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Encyclopedia > John Dee
For the American college basketball coach, see John Dee (basketball coach). For the DC Comics villain and Sandman character, see Dr. Destiny.
A sixteenth-century portrait of John Dee, artist unknown. According to Charlotte Fell Smith, this portrait was painted when Dee was 67. It belonged to his grandson Rowland Dee and later to Elias Ashmole, who left it to Oxford University.
A sixteenth-century portrait of John Dee, artist unknown. According to Charlotte Fell Smith, this portrait was painted when Dee was 67. It belonged to his grandson Rowland Dee and later to Elias Ashmole, who left it to Oxford University.

John Dee (July 13, 1527-1608) was a noted Welsh mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, geographer, occultist, and consultant to Queen Elizabeth I. He also devoted much of his life to alchemy, divination, and Hermetic philosophy. John F. Dee, Jr. ... Dr. Destiny is a DC Comics supervillain. ... Portrait of John Dee. ... Portrait of John Dee. ... Elias Ashmole by an unknown hand (detail), c. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ... This article is about the country. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy is the science of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as auroras and cosmic background radiation). ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut. ... Geography (from the Greek words Geo (γη) or Gaea (γαια), both meaning Earth, and graphein (γραφειν) meaning to describe or to writeor to map) is the study of the earth and its features and of the distribution of life on the Earth. ... For other uses of this term, see occult (disambiguation). ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the religious practice of divination. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Dee straddled the worlds of science and magic just as they were becoming distinguishable. One of the most learned men of his time, he had lectured to crowded halls at the University of Paris when still in his early twenties. He was an ardent promoter of mathematics, a respected astronomer and a leading expert in navigation, having trained many of those who would conduct England's voyages of discovery (he coined the term "British Empire"). At the same time, he immersed himself deeply in magic and Hermetic philosophy, devoting the last third of his life almost exclusively to these pursuits. For Dee, as with many of his contemporaries, these activities were not contradictory, but particular aspects of a consistent world-view. Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... The Sorceress by John William Waterhouse Magic and sorcery are the influencing of events, objects, people and physical phenomena by mystical, paranormal or supernatural means. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... The so-called Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century, during which European ships were traveled around the world to search for new trading routes and partners to feed burgeoning capitalism in Europe. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Hermeticism can refer to one of two things: The study and practice of occult philosophy and magic, of a type associated with writings attributed to the god Hermes Trismegistus, Thrice-Greatest Hermes, a syncretistic deity who combines aspects of the Greek god Hermes and the Egyptian god Thoth. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Dee was born in Tower Ward, London, to a Welsh family, whose surname derived from the Welsh du ("black"). His father Roland was a mercer and minor courtier. Dee attended the Chelmsford Catholic School (now King Edward VI Grammar School (Chelmsford)), then – from 1543 to 1546 – St. John's College, Cambridge. His great abilities were recognized, and he was made a founding fellow of Trinity College. In the late 1540s and early 1550s, he travelled in Europe, studying at Leuven and Brussels and lecturing in Paris on Euclid. He studied with Gemma Frisius and became a close friend of the cartographer Gerardus Mercator, returning to England with an important collection of mathematical and astronomical instruments. In 1552, he met Gerolamo Cardano in London: during their acquaintance they investigated a perpetual motion machine as well as a gem purported to have magical properties.[1] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the country. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... The term Mercer for a kind of trader is now largely obsolete. ... A courtier is a person who attends upon, and thus receives a privileged position from, a powerful person, usually a head of state. ... Chelmsford is the county town of Essex, England. ... King Edward VI Grammar School, or KEGS, is a British grammar school located in the town of Chelmsford, roughly in the middle of the county of Essex. ... Full name The College of Saint John the Evangelist of the University of Cambridge Motto Souvent me Souvient I Often Remember Named after The Hospital of Saint John the Evangelist, Cambridge, named after John the Evangelist Previous names Incorporates part of what was Merton Hall which no longer exists Established... The University of Cambridge (usually abbreviated as Cantab. ... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Catholic University of Leuven in English - also the translated name of its French-speaking sister university) or K.U. Leuven is a Flemish university, located in the town of Leuven in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking (northern) region of Belgium. ... Nickname: The Capital Of Europe, Comic City City of a 100 Museums[] Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Coordinates: Country Belgium Region Brussels-Capital Region Founded 979 Founded (Region) June 18, 1989  - Mayor (Municipality) Freddy Thielemans Area    - City 162 (Region) km²  (62. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Floating not submerging) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Euclid (Greek: ), also known as Euclid of Alexandria, was a Greek mathematician who flourished in Alexandria, Egypt, almost certainly during the reign of Ptolemy I (323–283 BC). ... Gemma Frisius, seventeenth-century woodcut by E. de Boulonois For the crater, see Gemma Frisius (crater) Gemma Frisius (or Reiner Gemma, December 9, 1508 - May 25, 1555) was a mathematician, cartographer and instrument maker. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study, practice, science and art of making maps or globes. ... Gerardus Mercator (March 5, 1512 – December 2, 1594) was a Flemish cartographer. ... Gerolamo Cardano or Jerome Cardan or Girolamo Cardan (September 24, 1501 - September 21, 1576) was a celebrated Italian Renaissance mathematician, physician, astrologer, and gambler. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article or section should include material from Parallel Path See also Perpetuum mobile as a musical term Perpetual motion machines (the Latin term perpetuum mobile is not uncommon) are a class of hypothetical machines which would produce useful energy in a way science cannot explain (yet). ...


