.htm
  15. ^ Jean Edward Smith, "Kennedy and Defense: The Formative Years", Air University Review, (Mar.–Apr., 1967). http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/aureview/1967/mar-apr/smith.html
  16. ^ http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/jfk-inaug.htm
  17. ^ Schlesinger, Robert Kennedy and His Times
  18. ^ Schlesinger, Robert Kennedy and His Times
  19. ^ Jean Edward Smith, "Bay of Pigs: The Unanswered Questions", The Nation, April 13, 1964
  20. ^ http://www.dontquoteme.com/search/quote_display.jsp?quoteID=5580&gameID=2
  21. ^ LeFeber, "America, Russia and the Cold War", p. 233).
  22. ^ http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB101/vn28.pdf
  23. ^ Joseph Ellis, "Making Vietnam History ", Reviews in American History 28.4 (2000) 625–629
  24. ^ The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara
  25. ^ Jean Edward Smith, The Defense of Berlin, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1963; Jean Edward Smith, The Wall as Watershed, Arlington, Virginia: Institute for Defense Analysis, 1966.
  26. ^ New York Times, March 14, 2003, http://readthese.blogspot.com/2003_12_15_readthese_archive.html
  27. ^ "The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq", Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978; Peter and Marion Sluglett, "Iraq Since 1958" London, I.B. Taurus, 1990
  28. ^ Regarding the CIA's "Health Alteration Committee's work in Iraq, see U.S. Senate's Church Committee Interim Report on Assassination, page 181, Note 1
  29. ^ New York Times March 14, 2003 "A Tyrant 40 Years in the Making", free archived article at: http://readthese.blogspot.com/2003_12_15_readthese_archive.html
  30. ^ http://www.lib.lsu.edu/hum/mlk/srs216.html
  31. ^ http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/johnfkennedycivilrights.htm
  32. ^ http://www.mass.gov/statehouse/statues/jfk_landing.htm
  33. ^ http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/democrac/39.htm
  34. ^ http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5393857
  35. ^ http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=60440
  36. ^ Speech from the JFK Library
  37. ^ http://webcast.rice.edu/speeches/19620912kennedy.html
  38. ^ http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9802E3DB113AF933A15751C1A96E958260
  39. ^ The Personal Papers of Theodore H. White (1915–1986): Series 11. Camelot Documents, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum
  40. ^ "In public life the highest speed recorded is a 327 words per min burst in a speech made in December 1961 by John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917–63), then President of the United States." – The Guinness Book of Records 1988, UK edition, p.18, ISBN 0-85112-868-8.
  41. ^ (1999) The Gallup Poll 1999. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Inc., 248–249. 
  42. ^ Frank Newport. "Mother Teresa Voted by American People as Most Admired Person of the Century: Top 5 list rounded out by Martin Luther King, Jr., John F. Kennedy, Albert Einstein, and Helen Keller", The Gallup Poll, 1999-12-31. Retrieved on 2007-01-05. 
  43. ^ Greatest of the Century. Gallup/CNN/USA Today Poll (1999-12-20 and 1999-12-21). Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  44. ^ "Kennedy Memorials Surge Continuing Across World," Charleston (W.V.) Daily Mail, November 29, 1963
  45. ^ "Plan to Rename West Virginia for JFK is Opposed", The Cumberland (Md.) News, December 7, 1963, p6
  46. ^ Beckley Post-Herald, November 29, 1963, p6
  47. ^ Chomsky, Noam (1993). Rethinking Camelot: JFK, the Vietnam War, and U.S. political culture. London: Verso. ISBN 0860916855. 

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Media

  • Kennedy inauguration footage

    Newsreel footage of the inauguration ceremony and speeches. (18.7 MB, ogg/Theora format).


    Kennedy inauguration footage. ... Kennedy inauguration footage. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ...

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President Kennedy comments on the possible prevention of the Cold War.

