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Encyclopedia > John Diefenbaker
Rt. Hon. John George Diefenbaker
John Diefenbaker

In office
21 June 1957 – 21 April 1963
Preceded by Louis St. Laurent
Succeeded by Lester B. Pearson

Born 18 September 1895
Neustadt, Ontario
Died 16 August 1979
Ottawa, Ontario
Political party Progressive Conservative
Religion Evangelical Baptist

John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (18 September 189516 August 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (19571963). The Right Honourable (abbreviated The Rt. ... National Archives of Canada, C-006779 This image is not licensed under the GFDL. It is under a non-commercial-use only licence. ... The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the head of the Government of Canada. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Louis Stephen St. ... The Right Honourable Lester Bowles Mike Pearson, PC, CC, OM, MA (April 23, 1897 – December 27, 1972) was the fourteenth Prime Minister of Canada from April 22, 1963, to April 20, 1968, and also a 1957 Nobel Laureate. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Neustadt, Ontario is a town in the Bruce Peninsula of southwestern Ontario, Canada. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (de facto) Flower White Trillium Tree Eastern White Pine Bird Common Loon Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada-1868-Red. ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Smashing Pumpkins song, see 1979 (song). ... Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant Location of the City of Ottawa in the Province of Ontario Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario Established 1850 as Town of Bytown Incorporated 1855 as City of Ottawa Amalgamated January 1, 2001 Mayor Larry OBrien Local government Ottawa City Council (21 councillors) MPs... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (de facto) Flower White Trillium Tree Eastern White Pine Bird Common Loon Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) (In French: Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... Baptist is a term describing a tradition within Christianity that may also refer to individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. ... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the... Cherie Booth QC wearing her ceremonial robes (including full-bottomed wig) as Queens Counsel at the Bar of England and Wales. ... Bachelor of Arts (B.A., BA or A.B.), from the Latin Artium Baccalaureus is an undergraduate bachelors degree awarded for either a course or a program in the liberal arts or the sciences, or both. ... A Master of Arts is a postgraduate academic masters degree awarded by universities in North America and the United Kingdom (excluding the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge. ... The degree of Bachelor of Laws (or Baccalaureate of Laws) is the principal academic degree in law in most common law countries other than the United States, where it has been replaced by the Juris Doctor degree. ... Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ... Some universities, such as the University of Oxford, award Doctor of Civil Law (DCL) degrees instead of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) degrees. ... The Royal Society of Canada, (French: La Société royale du Canada) The Canadian Academy of the Sciences and Humanities, is the senior national body of distinguished Canadian scientists and scholars. ... The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) is a British multi-disciplinary institution, based in London. ... A Doctor of Letters is a university academic degree. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... (Redirected from 16 August) August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Smashing Pumpkins song, see 1979 (song). ... The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the head of the Government of Canada. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ...


Diefenbaker was known by several nicknames during his career, "J.G.D." and "The Leader" (a monicker that continued to be applied to him even after his leaving the post of prime minister), but most affectionately as "Dief the Chief," (or simply "the Chief").

Contents

Early career

Diefenbaker was born on 18 September 1895, in Neustadt, Ontario, to William Thomas Diefenbaker and Mary Florence Bannerman. His paternal great-grandfather was an immigrant from the Baden region of Germany. The name was originally spelled Diefenbacker but was Anglicized following his grandfather's death. Neustadt, Ontario is a town in the Bruce Peninsula of southwestern Ontario, Canada. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (de facto) Flower White Trillium Tree Eastern White Pine Bird Common Loon Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24... Baden is a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine. ... Anglicized refers to foreign words, often surnames, that are changed from a foreign language into English. ...


Diefenbaker received a BA in 1915, an MA in Political Science and Economics in 1916 and an LL.B in 1919 from the University of Saskatchewan. Diefenbaker married Edna Brower (1899-1951) in 1929. In 1953, after Edna's death, he married his second wife, Olive Palmer (1902-1976), who had a daughter from a previous marriage. Diefenbaker had no children of his own. Diefenbaker House in Prince Albert is open as a museum to the public in the summer season. It is a home where Mr. Diefenbaker lived for ten years with both Edna Brower and Olive Palmer. Bachelor of Arts (B.A., BA or A.B.), from the Latin Artium Baccalaureus is an undergraduate bachelors degree awarded for either a course or a program in the liberal arts or the sciences, or both. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... A Master of Arts is a postgraduate academic masters degree awarded by universities in North America and the United Kingdom (excluding the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge. ... Political science is the field of the social sciences concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor Look up economics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The degree of Bachelor of Laws (or Baccalaureate of Laws) is the principal academic degree in law in most common law countries other than the United States, where it has been replaced by the Juris Doctor degree. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The University of Saskatchewan (U of S) is the largest education institution in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. ... WOOT! ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Olive Freeman Palmer Diefenbaker (1902 - 1976) was the second wife of John George Diefenbaker, the 13th Prime Minister of Canada. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... WOOT! ... Olive Freeman Palmer Diefenbaker (1902 - 1976) was the second wife of John George Diefenbaker, the 13th Prime Minister of Canada. ...

Diefenbaker (right) during World War I.
Diefenbaker (right) during World War I.

John George Diefenbaker served briefly in World War I in the Canadian Army from March 1916 to July 1917, reaching the rank of lieutenant in the 29th Light Horse. He was sent to England for pre-deployment training, but he was never deployed to France, having suffered an injury that had him coughing up blood. Invalided back to Canada, he was discharged there as Medically Unfit for Service, due to heart irregularities. Image File history File links John_Diefenbaker_France_1916. ... Image File history File links John_Diefenbaker_France_1916. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ...


