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Encyclopedia > John Ericsson
John Ericsson
Born July 31, 1803(1803-07-31)
Långbanshyttan, Värmland
Died March 8, 1889 (aged 85)
New York
Occupation engineer, innovator
This article is about John Ericsson, the Swedish-American inventor. For John Ericson, the actor, see John Ericson.

John Ericsson (July 31, 1803March 8, 1889) was a Swedish inventor and mechanical engineer, as was his brother, Nils Ericson. He was born at Långbanshyttan in Värmland, Sweden, but primarily came to be active in the United States. Image File history File linksMetadata John_Ericsson_2. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... The LÃ¥ngban blast furnace, 2004 LÃ¥ngban is a mining area in Värmland in Sweden. ... â–¶(?) is a historical province or landskap in the west of middle Sweden. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the state. ... John Ericson (sometimes Erickson) (born Sep 25, 1926) in Düsseldorf, Germany is an actor and film and television star. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nils Ericson Statue of Nils Ericson in front of Stockholm Central Station Nils Ericson (31 January 1802 – 8 September 1870) was a Swedish inventor and mechanical engineer, like his brother, John Ericsson. ... The LÃ¥ngban blast furnace, 2004 LÃ¥ngban is a mining area in Värmland in Sweden. ... â–¶(?) is a historical province or landskap in the west of middle Sweden. ...

Contents

Early career

John's and Nils's father Olof Ericsson who worked as the supervisor for a mine in Värmland had lost money in speculations and had to move his family from Värmland to Forsvik in 1810. There he worked as a 'director of blastings' during the excavation of the Swedish Göta Canal. The extraordinary skills of the two brothers were discovered by Baltzar von Platen, the architect of the Göta Canal. The two brothers were dubbed cadets of mechanics of the Swedish Royal Navy and engaged as trainees at the canal enterprise. At the age of fourteen, John was already working independently as a surveyor. His assistant had to carry a footstool for him to reach the instruments during surveying work. This article is about mineral extractions. ... Bergs slussar (locks) at Berg near Linköping, descending to lake Roxen Göta Kanal is a Swedish canal constructed in the early 19th century. ... Baltzar von Platen Count Baltzar Bogislaus von Platen (1766-1829), a Swedish naval officer and statesman, born May 29, 1766 on the island of Rügen to Filip Julius Bernhard von Platen, Field Marshal and the Swedish Governor General of Pomerania, and Regina Juliana von Ysedom. ... Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument. ... Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument. ...


At the age of seventeen he joined the Swedish army in Jämtland, serving in the Jämtland Field Ranger Regiment, as a Second Lieutenant, but was soon promoted to Lieutenant. He was sent to northern Sweden to do surveying, and in his spare time he constructed a heat engine which used the fumes from the fire instead of steam as a propellant. His skill and interest in mechanics made him resign from the army and move to England in 1826. However, his heat engine was no success, as his prototype was designed to use birch wood as fuel and would not work well with coal, which was the main fuel used in England. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the center of Sweden. ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... A heat engine is a physical or theoretical device that converts thermal energy to mechanical output. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ...


Notwithstanding the disappointment, he invented several other mechanisms instead based on steam, improving the heating process by adding fans to increase oxygen supply to the fire bed. In 1829 the steam engine he built with John Braithwaite, "Novelty", joined the Rainhill Trials, a competition arranged by the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, although it was the fastest in the competition, it suffered recurring boiler problems and could not continue to compete, the competition being won by the English engineer George and his son Robert Stephenson with Rocket. For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Contemporary drawing of Novelty Novelty was an early steam locomotive built by John Ericsson and John Braithwaite to take part in the Rainhill Trials. ... The Rainhill Trials were an important competition in the early days of steam locomotive railways, run in October of 1829 near Rainhill (just outside Liverpool). ... Inaugural journey of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway The Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR) was the worlds first intercity passenger railway in which all the trains were timetabled and operated for most of the distance solely by steam locomotives. ... George Stephenson George Stephenson For the British politician, see George Stevenson. ... Statue of Robert Stephenson at Euston Station, London Robert Stephenson FRS (October 16, 1803–October 12, 1859) was an English civil engineer. ... A contemporary drawing of Rocket Rocket as preserved in the Science Museum, London. ...