The sound file for President Kennedy

The sound file of the message to Turkish President Cemal Gursel and The Turkish People on the Anniversary of the Death of Kemal Ataturk, November 10, 1963 Image File history File links JFK_ColdWarsOrigin. ... Image File history File links JFK_ColdWarsOrigin. ... Cemal Gürsel was a Turkish army officer, political leader and the 4th president of Turkey. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938), Turkish soldier and statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The sound file for Kennedy's speech

The Text of the message to Turkish President Cemal Gursel and The Turkish People on the Anniversary of the Death of Kemal Ataturk, November 10, 1963 Image:JFKennedy1963 text.pdf Image File history File links JFKennedy_November1963. ... Image File history File links JFKennedy_November1963. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links JFKennedy1963_text. ...

External links

Find more information on John F. Kennedy by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
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Political offices
Preceded by
Dwight D. Eisenhower
President of the United States
January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963
Succeeded by
Lyndon B. Johnson
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
James Michael Curley
Member from Massachusetts's 11th
congressional district

1947 – 1953
Succeeded by
Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr.
United States Senate
Preceded by
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
Senator from Massachusetts (Class 1)
January 3, 1953 – December 22, 1960
Served alongside: Leverett Saltonstall
Succeeded by
Benjamin A. Smith
Party political offices
Preceded by
Adlai Stevenson
Democratic Party Presidential nominee
1960
Succeeded by
Lyndon B. Johnson
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Unknown Soldiers of World War II
and the Korean War
Persons who have lain in state or honor
in the United States Capitol rotunda

November 24, 1963 – 25 November, 1963
Succeeded by
Douglas MacArthur
Preceded by
U.S Scientists represented by Linus Pauling, Isidor Rabi, Edward Teller, Joshua Lederberg, Donald A. Glaser, Willard Libby, Robert Woodward, Charles Draper, William Shockley, Emilio Segrè, John Enders, Charles Townes, George Beadle, James Van Allen and Edward Purcell
Time's Man of the Year
1961
Succeeded by
Pope John XXIII