He was called to the Saskatchewan Bar in 1919 and became a criminal defence lawyer. Diefenbaker was famous for representing poorer clients, and he would seldom call defense witnesses. At one time, in the Supreme Court of British Columbia, he fell on the floor, clutching his throat, to show how a murder had been committed. Diefenbaker represented clients in 20 murder cases, and lost only two. Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples strength) Official languages English Flower Western Red Lily Tree Paper Birch Bird Sharp-tailed Grouse Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 14 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of... English barrister 16th century painting of a civil law notary, by Flemish painter Quentin Massys. ... Supreme Court of British Columbia is the superior court for the Canadian province of British Columbia. ...


In 1920, Diefenbaker was elected as an alderman for the municipal council of the Town of Wakaw, Saskatchewan. He was unsuccessful in his re-election bid of 1923. His career as a lawyer was more successful than his political career at this time, and he was appointed King's Counsel in 1929. An alderman is a member of a municipal legislative body in a town or city with many jurisdictions. ... Wakaw is a small town northeast of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan and south of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. ... Queens Counsel (postnominal QC), during the reign of a male Sovereign known as Kings Counsel (KC), are barristers or, in Scotland, advocates appointed by Letters patent to be one of Her Majestys Counsel learned in the law. They do not constitute a separate order or degree of... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Diefenbaker's early political career was marked by a singular lack of achievement after his first political breakthrough; he ran unsuccessfully in five elections at the municipal, provincial and federal levels in Saskatchewan before finally getting elected again.

Diefenbaker in his early Parliamentary career.
Diefenbaker in his early Parliamentary career.

Diefenbaker served as the leader of the Saskatchewan Conservative Party from 1936-1938, having taken over the party after it was wiped out in the 1934 provincial election that brought down the Tory government of Premier James Thomas Milton Anderson. Image File history File links DiefYoung. ... Image File history File links DiefYoung. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Saskatchewan is a right-of-center political party in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Eighth Provincial General Election in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan was held on June 19, 1934. ... James Thomas Milton Anderson (July 23, 1878-December 29, 1946) was Saskatchewans fifth Premier and the first Conservative to hold the office. ...


Diefenbaker was first elected to the federal Parliament in the 1940 federal election. He was one of only a handful of western Conservative MPs elected under the party's abortive National Government platform. He served as one of the few inspiring opposition parliamentarians during the party's long years in the political wilderness between 1935 and 1957. In 1952, he became Canada's delegate to the United Nations. The Parliament of Canada (French: Parlement du Canada) is Canadas legislative branch, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1940 election The Canadian federal election of 1940 was the 19th general election in Canadian history. ... National governments or national unity governments are broad coalition governments consisting of all parties (or all major parties) in the legislature and are often formed during times of war or national emergency. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


Diefenbaker was a frequent leadership contestant in Progressive Conservative leadership conventions. In 1942, Diefenbaker lost to Manitoba Premier John Bracken. In 1948, Diefenbaker lost to Ontario Premier George Drew. Diefenbaker was not a favourite of the party establishment, who thought of him as a loose cannon and unfriendly to business. Diefenbaker would finally win in 1956. While the contentious debate surrounding the Pipeline Debate and other signs of arrogance appeared in the Liberal government, few gave Diefenbaker any hope of winning an election against the popular Louis St. Laurent. The first Progressive Conservative Party of Canada leadership convention was held in 1927, when the party was called the Conservative Party. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The Honourable Professor John Bracken, PC (June 22, 1883-March 18, 1969) was an agronomist, Premier of Manitoba (1922-1943) and leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (1942-1948). ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Colonel The Honourable George Alexander Drew, PC , CC , QC (May 7, 1894 - January 4, 1973) was a Canadian conservative politician who founded a Progressive Conservative dynasty in Ontario that lasted 42 years. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pipeline Debate (May 8 to June 6, 1956) was one of the pivotal moments in the history of the Parliament of Canada. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party positioned at the centre of the political spectrum, combining a progressive social policy with moderate economics. ... Louis Stephen St. ...


Prime Minister of Canada

A number of factors gravitated against the Liberal Party remaining in power, ranging from controversial decisions involving the Pipeline Debate, the "time for a change" antipathy of the public, matched with Diefenbaker's fiery oratory and his populist message, propelled the Conservatives to victory in the 1957 election, with a minority government. Soon afterwards, Lester Pearson took over the Liberal leadership, and in his first speech, he asked Diefenbaker to hand power back to the Liberals because of the recent economic decline. In a scathing two-and-a-half hour response, Diefenbaker revealed a formerly classified Liberal file that predicted the economic malaise. The "arrogant" label that had been on the Liberals in 1957 stayed. Image File history File links John_Diefenbaker_Inuvik_21_July_1961_crop. ... Image File history File links John_Diefenbaker_Inuvik_21_July_1961_crop. ... Inuvik is a small town in the Northwest Territories of Canada. ... Motto: none Official languages Chipewyan, Cree, English, French, Gwich’in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey, Tåîchô [1] Flower Mountain avens Tree Tamarack Bird Gyr Falcon Capital Yellowknife Largest city Yellowknife Commissioner Tony Whitford Premier Joe Handley (Consensus government (no party affiliations)) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats... The Canadian parliament after the 1957 election The Canadian federal election of 1957 was held June 10, 1957, to elect members of the 23rd Parliament of the Canadian House of Commons. ... A minority government or a minority cabinet is a cabinet of a parliamentary system formed when no political party has won a majority of seats in the parliament, typically by the party that does have a plurality. ... The Right Honourable Lester Bowles Mike Pearson (April 23, 1897 - December 27, 1972) was the fourteenth Prime Minister of Canada from April 22, 1963, to April 20, 1968, and also a 1957 Nobel Laureate. ...