By helping to quell the celebrated Astor House fire, Ericsson's steam fire engine proved an outstanding technical success, but met with resistance from London's established 'Fire Laddies' and municipal authorities. An engine Ericsson constructed for Sir John Franklin's use failed under the Antarctic conditions for which, out of Franklin's desire to conceal his destination, it had not been designed. At this stage of Ercisson's career the most successful and enduring of his inventions was the steam condenser, which allowed a steamer to produce fresh water for its boilers while at sea. His 'deep sea lead,' a pressure-activated fathometer was another minor, but enduring success.


The commercial failure and development costs of some of the machines devised and built by Ericsson during this period put him into debtors' prison for an interval and at this time he also married 19-year-old Amelia Byam, a marriage that was nothing but a huge disaster and ended in the couple's separation until Amelia's death.


Propeller design

Engraving of Ericsson

He then improved the ship design with two screw-propellers moving in different directions (as opposed to earlier tests with this technology, which used a single screw). However, the Admiralty disapproved of the invention, which led to the fortunate contact with the encouraging American captain Robert Stockton who had Ericsson design a propeller steamer for him and told him to bring his invention to the United States of America, as it would supposedly be more welcomed in that milieu. As a result, Ericsson moved to New York in 1839. Stockton's plan was for Ericsson to oversee the development of a new class of frigate with Stockton using his considerable political connections to grease the wheels. Finally, after the election of President John Tyler, funds were allocated for a new design. Unfortunately they only received funding for a 700-ton sloop instead of a frigate. The sloop eventually became the USS Princeton, named after Stockton's hometown. Scanned from German Meyers Encyclopedia, 1906 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Scanned from German Meyers Encyclopedia, 1906 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... Robert Field Stockton (20 August 1795–7 October 1866) was a United States naval officer, notable in the capture of California during the Mexican-American War, who was from a notable political family also served as a U.S. Senator from New Jersey. ... This article is about the state. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... John Tyler, Jr. ... A sloop-rigged J-24 sailboat A sloop (From Dutch sloep) in sailing, is a vessel with a fore-and-aft rig. ... The first Princeton was the first screw steam warship in the United States Navy. ...


The ship took about three years to complete and was perhaps the most advanced warship of its time. In addition to twin screw propellers, it was originally designed to mount a 12-inch muzzle loading gun on a revolving pedestal. The gun had also been designed by Ericsson and used the hoop construction method to pre-tension the breech, adding to its strength and safely allowing the use of a larger charge. Other innovations on the ship design included a collapsible funnel and an improved recoil system. Look up breech in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The relations between Ericsson and Stockton had grown tense over time and, nearing the completion of the ship, Stockton began working to force Ericsson out of the project. Stockton carefully avoided letting outsiders know that Ericsson was the primary inventor. Stockton attempted to claim as much credit for himself as possible, even designing a second 12-inch gun to be mounted on the Princeton. Unfortunately, not understanding the design of the first gun (originally name "The Orator", renamed by Stockton to "The Oregon"), the second gun was fatally flawed.


When the ship was initially launched it was a tremendous success. On October 20, 1843 Princeton won a speed competition against the paddle-steamer SS Great Western, which had until then been regarded as the fastest steamer afloat. Unfortunately, during a demonstration firing of Stockton's gun the breech broke, killing the US Secretary of State Abel P. Upshur and the Secretary of the Navy Thomas Gilmer, as well as six others. Stockton attempted to deflect blame onto Ericsson with moderate success despite the fact that Ericsson's gun was sound and it was Stockton's gun that had failed. Stockton also refused to pay Ericsson and, using his political connections, Stockton managed to block the Navy from paying him. These actions led to Ericsson's deep hatred of the US Navy. is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The first Princeton was the first screw steam warship in the United States Navy. ... The Great Western in New York Harbor. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Abel P. Upshur Abel Parker Upshur (June 17, 1790–February 28, 1844) was an American lawyer and statesman. ... Thomas Walker Gilmer (April 6, 1802–February 28, 1844) was an American statesman. ...