The Irish Catholic political dynasty, John, Robert, and Edward Kennedy The Kennedy family is a prominent Irish-American family in American politics and government descending from the marriage of Joseph P. and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bridget Murphy (1824-December 20, 1888) was the wife of Patrick Kennedy, the mother of Patrick J. Kennedy, paternal grandmother to Joseph P. Kennedy, and a great-grandmother to the assassinated United States President, John F. Kennedy. ... Patrick Joseph Kennedy (January 14, 1858 – May 18, 1929) was an American politician. ... Mary Augusta Kennedy (b. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... John Francis Honey Fitz Fitzgerald (February 11, 1863 – October 2, 1950) was a politician and the maternal grandfather of President John F. Kennedy. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy a proposed guideline for notability (see Wikipedia:Notability (people)). If you are familiar with the subject matter, please expand the article to establish its notability, citing reliable sources. ... Joseph Patrick Joe Kennedy, Sr. ... Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy (July 22, 1890 – January 22, 1995) married into the Kennedy family and became its matriarch in the 20th century, when its members helped shape American politics. ... Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. ... “Jacqueline Bouvier” redirects here. ... Rose Marie Kennedy (September 13, 1918 – January 7, 2005) was the third child and first daughter of Joseph and Rose Kennedy, born a year after the U.S. President John F. Kennedy. ... Kathleen Agnes Cavendish, Marchioness of Hartington (February 20, 1920 – May 13, 1948), born Kathleen Agnes Kennedy, was the second daughter of Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. ... There have been at least two people called William Cavendish who have had the courtesy title of Marquess of Hartington: William John Robert Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington (December 10, 1917–September 10, 1944) son of the 10th Duke and elder brother of the 11th, killed in World War II... Zurab Tsereteli with Eunice Kennedy Shriver (right) Eunice Mary Kennedy Shriver (born July 10, 1921 in Brookline, Massachusetts), USA, is a member of the Kennedy family. ... Robert Sargent Shriver, Jr. ... Patricia Kennedy Lawford For other persons named Patricia Kennedy, see Patricia Kennedy (disambiguation). ... The Rat Pack. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... Ethel Skakel Kennedy (born April 11, 1928 in Chicago, Illinois) is a member of the Kennedy political family by her marriage to Robert F. Kennedy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Stephen Edward Smith (24 September 1927-August 19, 1990), was the husband of Jean Ann Kennedy. ... Edward Moore Ted Kennedy (born February 22, 1932) is the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Joan Bennett Kennedy was born September 9, 1936 in Riverdale, New York as Virginia Joan Bennett. ... Caroline Bouvier Kennedy Schlossberg (born November 27, 1957) is the daughter and only surviving child of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and his wife, Jacqueline. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Jr. ... Carolyn Bessette Kennedy (January 7, 1966 – July 16, 1999), née Carolyn Jeanne Bessette, was the wife of John F. Kennedy, Jr. ... For other persons named Patrick Kennedy, see Patrick Kennedy (disambiguation). ... Robert Sargent Shriver III (born April 28, 1954), nicknamed Bobby Shriver, is a graduate of Yale College, where he became a member of Scroll and Key, and is a Yale Law School graduate and former part-owner of Baltimore Orioles. ... Maria Owings Shriver (pronounced: ) (born November 6, 1955[1] in Chicago, Illinois) is an American journalist and the wife of California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and as such, the current First Lady of California. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German pronunciation (IPA): ) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, actor, and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ... Timothy Perry Shriver, Ph. ... Mark Kennedy Shriver (born February 17, 1964) was a United States Democratic Party politician who served as a member of the Maryland House of Delegates for two consecutive terms, from 1995 to 2003. ... Anthony Paul Kennedy Shriver (born July 20, 1965) is an activist for the mentally retarded. ... Christopher Lawford (born March 29, 1955), a nephew of John F. Kennedy, cousin-in-law of Arnold Schwarzenegger (appearing in two of his films, including Terminator 3), son of Peter Lawford and Patricia Kennedy Lawford, is a Hollywood actor. ... Kathleen Kennedy Townsend Kathleen Hartington Kennedy Townsend (born July 4, 1951) was lieutenant governor of the U.S. state of Maryland from 1995 to 2003. ... Joseph Kennedy, II Joseph Patrick Kennedy II (born September 24, 1952), named after his late uncle Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. ... Robert Francis Kennedy Jr. ... David Anthony Kennedy (June 15, 1955 – April 25, 1984) was born in Washington, D.C. He was the fourth of eleven children of Robert F. Kennedy and Ethel Skakel Kennedy. ... Mary Courtney Kennedy Hill (known as Courtney) was born on September 9, 1956, in Boston. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Andrew Mark Cuomo (born December 6, 1957, in New York City) is the New York State Attorney General, having been elected to that office on November 7, 2006. ... Christopher George Kennedy was born July 4, 1963 in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Matthew Maxwell Taylor Kennedy (born January 11, 1965), also known as Max Kennedy, was born in New York, New York. ... Douglas Harriman Kennedy (born March 24, 1967 in Washington, D.C.) is the 10th child of Robert F. Kennedy and Ethel Skakel Kennedy. ... Rory Elizabeth Katherine Kennedy (born December 12, 1968) is the youngest of the eleven children of Robert F. Kennedy and Ethel Skakel Kennedy. ... William Kennedy Smith (born September 4, 1960) is an American physician whose work focuses on landmines and the rehabilitation of people disabled by them. ... Edward Moore Kennedy Jr. ... Patrick Joseph Kennedy (born July 14, 1967 in Brighton, Massachusetts) is the son of Senator Ted Kennedy and Joan Bennett Kennedy, as well as the nephew of former President John F. Kennedy. ...

Persondata
NAME Kennedy, John Fitzgerald
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Kennedy, Jack
SHORT DESCRIPTION 35th President of the United States
DATE OF BIRTH May 29, 1917
PLACE OF BIRTH Brookline, Massachusetts, United States of America
DATE OF DEATH November 22, 1963
PLACE OF DEATH Dallas, Texas, United States of America

For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Norfolk County Settled 1638 Incorporated 1705 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Town  6. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Dallas” redirects here. ...


 
 

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