Diefenbaker returned to the polls in the 1958 election. Running on a campaign of building a "Canada of the North", increasing subsidies and development in the northern parts of the country, and on increasing social programs, Diefenbaker's message hit harder in English Canada. The biggest surprise was in Quebec, where the Union Nationale political machine was put into use for the Tories. On election night, Diefenbaker won the largest majority government in Canadian history. The 24th general election was held just nine months after the 23rd and transformed Prime Minister John Diefenbakers minority into the largest ever majority government in Canadian history. ... The Union Nationale was a political party in Quebec, Canada, that identified with conservative French-Canadian nationalism. ... In the Westminster System, a majority government is one in which the government enjoys an absolute majority of seats in the legislature or Parliament. ...


However, as Peter C. Newman would write: "[He] came to the toughest job in the country without having worked for anyone but himself, without ever having hired or fired anyone, and without ever having administered anything more complicated than a walk-up law office." His first Commonwealth leaders meeting went over well, until he made an offer to the United Kingdom to bring 15% of Canada's trade with the United States to the UK. Since the proposal violated many international agreements, the UK instead proposed a Free Trade Agreement. Diefenbaker's Cabinet strongly recommended against it, and the 15% figure never came up again. Relations considerably cooled between the UK and Canada. Peter Charles Newman (born May 10, 1929 in Vienna, Austria) is a Canadian journalist who emigrated from Czechoslovakia to Canada in 1940 as a Jewish refugee. ...

U.S. President John Kennedy (left) with Georges Vanier and Diefenbaker at Rideau Hall.
U.S. President John Kennedy (left) with Georges Vanier and Diefenbaker at Rideau Hall.

Diefenbaker soon ran into economic problems. With a recession already looming by the time he came in, increased deficits hurt the economic picture more. Diefenbaker blamed the tight money policies of the Liberals. At the same time, the Governor of the Bank of Canada, James Coyne heavily criticised the government's financial record, saying that the country was relying too much on exports to the United States and that a "tightening" was needed. The Government rejected his advice and tried to get rid of Coyne for playing politics with his position. While the House of Commons passed a bill declaring his position vacant, the Liberal-controlled Canadian Senate rejected it. Nevertheless, Coyne resigned the next day. Having the Governor of the Bank of Canada criticising the Government gave a feeling of chaos to international investors, which prompted many to withdraw capital from Canada. The ensuing crunch heavily limited economic growth. Image File history File links John_Diefenbaker_with_JFK_1961_crop. ... Image File history File links John_Diefenbaker_with_JFK_1961_crop. ... Georges-Philéas Vanier (April 23, 1888 - March 5, 1967) was a Canadian solider and diplomat who was Governor General of Canada from 1959 until his death. ... Rideau Hall is the official residence of the Governor General of Canada, and is the place of residence of the Monarch of Canada when visiting Ottawa. ... The Bank of Canada Building in Ottawa The Bank of Canada is Canadas central bank. ... James Coyne James Coyne was well known for his devotion to liberate gay love. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ...


Diefenbaker made what some believe to have been one of the most controversial policy decisions of the last century in Canada when his government cancelled the development and manufacture of the Avro CF-105 Arrow. The Arrow was a Mach 2 supersonic jet interceptor built by A.V. Roe Canada (Avro Canada), in Malton, Ontario to defend Canada in the event of a Soviet nuclear bomber attack from the north. During its production, the Canadian government purchased American-made Bomarc missiles as a means of bomber defense, leading to the cabinet decision to cancel the Avro Arrow and its Orenda Iroquois engine on 20 February 1959, forever known as "Black Friday" in Canadian industry. After cancelling the technologically advanced interceptor project, he obtained CF-101 Voodoo interceptors in 1961 from the United States. The Avro CF-105 Arrow was a delta-wing interceptor aircraft, designed and built by Avro Canada in Malton, Ontario, Canada, as the culmination of a design study that began in 1953. ... An F/A-18 Hornet breaking the sound barrier. ... Avro Aircraft Canada was a Canadian aircraft manufacturing company, known for their innovative designs, including the famed Avro Arrow fighter. ... One of the busiest intersections in Malton. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) Translation: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (and largest city) Moscow Official languages None; Russian de facto Government Socialist Republic/Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev... The Bomarc Missile Program was a joint United States of America-Canada effort during 1957 to 1971 to protect against the USSR bomber threat. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Two 409 Squadron CF-101s in the mountains of British Columbia The CF-101 Voodoo was an all-weather interceptor aircraft operated by the Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Forces between 1961 and 1984. ...


Dwight Eisenhower was president of the United States when Diefenbaker became prime minister and the two fostered a strong friendship. His hostility to the Kennedy administration would be pronounced. During the Cuban Missile Crisis, Diefenbaker was annoyed at the failure of President John F. Kennedy to consult with him ahead of time, which led Diefenbaker to be skeptical of the seriousness of the situation. This caused him to fail to act quickly on an American request to put Canadian forces on Defcon 3 status. The Minister of National Defence, Douglas Harkness, defied Diefenbaker by putting the military on high alert two days prior to Cabinet's decision to authorize the move. Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... USAF spy photo of one of the suspected launch sites The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States regarding the Soviet deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba. ... For other persons named John Kennedy, see John Kennedy (disambiguation). ... Defense Condition is a measure of the activation and readiness level of the United States armed forces. ... The Minister of National Defence (French: Ministre de la Défense nationale) is the Canadian politician within the Cabinet of Canada responsible for the Department of National Defence which oversees the Canadian Forces. ... The Honourable Douglas Scott Harkness, PC , CC , GM , ED , BA , DUC (March 29, 1903 - May 2, 1999), was a Canadian politician, teacher, farmer and former Lieutenant Colonel in Royal Canadian Artillery. ...

Diefenbaker with the Canadian Bill of Rights.
Diefenbaker with the Canadian Bill of Rights.

