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Encyclopedia > John Donne
John Donne

John Donne
Born 1572
London, England
Died March 12, 1631
Occupation Poet, Priest
Nationality English
Genres Satire, Love poetry, Elegy, Sermons
Subjects Love, Sexuality, Religion, Death,
Literary movement Metaphysical Poetry
Influences William Shakespeare
Influenced W.B. Yeats, T.S. Eliot, W.H. Auden[1]

John Donne (pronounced like done, IPA: /ˈdʌn/; 1572March 31, 1631) was a Jacobean poet and preacher, representative of the metaphysical poets of the period. His works, notable for their realistic and sensual style, include sonnets, love poetry, religious poems, Latin translations, epigrams, elegies, songs, satires and sermons. His poetry is noted for its vibrancy of language and immediacy of metaphor, compared with that of his contemporaries. Image File history File links JohnDonne. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 5 - Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. ... This article is about work. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... This article is about religious workers. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... For other uses, see Elegy (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), Death (band) or Deceased (band). ... ... The Metaphysical poets were a loose group of British lyric poets of the 17th century, who shared an interest in metaphysical concerns and a common way of investigating them. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... William Butler Yeats, 1933. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot (September 26, 1888 - January 4, 1965), was a major Modernist Anglo-American poet, dramatist, and literary critic. ... Christopher Isherwood and W.H. Auden, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1939 Wystan Hugh Auden (February 21, 1907–September 29, 1973) was an English poet. ... John Donne John Donne (pronounced Dun; 1572 - March 31, 1631) was a major English poet and writer, and perhaps the greatest of the metaphysical poets. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 5 - Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The metaphysical poets were a loose group of British lyric poets of the 17th century, who shared an interest in metaphysical concerns and a common way of investigating them. ... Francesco Petrarca, or Petrarch, one of the best-known early Italian sonnet writers. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... An epigram is a short poem with a clever twist at the end or a concise and witty statement. ... For other uses, see Elegy (disambiguation). ...


Donne came from a loyal Roman Catholic family, and so he experienced persecution until his conversion to the Anglican Church. Despite his great education and poetic talents, he lived in poverty for several years, relying heavily on wealthy friends. In 1615 he became an Anglican priest and in 1621 Dean of St Paul's. Some scholars believe his literary works reflect these trends, with love poetry and satires from his youth, and religious sermons during his later years. Other scholars, such as Helen Gardner, question the validity of dating when most of his poems were published posthumously (1633). The exception to these is his Anniversaries which were published in 1612 and Devotions upon Emergent Occasions published in 1623. His sermons are also dated, sometimes quite specifically, by year and date. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In general, conversion is the transformation of one thing into another. ... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... This article is about religious workers. ... 1621 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Dean of St Pauls is the head of the Chapter of St Pauls Cathedral in London, England and an extremely influential position in the Church of England. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... Satire is a literary technique of writing or art which principally ridicules its subject (individuals, organizations, states) often as an intended means of provoking or preventing change. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ... Helen Gardner (1909-1986) was an English literary critic. ...

Contents

Early life

A portrait of Donne as a young man.
A portrait of Donne as a young man.