Hot air engine

Ericsson then proceeded to invent independently the caloric, or hot air engine in the 1820's which used hot air, caloric, in the scientific parlance of the day, instead of steam as a propellant. A similar device had been patented, but not built, by Reverend Robert Stirling, whose technical priority of invention provides the usual term 'Stirling Engine' for the device. Ericsson's engine was not initially successful due to the differences in combustion temperatures between Swedish wood and British coal. In spite of his setbacks, Ericsson was awarded the Rumford Prize of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1862 for his invention. In his later years, the caloric engine would render Ericsson comfortably wealthy, as its boilerless design made it a much safer and more practical means of power for small industry than steam engines. Ericsson's incorporation of a 'regenerator' heat sink for his engine made it tremendously fuel-efficient. Illustration of a low temperature differential (LTD) hot air engine. ... While phlogiston theory was widely accepted, phlogiston was thought to be the matter of heat. ... Reverend Dr Robert Stirling The Reverend Dr Robert Stirling (October 25, 1790 - June 6, 1878) was a Scottish clergyman, and inventor of a highly efficient heat engine. ... Not to be confused with the Rumford Medal In 1796, Benjamin Thompson, known as Count Rumford, gave $5000 separately to the Royal Society of London and the other by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences to give awards every two years for outstanding scientific research on heat or light. ...


Ship design

On September 26, 1854 Ericsson presented Napoleon III of France with drawings of iron-clad armored battle ships with a dome-shaped gun tower, and even though the French emperor praised this invention, he did nothing to bring it to practical application. is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... This article is about a battleship as a type of warship. ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ...


USS Monitor

The Ericsson Mausoleum in Filipstad

Shortly after the American Civil War broke out in 1861, the Confederacy quickly began developing an ironclad based on the hull of the USS Merrimack which had been burned by Federal troops before the naval base at Norfolk - Gosport Navy Yard - had been captured by the recently seceded Commonwealth of Virginia. The United States Congress addressed this issue in August 1861 and recommend that armored ships be built for the Union Navy. Ericsson still had a dislike of the U.S. Navy but he was convinced by Cornelius Scranton Bushnell to work on an ironclad for them. Ericsson presented drawings of the USS Monitor, a totally unique and novel design of armoured ship, which after much controversy was eventually built and finished on March 6, 1862. The ship went from plans to launch in approximately 100 days, an amazing achievement. Image File history File links John_Ericssons_gravkapell_i_Filipstad,_Nordisk_familjebok. ... Image File history File links John_Ericssons_gravkapell_i_Filipstad,_Nordisk_familjebok. ... Filipstad is a Municipality in Värmland County, in west central Sweden. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... USS Merrimack was a screw frigate of the United States Navy, best known as the hulk upon which CSS Virginia was built during the American Civil War and then took part in the Battle of Hampton Roads (often called the Battle of the Monitor and the Merrimack). Merrimack was launched... State nickname: Old Dominion Other U.S. States Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Governor Mark R. Warner Official languages English Area 110,862 km² (35th)  - Land 102,642 km²  - Water 8,220 km² (7. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Cornelius Scranton Bushnell (July 19, 1829 – May 6, 1896) was an American railroad executive and shipbuilder who was instrumental in developing ironclad ships for the Union Navy during the American Civil War. ... USS Monitor was the first ironclad warship commissioned by the United States Navy. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ...


On March 8, the Southern ironclad CSS Virginia was wreaking havoc on the Union Blockading Squadron in Virginia. Then, with the appearance of the Monitor, a battle on March 9, 1862 at Hampton Roads, Virginia, ended in a stalemate between the two iron warships, and saved the Northern fleet from defeat. After this, numerous monitors were built, and are believed to have considerably influenced the victory of the Northern states. Although primitive by modern standards, many basic design elements of the Monitor were copied in future warships by other designers. is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... CSS Virginia was an ironclad warship of the Confederate States Navy during the American Civil War (built using the remains of the scuttled USS Merrimack). ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... This view from space in July 1996 shows portions of each of the Seven Cities of Hampton Roads which generally surround the harbor area of Hampton Roads, which framed by the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel visible to the east (right), the Virginia Peninsula subregion to the north (top), and the... This article is about the U.S. state. ... USS Monitor became the prototype of a form of ship built by several navies for coastal defence in the 1860s and 1870s and known as a monitor. ...