Diefenbaker was also instrumental in bringing in the Canadian Bill of Rights in 1960. This was the first attempt to articulate the basic rights of Canadian citizens in law. Because the Bill of Rights was an ordinary federal statute and not a part of the Canadian Constitution, it did not codify such rights in an enforceable way, since it could not be used by courts to nullify federal or provincial laws that contradicted it (An official would comment, "It's great, unless you live in one of the provinces."). Thus, its effect on the decisions of the courts, unlike the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms of 1982, was limited. Image File history File links John_Diefenbaker_holding_Canadian_Bill_of_Rights. ... Image File history File links John_Diefenbaker_holding_Canadian_Bill_of_Rights. ... This article is about the Canadian Bill of Rights, which should not be confused with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms or the Canadian Human Rights Act. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The lack of economic progress and the lack of an active UN political machine in Quebec helped the Progressive Conservatives lose their majority in the 1962 election. Immediately afterward, Diefenbaker's minority government began a program to reduce government spending, and raise tariffs and bank interest rates. He then reorganized his Cabinet, moving Finance Minister Donald Fleming into the Minister of Justice portfolio, replacing him with George C. Nowlan. The Canadian parliament after the 1962 election The Canadian federal election of 1962 was held on June 18, 1962 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Donald Methuen Fleming, PC (May 23, 1905-December 31, 1987) was a Canadian parliamentarian. ... The Justice Minister is a cabinet position in a government. ... George Nowlan George Clyde Nowlan (14 September 1898 – 31 May 1965) was a Canadian member of Parliament and Cabinet Minister. ...


In September 1962, Diefenbaker attended the Conference of Commonwealth Prime Ministers in London, where he attacked Britain's prospective entry into the European Economic Community, stating it would be at the expense of Canada's increased economic dependence on the United States. He also criticized South Africa's policy of apartheid, and, at the 1961 Conference of Commonwealth Prime Ministers, successfully opposed its readmission into the Commonwealth after it declared itself a republic. 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) is a biennial summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth nations. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) is a biennial summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth nations. ... For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ...


Diefenbaker's final term of office saw the escalation of a nuclear arms question brought on by the imported Bomarc missiles and the Voodoo aircraft that had replaced the Avro Arrow. Diefenbaker rejected American nuclear warheads being put in missiles, warplanes and ground-based tactical rockets. The already strained relationship in government deteriorated faster, and a Cabinet split further undermined the government. Social Credit and the CCF withdrew their support of the government, prompting its fall over the nuclear arms question. Diefenbaker used Congressional testimony about the Bomarc missiles to accuse Pearson of making Canada a target for a nuclear war, and accused American media outlets and the US government of interfering with the election. Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate Dick Cheney, R, since January 20, 2001 Speaker of the House Dennis Hastert, R, since January 6, 1999 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of January 4, 2005 elections) Democratic Party Republican Party...


Party leader and Member of Parliament

Diefenbaker in 1964.
Diefenbaker in 1964.

Diefenbaker lost the 1963 federal election to Lester Pearson and the Liberals. Nevertheless he continued as PC party leader after the 1963 election, serving as Leader of the Opposition. In the 1964 Great Flag Debate, he led the opposition to the Maple Leaf flag, which he castigated as the "Pearson Pennant", arguing for the retention of the Canadian Red Ensign. Image File history File linksMetadata John_Diefenbaker_at_the_Flag_Debate. ... Image File history File linksMetadata John_Diefenbaker_at_the_Flag_Debate. ... The Canadian federal election of 1963 resulted in the defeat of the minority Progressive Conservative government of John George Diefenbaker. ... The Right Honourable Lester Bowles Mike Pearson (April 23, 1897 - December 27, 1972) was the fourteenth Prime Minister of Canada from April 22, 1963, to April 20, 1968, and also a 1957 Nobel Laureate. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party positioned at the centre of the political spectrum, combining a progressive social policy with moderate economics. ... The Leader of the Opposition (French: Chef de lOpposition) in Canada is the Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... 1957 version of the Canadian Red Ensign that had evolved as the de facto national flag until 1965. ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 (1965-Present) The National Flag of Canada (), popularly known as the Maple Leaf Flag (French: lUnifolié the one-leaved), is a base red flag with a white square in its centre, featuring a red stylized 11-pointed maple leaf. ... The Canadian Red Ensign, this design was used from 1957 until 1965. ...


There were early calls for Diefenbaker's retirement, especially from the Bay Street wing of the party. At the February, 1964 PC Convention, a secret ballot on his leadership was held. Diefenbaker held on by a very narrow margin. Diefenbaker would be introduced to the convention by Joe Clark, president of the Student Federation whose delegates were seen as the vote that tipped the balance. Clark described when he first saw Diefenbaker in High River, Alberta, and Diefenbaker's bravery at standing for the vote. Diefenbaker emotionally accepted the result, and said, "If there were no other rewards in public life than to have done what was stated by the brilliant Joe Clark, I would have been rewarded more than I could hope for." Torontos Bay Street in the heart of the financial district. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... High River is a town in southwestern Alberta, Canada with a population of 9,523 (2004). ...


To the surprise of many, he ran an aggressive, nationalistic campaign in the 1965 election, which Pearson had called in the expectation that the Liberals would win a majority. Growing dissatisfaction with his leadership, however, led to open dissension within the party, headed by Party president Dalton Camp. There was a fear within the party that even though ditching Diefenbaker would probably improve Eastern results, they might lose the Western seats Diefenbaker brought to the party. In the Canadian federal election of 1965, the Liberal Party of Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson was re-elected with a larger number of seats in the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Honourable Dalton Kingsley Camp, PC, OC, M.Sc, LL.D (September 11, 1920 – March 18, 2002) was a Canadian journalist, politician, political strategist and commentator and supporter of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ...