John Donne was born in Bread Street, London, England, sometime between January 23 and June 19 in 1572, the third of six children. His father, of Welsh descent, also called John Donne, was a warden of the Ironmongers Company in the City of London and a respected Roman Catholic who avoided unwelcome government attention, out of fear of being persecuted for his Catholicism.[2][3] John Donne Sr. died in 1576, leaving his wife, Elizabeth Heywood, the responsibility of raising their children.[3] Elizabeth Heywood, also from a noted Catholic family, was the daughter of John Heywood, the playwright, and sister of Jasper Heywood, the translator and Jesuit. She was a great-niece of the Catholic martyr Thomas More.[4] This tradition of martyrdom would continue among Donne’s closer relatives, many of whom were executed or exiled for religious reasons.[5] Despite the obvious dangers, Donne’s family arranged for his education by the Jesuits, which gave him a deep knowledge of his religion that equipped him for the ideological religious conflicts of his time.[4] Elizabeth Donne nee Heywood married Dr John Syminges, a wealthy widower with three children, a few months after John Donne Sr's death. The next year, 1577, John Donne's sister Elizabeth died, followed by two more of his sisters, Mary and Katherine, in 1581. Before the future poet was ten years old he had thus experienced the deaths of four of his immediate family. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bread Street is a ward of the City of London and is named from its principal street, which was antiently (anciently) the bread market; for by the records it appears that in 1302[1], the bakers of London were ordered to sell no bread at their houses but in the... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Welsh are, according to Hastings (1997), an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... The Worshipful Company of Ironmongers is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      As a... John Heywood (1497-1580) was an English writer known for his plays, poems, and collection of proverbs. ... Jasper Heywood (1553 - January 9, 1598), son of John Heywood, who translated into English three plays of Seneca, the Troas (1559), the Thyestes (1560) and Hercules Furens (1561). ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... For the Elizabethan play, see Sir Thomas More (play). ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ...

Part of the house where John Donne lived in Pyrford.
Part of the house where John Donne lived in Pyrford.

Donne was a student at Hart Hall, now Hertford College, Oxford, from the age of 11. After three years at Oxford he was admitted to the University of Cambridge, where he studied for another three years. He was unable to obtain a degree from either institution because he refused to take the Oath of Supremacy required of graduates.[4] In 1591, he was accepted as a student at the Thaives Inn legal school, one of the Inns of Court in London. In 1592 he was admitted to Lincoln’s Inn, another of the Inns of Court legal schools.[4] His brother Henry was also a university student prior to his arrest in 1593 for harbouring a Catholic priest. Henry Donne died in prison of bubonic plague, leading John Donne to begin questioning his Catholic faith.[3] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 3312 KB) Suzanne Knights, my photo, Jan 2007 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 3312 KB) Suzanne Knights, my photo, Jan 2007 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Pyrford is a village in Surrey. ... College name Hertford College Named after Elias de Hertford Established 1282 as Hart Hall, 1740 as Hertford College Sister College None Principal Dr John Landers JCR President Samina Bhatia Undergraduates 376 MCR President Stephen Forrest Graduates 224 Homepage Boatclub Hertford College is one of the constituent colleges of the University... College name Hertford College Named after Elias de Hertford Established 1282 Sister College None Principal Dr John Landers JCR President Stephanie Johnston Undergraduates 376 Graduates 224 Homepage Boatclub Hertford College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... The Oath of Supremacy, imposed by the Act of Supremacy 1559, provided for any person taking public or church office in England to swear allegiance to the monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England. ... Combined arms of the four Inns of Court The Inns of Court, in London, are the professional associations to one of which every English barrister (and those judges who were formerly barristers) must belong. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Part of Lincolns Inn drawn by Thomas Shepherd c. ... Combined arms of the four Inns of Court The Inns of Court, in London, are the professional associations to one of which every English barrister (and those judges who were formerly barristers) must belong. ...


During and after his education, Donne spent much of his considerable inheritance on women, literature, pastimes, and travel.[4][2] Although there is no record detailing precisely where he travelled, it is known that he visited the Continent and later fought with the Earl of Essex and Sir Walter Raleigh against the Spanish at Cadiz (1596) and the Azores (1597) and witnessed the loss of the Spanish flagship, the San Felipe, and her crew.[6][3][1] According to Izaak Walton, who wrote a biography of Donne in 1640: For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Earl of Essex is a title that has been held by several families and individuals, of which the best-known and most closely associated with the title was Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex (1566 - 1601). ... Alternatively, Professor Walter Raleigh was a scholar and author circa 1900. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... San Felipe (the Spanish-language name of Saint Philip) is a moderately common toponym in parts of the world where that language is or was spoken: Chile San Felipe, Valparaiso Region. ... Izaak Walton (August 9, 1593 - December 15, 1683) was an English writer, author of The Compleat Angler. ...