Later, Ericsson worked with torpedo inventions, in particular "The Destroyer", a torpedo boat that could fire a cannon from an underwater port. He also provided some technical support for John Philip Holland in his early submarine experiments. In the book Contributions to the Centennial Exhibition (1877, reprinted 1976) he presented his "sun engines", which collected solar heat for a hot air engine. One of these designs earned Ericsson additional sums after being converted to work as a methane gas engine. The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to launch torpedoes at larger surface ships. ... John Philip Holland (Irish: Seán Ó Maolchalann) (24 February 1841–12 August 1914) was an engineer who developed the first submarine accepted by the U.S. Navy (though not the first American submarine, see American Civil War submarines, and the earlier Nautilus and Turtle) and the first ever Royal Navy... Illustration of a low temperature differential (LTD) hot air engine. ...


Although none of his inventions created any large industries, he is regarded as one of the most influential mechanical engineers ever. After his death in 1889 his remains were brought from the United States to Stockholm by USS Baltimore and to the final resting place at Filipstad, in his Värmland. For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... The fourth USS Baltimore (C-3) (later CM-1) was a United States Navy cruiser. ... Filipstad is a Municipality in Värmland County, in west central Sweden. ... â–¶(?) is a historical province or landskap in the west of middle Sweden. ...


Inventions

Surface condenser is the commonly used term for a shell and tube heat exchanger installed on the exhaust steam from a steam turbine in thermal power stations. ... Illustration of a low temperature differential (LTD) hot air engine. ... USS Monitor was the first ironclad warship commissioned by the United States Navy. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to launch torpedoes at larger surface ships. ... Solar Thermal Collector Dish A solar thermal collector is a solar collector specifically intended to collect heat: that is, to absorb sunlight to provide heat. ... The first Princeton was the first screw steam warship in the United States Navy. ...

Fellowships

Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden. ... The Royal Swedish Academy of War Sciences or , founded in 1739 by King Frederick I, is one of the Royal Academies in Sweden. ... Lund University (Swedish: ), located in Lund in southernmost Sweden, is one of Swedens most prestigious universities[2] and Scandinavias largest institution for education and research[3], frequently ranked among the worlds top 100 universities[4][5]. The university was founded in 1666 and is the second oldest...

Monuments and memorials

John Ericsson in Battery Park, NYC

Monuments in honor of John Ericsson have been erected at: ImageMetadata File history File links Johnericsson. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Johnericsson. ...

For ships named in his honor, see: John Ericsson National Memorial, located at Ohio Drive and Independence Avenue, SW in Washington, D.C., is dedicated to the man who revolutionized naval history with his invention of the screw propeller. ... Facing west across the Mall, with ones back towards the United States Capitol. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... This article is about New York Citys Battery Park. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Royal Dramatic Theatre at Nybroplan Nybroplan, Stockholm, Sweden, is a plaza in Östermalm connecting a number of major streets (Birger Jarlsgatan, Strandvägen, Hamngatan and Nybrogatan). ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Avenyn viewed from the steps of the Gothenburg Museum of Art, with the Poseidon statue in front Kungsportsavenyn, commonly known as just Avenyn, The Avenue, is the main street of Gothenburg, Sweden, and a smaller counterpart of the Champs-Élysées. ... For other uses, see Gothenburg (disambiguation). ... Depending upon the criteria, Fairmount Park in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is the largest municipal public park in the world at over 9,100 acres (37 km²). This figure includes all parkland within the city limits, as all 65 city parks are considered part of Fairmount Park and overseen by the Fairmount... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ...

USS Ericsson has been the name of three ships in the United States Navy. ...

Trivia

In the 1936 film Hearts in Bondage, which takes place partially aboard the Monitor, John Ericsson was portrayed by actor Fritz Leiber, Sr. Fritz Reuter Leiber Sr. ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
John Ericsson
  • John Ericsson National Memorial in Washington
  • John Ericsson Society, New York - Centennial Anniversary year 2007
  • John Ericsson at National Inventors Hall of Fame
  • Monitor National Marine Sanctuary
  • John Ericsson Statue in Gothenburg
  • Some Pioneers in Air Engine Design - John Ericsson
  • John Ericsson's solar engine
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
John Ericsson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1403 words)
John's and Nils's father Olof Ericsson who worked as the supervisor for a mine in Värmland had lost money in speculations and had to move his family from Värmland to Forsvik in 1810.
Ericsson then proceeded to invent the "hot air engine" in 1852 which used hot air instead of steam as a propellant, probably inspired by his earlier attempts of fume heat engines in Sweden.
Ericsson presented drawings of the USS Monitor a totally unique and novel design of armoured ships, which after much controversy was eventually built and finished on March 6, 1862.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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