Anti-Diefenbaker efforts by Camp and others resulted in a leadership review, a measure for which there was no provision in the party's constitution. The Progressive Conservatives called a leadership convention in 1967. Although Diefenbaker stood as a candidate for the leadership, against the proposed Deux Nations policy, he was defeated by Nova Scotia Premier Robert Stanfield. His exit was considered the most emotional moment of the convention. In Canadian politics, a leadership convention is held by a political party when the party needs to choose a leader due to a vacancy or a challenge to the incumbent leader. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Official languages none (English, French, Gaelic) Flower Mayflower Tree Red Spruce Bird Osprey Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 11 10 Area Total... In Canada, a Premier is the head of government of a province. ... Robert Lorne Stanfield, PC, QC (April 11, 1914–December 16, 2003) was Premier of Nova Scotia and leader of the federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ...


Diefenbaker retained his parliamentary seat for the next twelve years until his death, while also serving as the chancellor at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon beginning in 1969. He was a favourite of the Press Gallery, and would frequently make snide remarks about other Conservatives. This reached a head in 1979, when he joked that Canada had celebrated the International Year of the Child by electing Joe Clark, who as a student had defended Diefenbaker. The University of Saskatchewan (U of S) is the largest education institution in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. ... Saskatoon is a city located in central Saskatchewan, Canada, on the South Saskatchewan River. ... The press gallery is the part of a parliament where journalists are allowed to sit or gather to observe and then report speeches and events. ... For the Smashing Pumpkins song, see 1979 (song). ... The year 1979 was proclaimed the International Year of the Child by the United Nations. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ...


Death

John Diefenbaker's casket, 1979
John Diefenbaker's casket, 1979

Diefenbaker died on 16 August 1979 in Ottawa, Ontario. According to his funeral plans his body was shipped from Ottawa to Saskatoon by train for burial. Thousands of Canadians lined the tracks and more watched on television to bid farewell to "Dief" before he was buried beside the Right Honourable John G. Diefenbaker Centre at the University of Saskatchewan. In his will, he had a special ceremony in place, so that the Maple Leaf flag was draped on his casket first, and then the Red Ensign that he defended so intensely in parliament was laid over it. His state funeral was carried out as he had planned years earlier. Image File history File links Dieffuneral. ... Image File history File links Dieffuneral. ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Smashing Pumpkins song, see 1979 (song). ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... The National Flag of Canada, popularly known as the Maple Leaf and lUnifolié (French for the one-leaved), is a base red flag with a white square in its centre featuring a stylized, 11-pointed, red maple leaf. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Interestingly, the funeral was presided over by the short-lived government of Prime Minister Joe Clark, a fellow Tory. During the burial services, Clark took part in eulogizing Diefenbaker, only days after Diefenbaker had delivered insults against Clark to the press. Years later, in a 4 February 2006 Globe and Mail newspaper article, as part of an ongoing series on Canadian prime ministers, Clark delivered a frank but heart-felt review of the Diefenbaker legacy, calling him a people's "advocate" [1]. Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Globe and Mail is a large Canadian English language national newspaper based in Toronto. ...


Legacy

Diefenbaker in the Canadian House of Commons.
Diefenbaker in the Canadian House of Commons.

Diefenbaker's legacy remains a controversial one. During his tenure, economically, the country fared poorly, but this could be ascribed to conditions elsewhere. However, his love for the "common man" and his near-universal stand for human rights seem to shed a more positive light: for example, he was one of the few dissenters in the internment of Japanese Canadians, led the fight against South Africa being in the Commonwealth, and extended the right to vote to status Indians. Image File history File links Commons. ... Image File history File links Commons. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... A Japanese Canadian is a Canadian of Japanese ancestry. ...


Diefenbaker's populism raised the popularity of the Progressive Conservatives in the Western provinces and the West would be a PC and Conservative mainstay for the next half-century.


Between 1993 and 2003, Diefenbaker was frequently touted as a "spiritual father" of the values espoused by the then-beleaguered PC Party and its membership. In his 2000 book, In Defence of Civility, Tory strategist and former PC leadership candidate, Senator Hugh Segal notes that Diefenbaker "defined Progressive Conservatism as the ultimate balance for free enterprise, profit-making and economic growth on the one hand, and social justice and respect for the interests of the common man on the other." Many Red Tory PCs, such as David Orchard and Heward Grafftey, who were not enamoured of the more recent PC Prime Ministerships of Joe Clark, Brian Mulroney and Kim Campbell, frequently referenced their own political traditions, values and stances to the Diefenbaker era. Ironically, in his memoirs, Diefenbaker stated that he preferred the name "Conservative" to "Progressive Conservative." The Honourable Hugh Segal, CM, LLD (born October 13, 1950) is a Canadian senator and political strategist. ... The Red Tory Tradition: Ancient Roots-New Routes, by Ron Dart Red Tory is a term given to a political philosophy, tradition, and disposition in Canada. ... David Orchard (born June 28, 1950, in Borden, Saskatchewan) is a Canadian political figure and a member of the Liberal Party of Canada. ... The Honourable William Heward Grafftey, PC , BCL , BA (born August 5, 1928) is a Canadian politician and businessman. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... Martin Brian Mulroney, PC, CC, GOQ, LLD (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Avril Phaedra Douglas Campbell, PC, QC, LL.B, LL.D (h. ...


Supreme Court appointments

Diefenbaker recommended to the Governor General that the following be appointed as Justice to the Supreme Court of Canada: The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the representative of the Canadian Monarch. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ...

Ronald Martland (1909 - November 20, 1997) was a Canadian Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada. ... (Redirected from 15 January) January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... (Redirected from 10 February) February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Honourable Mr. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... The Honourable Roland Almon Ritchie (June 19, 1910 - June 5, 1988) was a Canadian lawyer and Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Emmett Matthew Hall (November 9, 1898 - November 11, 1995) was a Canadian jurist and civil libertarian and is considered, with Tommy Douglas, one of the fathers of the Canadian system of Medicare. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ...