... he returned not back into England till he had stayed some years, first in Italy, and then in Spain, where he made many useful observations of those countries, their laws and manner of government, and returned perfect in their languages.

By the age of 25 he was well prepared for the diplomatic career he appeared to be seeking.[6] He was appointed chief secretary to the Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, Sir Thomas Egerton, and was established at Egerton’s London home, York House, Strand close to the Palace of Whitehall, then the most influential social centre in England. During the next four years he fell in love with Egerton's 17 (some say 14 or 16) year old niece, Anne More, and they were secretly married in 1601 against the wishes of both Egerton and her father, George More, Lieutenant of the Tower. This ruined his career and earned him a short stay in Fleet Prison along with the priest who married them and the man who acted as a witness to the wedding. Donne was released when the marriage was proved valid, and soon secured the release of the other two. Walton tells us that when he wrote to his wife to tell her about losing his post, he wrote after his name: John Donne, Anne Donne, Un-done. It was not until 1609 that Donne was reconciled with his father-in-law and received his wife's dowry. The Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England, and later of Great Britain, was formerly an officer of the English Crown charged with physical custody of the Great Seal of England. ... Thomas Egerton may refer to several people, including: Thomas Egerton, 1st Viscount Brackley (1540–1617) Thomas Egerton, 1st Earl of Wilton (1749-1814) Thomas Egerton, 2nd Earl of Wilton (1799-1882) Category: ... York Water Gate and the Adelphi from the River by Moonlight, circa 1850. ... The Palace of Whitehall by Hendrick Danckerts. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Pray remember ye poor debtors: inmates of the Fleet Prison beg passers by for alms. ...


Following his release, Donne had to accept a retired country life in Pyrford, Surrey.[4] Over the next few years he scraped a meagre living as a lawyer, depending on his wife’s cousin Sir Francis Wolly to house him, his wife, and their children. Since Anne Donne had a baby almost every year, this was a very generous gesture. Pyrford is a village in Surrey. ... This article is about the English county. ...


Though he practiced law and worked as an assistant pamphleteer to Thomas Morton, he was in a state of constant financial insecurity, with a growing family to provide for.[4] Before her death, Anne bore him eleven children (including still births). The nine living were named Constance, John, George, Francis, Lucy (after Donne's patroness Lucy, Countess of Bedford, her godmother), Bridget, Mary, Nicholas and Margaret. Francis and Mary died before they were ten. In a state of despair, Donne noted that the death of a child would mean one less mouth to feed, but he could not afford the burial expenses. During this time Donne wrote, but did not publish, Biathanatos, his daring defense of suicide.[5] Thomas Morton (1564 - 1659), was an English churchman, bishop of several dioceses. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


Early poetry

Donne's earliest poems showed a brilliant knowledge of English society coupled with sharp criticism of its problems. His satires dealt with common Elizabethan topics, such as corruption in the legal system, mediocre poets, and pompous courtiers, yet stand out due to their intellectual sophistication and striking imagery. His images of sickness, vomit, manure, and plague assisted in the creation of a strongly satiric world populated by all the fools and knaves of England. His third satire, however, deals with the problem of true religion, a matter of great importance to Donne. Donne argued that it was better carefully to examine one's religious convictions than blindly to follow any established tradition, for none would be saved at the Final Judgment by claiming "A Harry, or a Martin taught [them] this."[5] The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis). ... In Christian eschatology, the Last Judgment or Judgement Day is the ethical-judicial trial, judgment, and punishment/reward of individual humans (assignment to heaven or to hell) by a divine tribunal at the end of time, following the destruction of humans present earthly existence. ...