Honours

Diefenbaker on the cover of Time
Diefenbaker on the cover of Time
  • Lake Diefenbaker is named for the late prime minister. It is a reservoir on the South Saskatchewan River created following the construction of the Gardiner Dam.
  • Saskatoon's airport is named John G. Diefenbaker International Airport in his honour. A display depicting his life and career is found in the departure area of the terminal.
  • The Right Honourable John G. Diefenbaker Centre for the Study of Canada (popularly known as the Diefenbaker Canada Centre) on the University of Saskatchewan is a museum and archives dedicated to the late Mr. Diefenbaker. It contains virtually all of Mr. Diefenbaker's chattels, which he willed to the University. Included are his personal effects, personal, legal and Prime Ministerial Papers, photographs, and audio-visual material.
  • Saskatoon has also named a major city park and a street after Diefenbaker.
  • The southeast corner of 21st Street E. and 1st Ave. S. in downtown Saskatoon was dedicated as Diefenbaker Corner by the City of Saskatoon in the 1970s. According to legend, it was on this spot where Diefenbaker, selling newspapers as a boy, met Prime Minister Wilfred Laurier during Laurier's visit to the city. A statue commemorating this event was installed at the site.
  • John Diefenbaker Secondary SchoolHigh school is in Hanover, Ontario.
  • John George Diefenbaker Public School on 70 Dean Park Road in Scarborough, Ontario, Canada is named after the former prime mininster.
  • John Diefenbaker Public School in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan is also named after the former prime minister.
  • John G. Diefenbaker Sr. High School in northwest Calgary is named in honour of John G. Diefenbaker.

Image File history File links Diefenbaker_Time_Magazine. ... Image File history File links Diefenbaker_Time_Magazine. ... Lake Diefenbaker is a man-made lake located in Southern Saskatchewan, Canada. ... The Ashokan Reservoir, located in Ulster County, New York, USA. It is one of 19 that supplies New York City with drinking water. ... The South Saskatchewan River flows eastward from the confluence of the Bow and Oldman Rivers near Grassy Lake, Alberta. ... The Gardiner Dam on the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatchewan is the largest earth fill dam in Canada. ... Saskatoon is a city located in central Saskatchewan, Canada, on the South Saskatchewan River. ... The University of Saskatchewan (U of S) is the largest education institution in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. ... Laurier re-directs here. ...

Trivia

In 1967, the boyhood home of Diefenbaker was moved from Borden, Saskatchewan, to Wascana Park in Regina, Saskatchewan. In 2001, the Wascana Centre Authority shut the site to visitors and, in 2004, it was moved to the Sukanen Ship and Pioneer Village Museum, 13 km south of Moose Jaw. 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples strength) Official languages English Flower Western Red Lily Tree Paper Birch Bird Sharp-tailed Grouse Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 14 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of... Nickname: The Queen City Motto: Floreat Regina (Let Regina Flourish) Location of Regina in the SE quadrant of Saskatchewan Coordinates: Country Canada Province Saskatchewan District Assiniboia Established 1882  - City Mayor Pat Fiacco  - Governing body Regina City Council  - MPs Dave Batters Ralph Goodale Tom Lukiwski Andrew Scheer  - MLAs Joanne Crofford Doreen...


With the exception of recent Prime Ministers: Kim Campbell, Jean Chrétien and Paul Martin, Diefenbaker is the only former Prime Minister alive at the time of the creation of the Order of Canada not to receive the honour. Sitting politicians are not permitted to be given the order while in office and since Diefenbaker did not leave the House of Commons before his death, he never became eligible. Avril Phaedra Douglas Campbell, PC, QC, LL.B, LL.D (h. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, LLL, LLD (born January 11, 1934), served as the twentieth Prime Minister of Canada from November 4, 1993 to December 12, 2003. ... For other uses, see Paul Martin (disambiguation). ... Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ...


A number of fallout shelters constructed for the Canadian Government were nicknamed "Diefenbunkers" after Diefenbaker, a nickname which persists to this day in describing the many government fallout shelters. A sign pointing to an old fallout shelter in New York City. ... A Diefenbunker is the nickname Canadian federal opposition politicians of the early 1960s coined for seven nuclear fallout shelters built across the country at the height of the Cold War during the infancy of the ICBM threat. ...


The television show Due South had a wolf character who was named "Diefenbaker," after the Prime Minister. The star of that show, Paul Gross, would eventually play Diefenbaker himself in the Tommy Douglas miniseries Prairie Giant. Due South is an award-winning Canadian television police drama created by Paul Haggis and produced by Alliance Communications (now part of Alliance Atlantis), first airing in 1994. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... Diefenbaker is a fictional character in the television series Due South. ... Paul Michael Gross (born 30 April 1959), is a Canadian actor, producer, director, singer and writer born in Calgary, Alberta. ... Thomas Clement Douglas, PC, CC, SOM, MA, LL.D (hc) (October 20, 1904 – February 24, 1986) was a Scottish-born Baptist minister who became a prominent Canadian social democratic politician. ... Prairie Giant: The Tommy Douglas Story is a CBC Television miniseries first aired in two consecutive parts on March 12 and March 13, 2006. ...


A planet in the BattleTech Wargame universe was also named after the late Prime Minister. 20 Year Anniversary of BattleTech logo. ... Wargaming is the play of simulated military operations in the form of games known as wargames. ...


In Israel, a hill trail connecting battle sites of the 1948 Independence War, is named after Diefenbaker, who was considered a strong supporter of the fledgling Jewish state. The trail connects Sha'ar HaGay on the Jerusalem - Tel Aviv road to a war memorial dedicated to Israeli soldiers who fell during fighting to break the siege of Jerusalem.


Diefenbaker was a Freemason[2] and the only Canadian Prime Minister to be or have been a Shriner. American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... A member of the Syrian Corvettes group of Shriners participates in a Memorial Day parade The Shriners, or Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, are an Order appendant to Freemasonry. ...


One of Diefenbaker's greatest heroes was John A. Macdonald, Canada's first prime minister. Because of his admiration and respect for Macdonald, Diefenbaker collected anything belonging to the former prime minister, including a four poster bed and a sofa, both of which are displayed in Diefenbaker House in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, KCMG, PC, QC, DCL, LL.D (January 11, 1815 – June 6, 1891) was the first Prime Minister of Canada, from July 1, 1867 to November 5, 1873, and also from October 17, 1878 to June 6, 1891. ...


References

  • Diefenbaker, John. One Canada, Memoirs of the Right Honourable John G. Diefenbaker: The Tumultuous Years 1962 to 1967. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1977. ISBN 0-7705-1331-X.
  • Newman Peter C. Renegade in Power: The Diefenbaker Years.Toronto: McClelland and Stewart,1963. ISBN 0-7710-6747-X.
  • Stursberg, Peter. Diefenbaker: Leadership Gained: 1956-62. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1975. ISBN 0-8020-2130-1.
  • Van Dusen, Thomas. The Chief. Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 1968.
  • Zuk, Bill. The Avro Arrow Story: The Revolutionary Airplane and its Courageous Test Pilots. Calgary: Altitude Publishing, 2005, ISBN 1-55153-978-0.

External links

  • Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
  • Political Biography from the Library of Parliament
  • Diefenbaker Homestead
  • CBC Digital Archives – Dief the Chief
Preceded by
George Drew
Leader of the Progressive Conservative Party
1956–1967
Succeeded by
Robert Stanfield
Preceded by
Louis St. Laurent
Prime Minister of Canada
1957–1963
Succeeded by
Lester B. Pearson
Preceded by
Lester B. Pearson
Secretary of State for External Affairs
1957
Succeeded by
Sidney Earle Smith
Preceded by
Sidney Earle Smith
Secretary of State for External Affairs
(acting)
1959
Succeeded by
Howard Green
Preceded by
John Frederick Johnson
MP for Lake Centre, SK
1940–1953
Succeeded by
Abolished
Preceded by
Francis Helme
MP for Prince Albert, SK
1953–1979
Succeeded by
Stan Hovdebo


Colonel The Honourable George Alexander Drew, PC , CC , QC (May 7, 1894 - January 4, 1973) was a Canadian conservative politician who founded a Progressive Conservative dynasty in Ontario that lasted 42 years. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) (In French: Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... Robert Lorne Stanfield, PC, QC (April 11, 1914–December 16, 2003) was Premier of Nova Scotia and leader of the federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... Louis Stephen St. ... The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the head of the Government of Canada. ... The Right Honourable Lester Bowles Mike Pearson, PC, CC, OM, MA (April 23, 1897 – December 27, 1972) was the fourteenth Prime Minister of Canada from April 22, 1963, to April 20, 1968, and also a 1957 Nobel Laureate. ... Lester Bowles Mike Pearson, PC, OM, CC, OBE, MA, LL.D. (April 23, 1897 – December 27, 1972) was a Canadian statesman, diplomat and politician who was made a Nobel Laureate in 1957. ... Canadas Secretary of State for External Affairs was, from 1909 to 1993, the member of the Cabinet of Canada responsible for overseeing the federal governments international relations and the former Department of External Affairs. ... Sidney Earle Smith (March 9, 1897-March 17, 1959) was a noted academic and Canadas Secretary of State for External Affairs under John Diefenbaker. ... Sidney Earle Smith (March 9, 1897-March 17, 1959) was a noted academic and Canadas Secretary of State for External Affairs under John Diefenbaker. ... Canadas Secretary of State for External Affairs was, from 1909 to 1993, the member of the Cabinet of Canada responsible for overseeing the federal governments international relations and the former Department of External Affairs. ... Howard Charles Green (November 5, 1895 - June 26, 1989) was a Canadian politician and parliamentarian. ... Lake Centre was a federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons. ... Prince Albert is a federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Saskatchewan. ...

Prime Ministers of Canada Flag of Canada
Macdonald | Mackenzie | Abbott | Thompson | Bowell | Tupper | Laurier | Borden | Meighen | King | Bennett | St. Laurent | Diefenbaker | Pearson | Trudeau | Clark | Turner | Mulroney | Campbell | Chrétien | Martin | Harper

Leaders of the Conservative Party of Canada and its antecedents The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the head of the Government of Canada. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada. ... Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, KCMG, PC, QC, DCL, LL.D (January 11, 1815 – June 6, 1891) was the first Prime Minister of Canada, from July 1, 1867 to November 5, 1873, and also from October 17, 1878 to June 6, 1891. ... Alexander MacKenzie painted by Thomas Lawrence (c. ... The Hon. ... Sir John Sparrow David Thompson, KCMG, PC, QC, (November 10, 1845 – December 12, 1894) was a Canadian lawyer and judge who served as the fourth Prime Minister of Canada from December 5, 1892 to December 12, 1894 as well as Premier of Nova Scotia in 1882. ... The Honourable Sir Mackenzie Bowell, PC , KCMG (December 27, 1824 – December 10, 1917) was the fifth Prime Minister of Canada from December 21, 1894 to April 27, 1896. ... Not to be confused with Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper who was Sir Charles Tuppers son. ... gay Laurier re-directs here. ... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC , KC , GCMG , DCL , LL.D (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... Arthur Meighen, PC , QC , BA , LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920, to December 29, 1921, and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... William Lyon Mackenzie King, OM, PC, LL.B, Ph. ... Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett, PC, KC (July 3, 1870 – June 26, 1947) was the eleventh Prime Minister of Canada from August 7, 1930 to October 23, 1935. ... Louis Stephen St. ... Lester Bowles Mike Pearson, PC, OM, CC, OBE, MA, LL.D. (April 23, 1897 – December 27, 1972) was a Canadian statesman, diplomat and politician who was made a Nobel Laureate in 1957. ... Trudeau redirects here. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... John Turner, PC, CC, QC, MA, BCL, LLD (born June 7, 1929) was the seventeenth Prime Minister of Canada from June 30, 1984 to September 17, 1984. ... Martin Brian Mulroney, PC, CC, GOQ, LLD (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Avril Phaedra Douglas Campbell, PC, QC, LL.B, LL.D (h. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, LLL, LLD (born January 11, 1934), served as the twentieth Prime Minister of Canada from November 4, 1993 to December 12, 2003. ... For other uses, see Paul Martin (disambiguation). ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... Image File history File links Conservative_maple_leaf,_blue. ... Sir John A. Macdonald, Canadas first prime minister, is considered the father of the Canadian conservative movement. ...