Donne's early career was also notable for his erotic poetry, especially his elegies, in which he employed unconventional metaphors, such as a flea biting two lovers being equated to marriage.[6] In Elegy XIX, "To His Mistress Going to Bed," he poetically undressed his mistress and compared the act of fondling to the exploration of America. In Elegy XVIII he compared the gap between his lover's breasts to the Hellespont.[6] Donne did not publish these poems, although he did allow them to circulate widely in manuscript form.[6] Elegies are the Morning Musume 2005 shuffle group consisting of Ai Takahashi and Reina Tanaka, along with Melon Kinenbis Ayumi Shibata and Country Musumes Mai Satoda. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Because love-poetry was very fashionable at that time, there are different opinions about whether the passionate love poems Donne wrote are addressed to his wife Anne, but it seems likely. She spent most of her married life either pregnant or nursing, so they evidently had a strong physical relationship. On August 15, 1617, his wife died five days after giving birth to a still-born baby, their eleventh child in sixteen years of marriage. Donne mourned her deeply and never remarried. This was quite unusual for the time, especially as he had a large family to bring up.


Career and later life

Donne was elected as Member of Parliament for the constituency of Brackley in 1602, but this was not a paid position and Donne struggled to provide for his family, relying heavily upon rich friends.[4] The fashion for coterie poetry of the period gave him a means to seek patronage and many of his poems were written for wealthy friends or patrons, especially Sir Robert Drury, who came to be Donne's chief patron in 1610.[6] It was for Sir Robert that Donne wrote the two Anniversaries, An Anatomy of the World (1611) and Of the Progress of the Soul, (1612). While historians are not certain as to the precise reasons for which Donne left the Catholic Church, he was certainly in communication with the King, James I of England, and in 1610 and 1611 he wrote two anti-Catholic polemics: Pseudo-Martyr and Ignatius his Conclave.[4] Although James was pleased with Donne's work, he refused to reinstate him at court and instead urged him to take holy orders.[3] Although Donne was at first reluctant due to feeling unworthy of a clerical career, Donne finally acceded to the King's wishes and was ordained into the Church of England in 1615.[6] A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Map sources for Brackley at grid reference SP5837 Brackley is a town in south Northamptonshire, England. ... Sir Robert Drury, (died March 2, 1536), knight, (knighted by the King, after the battle of Blackheath, June 17, 1497) succeeded as Lord of the Manor of Hawstead, and with him began for the family a long connection with the courts of the Tudor sovereigns, and a succession of capable... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Ignatius His Conclave (Latin: Conclave ignati) is a 1611 work by 16th century metaphysical poet John Donne. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ...

A few months before his death, Donne commissioned this portrait of himself as he expected to appear when he rose from the grave at the Apocalypse.[7] He hung the portrait on his wall as a reminder of the transience of life.

After Anne Donne's death in 1617, her grief-stricken husband would later write the 17th Holy Sonnet with this event in mind.[4] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (954x1262, 1183 KB)John Donne in his shroud. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (954x1262, 1183 KB)John Donne in his shroud. ... Look up Apocalypse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Donne became a Royal Chaplain in late 1615, Reader of Divinity at Lincoln's Inn in 1616, and received a Doctor of Divinity degree from Cambridge in 1618.[4] Later in 1618 Donne became the chaplain for the Viscount of Doncaster, who was on an embassy to the princes of Germany. Donne did not return to England until 1620.[4] In 1621 Donne was made Dean of St Paul's, a leading (and well-paid) position in the Church of England and one he held until his death in 1631. During his period as Dean his daughter Lucy died, aged eighteen. In 1624 he became vicar of St. Dunstan's-in-the-West, and 1625 a Royal Chaplain to Charles I.[4] He earned a reputation as an impressive, eloquent preacher and 160 of his sermons have survived, including the famous Death’s Duel sermon delivered at the Palace of Whitehall before King Charles I in February 1631. He died on March 31, 1631 having never published a poem in his lifetime but having left a body of work fiercely engaged with the emotional and intellectual conflicts of his age. John Donne is buried in St Paul's, where a memorial statue of him was erected (carved from a drawing of him in his shroud), with a Latin epigraph probably composed by himself. Part of Lincolns Inn drawn by Thomas Shepherd c. ... Doctor of Divinity (D.D., Divinitatis Doctor in Latin) is an academic degree. ... The Dean of St Pauls is the head of the Chapter of St Pauls Cathedral in London, England and an extremely influential position in the Church of England. ... In the broadest sense, a vicar (from the Latin vicarius) is anyone acting as a substitute or agent for a superior (compare vicarious). In this sense, the title is comparable to lieutenant. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 5 - Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. ...


Later poetry

His numerous illnesses, financial strain, and the deaths of his friends all contributed to the development of a more somber and pious tone in his later poems.[6] The change can be clearly seen in "An Anatomy of the World," (1611), a poem that Donne wrote in memory of Elizabeth Drury, daughter of his patron, Sir Robert Drury. This poem treats the death of the girl in an extremely morose mood, expanding her death to the Fall of Man and the destruction of the universe.[6] It is interesting to note that Donne wrote his will on St Lucy's Day (December 13th) 1630. His poem 'A Nocturnal upon S. Lucy's Day, being the shortest day' concerns his despair at the death of a loved one. Donne expresses a feeling of utter negation and hopelessness, saying that "I am every dead thing...re-begot Of absence, darkness, death". Although it is probable that this poem was written in 1627 when both his friend Lucy, Countess of Bedford and his daughter Lucy Donne died, it seems fitting that three years later he chose to write his will on the date he had described as "Both the year's, and the day's deep midnight." Sir Robert Drury, (died March 2, 1536), knight, (knighted by the King, after the battle of Blackheath, June 17, 1497) succeeded as Lord of the Manor of Hawstead, and with him began for the family a long connection with the courts of the Tudor sovereigns, and a succession of capable... Adam, Eve, and a female serpent (possibly Lilith) at the entrance to Notre Dame de Paris In Abrahamic religion, the Fall of Man, the Story of the Fall, or simply, the Fall, refers to mans transition from a state of innocence to a state of knowing only dualities such...


This change may also be observed in the religious works that Donne began writing during the same period. His early belief in the value of skepticism now gave way to a firm faith in the traditional teachings of the Bible. Having converted to the Anglican Church, Donne focused his literary career on religious literature. He quickly became noted for his deeply moving sermons and religious poems. The passionate lines of these sermons would come to influence future works of English literature, such as Hemingway’s For Whom the Bell Tolls, which took its title from a passage in Meditation XVII, and Thomas Merton’s No Man is an Island, which took its title from the same source. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... For other uses, see For Whom the Bell Tolls (disambiguation). ... Thomas Merton (January 31, 1915 – December 10, 1968) was one of the most influential Catholic authors of the 20th century. ... No Man is an Island is a book by Thomas Merton. ...


Towards the end of his life Donne wrote works that challenged death, and the fear that it inspired in many men, on the grounds of his belief that those who die are sent to Heaven to live eternally. One example of this challenge is his Holy Sonnet X, from which come the famous lines “Death, be not proud, though some have called thee mighty and dreadful, for thou art not so.” Even as he lay dying on Lent in 1631, he rose from his sickbed and delivered the Death's Duel sermon, which was later described as his own funeral sermon. Death’s Duel portrays life as a steady descent to suffering and death, yet sees hope in salvation and immortality through an embrace of God, Christ and the Resurrection.[8][6][5] For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Cuaresma be merged into this article or section. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Legacy

John Donne is commemorated as a priest in the Calendar of Saints of the Anglican Communion and in the calendar of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America on March 31.[9] The Lutheran Calendar of Saints is a listing which details the primary annual festivals and events that are celebrated liturgically by the Lutheran Church. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. ...


The memorial to John Donne, modeled after the engraving pictured above, was one of the only such memorials to survive the Great Fire of London in 1666 and now appears in St Paul's Cathedral south of the quire. Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London in London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. ...