Liberal-Conservative/Conservative/Unionist/N.L.C./National Government/Progressive Conservative (1867-2003): Macdonald | Abbott | Thompson | Bowell | Tupper | Borden | Meighen | Bennett | Manion | Meighen | Bracken | Drew | Diefenbaker | Stanfield | Clark | Mulroney | Campbell | Charest | Clark | MacKay

Reform (1987-2000)/Canadian Alliance (2000-2003): Manning | Day | Harper
The Liberal-Conservative Party was the formal name of the Conservative Party of Canada until 1873, although some Conservative candidates continued to run under the label as late as the 1911 election and others ran as simple Conservatives prior to 1873. ... The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation. ... The Unionist Party was formed in 1917 by Members of Parliament (MPs) in Canada who supported the Union government formed by Sir Robert Borden during World War I. In May 1917, Conservative Prime Minister Borden proposed the formation of a national unity government or coalition government to Liberal leader Sir... The National Liberal and Conservative Party was the name adopted by the Canadian Conservatives in 1920 after the end of the Unionist government of Robert Borden. ... National Government was the name used by the Conservative Party of Canada for the 1940 federal election under leader Robert Manion. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) (In French: Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, KCMG, PC, QC, DCL, LL.D (January 11, 1815 – June 6, 1891) was the first Prime Minister of Canada, from July 1, 1867 to November 5, 1873, and also from October 17, 1878 to June 6, 1891. ... The Hon. ... Sir John Sparrow David Thompson, KCMG, PC, QC, (November 10, 1845 – December 12, 1894) was a Canadian lawyer and judge who served as the fourth Prime Minister of Canada from December 5, 1892 to December 12, 1894 as well as Premier of Nova Scotia in 1882. ... The Honourable Sir Mackenzie Bowell, PC , KCMG (December 27, 1824 – December 10, 1917) was the fifth Prime Minister of Canada from December 21, 1894 to April 27, 1896. ... Not to be confused with Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper who was Sir Charles Tuppers son. ... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC , KC , GCMG , DCL , LL.D (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... Arthur Meighen, PC , QC , BA , LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920, to December 29, 1921, and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett, PC, KC (July 3, 1870 – June 26, 1947) was the eleventh Prime Minister of Canada from August 7, 1930 to October 23, 1935. ... Robert James Manion (November 19, 1881 Pembroke, Ontario - July 2, 1943 Ottawa, Ontario) was a physician and Canadian politician. ... Arthur Meighen, PC , QC , BA , LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920, to December 29, 1921, and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... The Honourable Professor John Bracken, PC (June 22, 1883-March 18, 1969) was an agronomist, Premier of Manitoba (1922-1943) and leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (1942-1948). ... Colonel The Honourable George Alexander Drew, PC , CC , QC (May 7, 1894 - January 4, 1973) was a Canadian conservative politician who founded a Progressive Conservative dynasty in Ontario that lasted 42 years. ... Robert Lorne Stanfield, PC, QC (April 11, 1914–December 16, 2003) was Premier of Nova Scotia and leader of the federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... Martin Brian Mulroney, PC, CC, GOQ, LLD (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Avril Phaedra Douglas Campbell, PC, QC, LL.B, LL.D (h. ... John James Charest (sha-ræ), PC, LL.B, MNA known as Jean Charest (born June 24, 1958) is a Canadian lawyer and politician from the province of Quebec. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... Peter Gordon MacKay, PC, BA, LL.B, MP (born September 27, 1965) serves as the member of Parliament (MP) for Central Nova, Nova Scotia, Canadas Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister for the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party founded in 1987. ... The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... Preston Manning Ernest Preston Manning (born June 10, 1942, in Edmonton, Alberta), is a Canadian politician. ... Stockwell Burt Day Jr. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ...


Conservative (new) (2003-present): Harper The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-leaning conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ...

Persondata
NAME Diefenbaker, John George
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957-1963)
DATE OF BIRTH September 18, 1895
PLACE OF BIRTH Neustadt, Ontario
DATE OF DEATH August 16, 1979
PLACE OF DEATH Ottawa

  Results from FactBites:
 
John Diefenbaker - MSN Encarta (896 words)
However, Diefenbaker developed into a forceful speaker, and when he was finally elected to the House of Commons, he became nationally known as a defender of individual and minority rights.
John George Diefenbaker was born in Grey County, Ontario, in 1895, but in 1903 his family moved to Fort Carlton, Saskatchewan.
Although the Conservative cause seemed hopeless, Diefenbaker ran in the 1938 provincial election as a candidate from Arm River and was defeated.
John Diefenbaker Summary (3130 words)
John Diefenbaker was born in Neustadt, Ontario, on Sept. 18, 1895.
Diefenbaker was born on September 18, 1895, in Neustadt, Ontario, to William Thomas Diefenbaker and Mary Florence Bannerman.
Diefenbaker received a BA in 1915, an MA in Political Science and Economics in 1916, and an LL.B in 1919 from the University of Saskatchewan.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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