Style

John Donne is considered a master of the conceit, an extended metaphor that combines two vastly unlike ideas into a single idea, often using imagery.[5] An example of this is his equation of lovers with saints in "The Canonization." Unlike the conceits found in other Elizabethan poetry, most notably Petrarchan conceits, which formed clichéd comparisons between more closely related objects (such as a rose and love), Metaphysical conceits go to a greater depth in comparing two completely unlike objects, although sometimes in the mode of Shakespeare's radical paradoxes and imploded contraries. One of the most famous of Donne's conceits is found in A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning where he compares two lovers who are separated to the two legs of a compass. Look up conceit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Canonization is a poem written by John Donne. ... Petrarchan (also Petrarchanism, Petrarchian) - Refers to a concept of unattainable love first developed by Italian humanist and writer, Francesco Petrarch. ... Metaphysical may refer to: Metaphysics, a branch of philosophy dealing with the ultimate nature of reality; or The Metaphysical poets, a poetic school from seventeenth century England who correspond with baroque period in European literature. ... a compass In drafting, a compass (or pair of compasses) is an instrument]] used by mathematicians and craftsmen in for drawing or inscribing a circle or arc. ...


Donne's works are also witty, employing paradoxes, puns, and subtle yet remarkable analogies. His pieces are often ironic and cynical, especially regarding love and human motives. Common subjects of Donne's poems are love (especially in his early life), death (especially after his wife's death), and religion.[5] Look up paradox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Pun (disambiguation). ...


John Donne's poetry represented a shift from classical forms to more personal poetry.[10] Donne is noted for his poetic metre, which was structured with changing and jagged rhythms that closely resemble casual speech (it was for this that the more classically-minded Ben Jonson commented that "Donne, for not keeping of accent, deserved hanging").[5] Meter (British English spelling: metre) describes the linguistic sound patterns of a verse. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ...


John Donne was famous for his metaphysical poetry in the 17th century. His work suggests a healthy appetite for life and its pleasures, while also expressing deep emotion. He did this through the use of conceits, wit and intellect – as seen in the poems “The Sunne Rising” and “Batter My Heart.” His work has received much criticism over the years, with very judgmental responses about his metaphysical form.[5] Donne's immediate successors in poetry tended to regard his works with ambivalence, while the Neoclassical poets regarded his conceits as abuse of the metaphor. He was revived by Romantic poets such as Coleridge and Browning, though his more recent revival in the early twentieth century by poets such as T.S. Eliot tended to portray him as an anti-Romantic.[11] Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... Robert Browning (May 7, 1812 – December 12, 1889) was a British poet and playwright whose mastery of dramatic verse, especially dramatic monologues, made him one of the foremost Victorian poets. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot (September 26, 1888 - January 4, 1965), was a major Modernist Anglo-American poet, dramatist, and literary critic. ...


Bibliography

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John Donne
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John Donne

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Poetry

  • Poems (1633)
  • Poems on Several Occasions (2001)
  • Love Poems (1905)
  • John Donne: Divine Poems, Sermons, Devotions and Prayers (1990)
  • The Complete English Poems (1991)
  • John Donne's Poetry (1991)
  • John Donne: The Major Works (2000)
  • The Complete Poetry and Selected Prose of John Donne (2001)

Prose

  • Six Sermons (1634)
  • Fifty Sermons (1649)
  • Paradoxes, Problemes, Essayes, Characters (1652)
  • Essayes in Divinity (1651)
  • Sermons Never Before Published (1661)
  • John Donne's 1622 Gunpowder Plot Sermon (1996)
  • Devotions Upon Emergent Occasions and Death's Duel (1999)

Critical works

  • John Carey, John Donne: Life, Mind and Art, (London 1981)
  • A.L. Clements (ed.) John Donne's Poetry (New York and London, 1966)
  • G. Hammond (ed.) The Metaphysical Poets: A Casebook, (London 1986)
  • T.S. Eliot, "The Metaphysical Poets", Selected Essays, (London 1969)
  • George Klawitter, The Enigmatic Narrator: The Voicing of Same-Sex Love in the Poetry of John Donne (Peter Lang, 1994)
  • Arthur F. Marotti, John Donne, Coterie Poet, (Madison: University of Wisconson Press, 1986)
  • H.L. Meakin, John Donne's Articulations of the Feminine, (Oxford, 1999)
  • Joe Nutt, John Donne: The Poems, (New York and London 1999)
  • C.L. Summers and T.L. Pebworth (eds.) The Eagle and the Dove: Reassessing John Donne (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1986)
  • John Stachniewski, The Persecutory Imagination, (Oxford, 1991)
  • Stevie Davies, John Donne (Northcote House, Plymouth, 1994)
  • James Winny, A Preface to Donne (New York, 1981)

Biography

  • John Stubbs, Donne: The Reformed Soul, Viking, 2006. ISBN 0670915106
  • Edward Le Comte, Grace to a Witty Sinner: A Life of Donne, (Walker, 1965)
  • Frank J. Warnke, John Donne, (U of Mass., Amherst 1987)

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Donne, John. Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Accessed 2007-2-19.
  2. ^ a b "Donne, John" by Richard W. Langstaff. Article from Collier's Encyclopedia, Volume 8. Bernard Johnston, general editor. P.F. Colliers Inc., New York: 1988. pages 346-349.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Donne, John." Article in British Authors Before 1800: A Biographical Dictionary. Edited by Stanley Kunitz and Howard Haycraft. The H.W. Wilson Company, New York: 1952. pages 156-158.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Jokinen, Anniina. "The Life of John Donne." Luminarium. 22 June 2006. Accessed 2007-1-22.[1]
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Greenblatt, Stephen. The Norton anthology of English literature Eighth edition. W. W. Norton and Company, 2006. ISBN 0393928284. pages 600–602
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Will and Ariel Durant. The Story of Civilization: Part VII: The Age of Reason Begins. Simon and Schuster: New York, 1961. pages 154-156
  7. ^ Lapham, Lewis. The End of the World. Thomas Dunne Books: New York, 1997. page 98.
  8. ^ Fulfilling the Circle: A Study of John Donne's Thought by Terry G. Sherwood University of Toronto Press, 1984, page 231
  9. ^ (2006) Evangelical Lutheran Worship - Final Draft. Augsburg Fortress Press. 
  10. ^ John Donne. Island of Freedom. Accessed 2007-2-19.
  11. ^ The Best Poems of the English Language. Harold Bloom. HarperCollins Publishers, New York: 2004. pages 138-139.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Persondata
NAME Donne, John
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION English poet
DATE OF BIRTH 1572
PLACE OF BIRTH London, England
DATE OF DEATH March 31, 1631
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
John Donne - LoveToKnow 1911 (2133 words)
JOHN DONNE (1573-1631), English poet and divine of the reign of James I., was born in 1573 in the parish of St Nicholas Olave, in the city of London.
Donne's parents were Catholics, and his mother, Elizabeth Heywood, was directly descended from the sister of the great Sir Thomas More; she was the daughter of John Heywood the epigrammatist.
Donne soon after formed part of the brilliant assemblage which Lucy, countess of Bradford, gathered around her at Twickenham; we possess several of the verse epistles he addressed to this lady.
John Donne - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1034 words)
John Donne (pronounced "Dun"; 1572 – March 31, 1631) was a Jacobean poet and preacher, the representative of the so-called metaphysical poets of the period, though the term itself came after his death.
Donne was regarded as an eloquent preacher, using his style to become known as one of the greatest preachers of the era.
John Donne is considered a master of the conceit, an extended metaphor that combines two vastly unlike ideas into a single idea, often using imagery.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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