Dee was offered a readership in mathematics at Oxford in 1554, which he declined; he was occupied with writing and perhaps hoping for a better position at court.[2] In 1555, Dee became a member of the Worshipful Company of Mercers, as his father had, through the company's system of patrimony.[3] The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The Worshipful Company of Mercers is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London. ... 1. ...


That same year, 1555, he was arrested and charged with "calculating" for having cast horoscopes of Queen Mary and Princess Elizabeth; the charges were expanded to treason against Mary.[2][4] Dee appeared in the Star Chamber and exonerated himself, but was turned over to the reactionary Catholic Bishop Bonner for religious examination. His strong and lifelong penchant for secrecy perhaps worsening matters, this entire episode was only the most dramatic in a series of attacks and slanders that would dog Dee through his life. Clearing his name yet again, he soon became a close associate of Bonner.[2] A horoscope calculated for January 1, 2000 at 12:01:00 A.M. Eastern Standard Time in New York City, New York, USA (Longitude: 074W0023 - Latitude: 40N4251). In astrology, a horoscope is a chart or diagram representing the positions of the Sun, Moon, and planets, the astrological aspects... Queen Mary I of England (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Traitor redirects here. ... The Star Chamber (Latin Camera stellata) was an English court of law at the royal Palace of Westminster that sat between 1487 and 1641, when the court itself was abolished. ... Edmund Boner (1500?- 5th September, 1569), Bishop of London, was an English bishop. ...


Dee presented Queen Mary with a visionary plan for the preservation of old books, manuscripts and records and the founding of a national library, in 1556, but his proposal was not taken up.[2] Instead, he expanded his personal library at his house in Mortlake, tirelessly acquiring books and manuscripts in England and on the European Continent. Dee's library, a center of learning outside the universities, became the greatest in England and attracted many scholars.[5] Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information resources and services, organized for use, and maintained by a public body, institution, or private individual. ... Mortlake is a part of south west London between Sheen and Barnes and bounded by the river Thames to the north. ...


When Elizabeth took the throne in 1558, Dee became her trusted advisor on astrological and scientific matters, choosing Elizabeth's coronation date himself.[6][7] From the 1550s through the 1570s, he served as an advisor to England's voyages of discovery, providing technical assistance in navigation and ideological backing in the creation of a "British Empire", and was the first to use that term.[8] In 1577, Dee published General and Rare Memorials pertayning to the Perfect Arte of Navigation, a work that set out his vision of a maritime empire and asserted English territorial claims on the New World. Dee was acquainted with Humphrey Gilbert and was close to Sir Philip Sidney and his circle.[8] Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, c. ... Sir Humphrey Gilbert (c. ... Philip Sidney. ...

Dee's glyph, whose meaning he explained in Monas Hieroglyphica.
Dee's glyph, whose meaning he explained in Monas Hieroglyphica.

In 1564, Dee wrote the Hermetic work Monas Hieroglyphica ("The Hieroglyphic Monad"), an exhaustive Cabalistic interpretation of a glyph of his own design, meant to express the mystical unity of all creation. This work was highly valued by many of Dee's contemporaries, but the loss of the secret oral tradition of Dee's milieu makes the work difficult to interpret today.[9] Dees Hieroglyph. ... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ... The Monas Heiroglyphica (or Monad Heiroglyphic) is an esoteric symbol invented and designed by Dr John Dee, the Elizabethan Magus and Court Astrologer of Queen Elizabeth of England. ... Hermetica refers to a category of popular Late Antique literature purporting to contain secret wisdom, and generally attributed to Hermes Trismegistus. ... The Pythagorean Monad Monad, according to the Pythagoreans, was a term for God or the first being, or the totality of all beings. ... Kabbalah (Hebrew: ‎, Tiberian: , Qabbālāh, Israeli: Kabala) literally means receiving, in the sense of a received tradition, and is sometimes transliterated as Cabala, Kabbala, Qabalah, or other permutations. ... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ...


He published a "Mathematical Preface" to Henry Billingsley's English translation of Euclid's Elements in 1570, arguing the central importance of mathematics and outlining mathematics' influence on the other arts and sciences.[10] Intended for an audience outside the universities, it proved to be Dee's most widely influential and frequently reprinted work.[11] Sir Henry Billingsley (d. ... The frontispiece of Sir Henry Billingsleys first English version of Euclids Elements, 1570 Euclids Elements (Greek: ) is a mathematical and geometric treatise, consisting of 13 books, written by the Hellenistic mathematician Euclid in Alexandria circa 300 BC. It comprises a collection of definitions, postulates (axioms), propositions (theorems...


Later life

By the early 1580s, Dee was growing dissatisfied with his progress in learning the secrets of nature and with his own lack of influence and recognition. He began to turn towards the supernatural as a means to acquire knowledge. Specifically, he sought to contact angels through the use of a "scryer" or crystal-gazer, who would act as an intermediary between Dee and the angels.[12] Look up Supernatural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Gothic angel in ivory, c1250, Louvre An angel is a supernatural being found in many religions. ... A crystal ball is a crystal or glass ball believed to aid clairvoyance. ...


Dee's first attempts were not satisfactory, but, in 1582, he met Edward Kelley (then going under the name of Edward Talbot), who impressed him greatly with his abilities.[13] Dee took Kelley into his service and began to devote all his energies to his supernatural pursuits.[13] These "spiritual conferences" or "actions" were conducted with an air of intense Christian piety, always after periods of purification, prayer and fasting.[13] Dee was convinced of the benefits they could bring to mankind. (The character of Kelley is harder to assess: some have concluded that he acted with complete cynicism, but delusion or self-deception are not out of the question.[14] Kelley's "output" is remarkable for its sheer mass, its intricacy and its vividness.) Dee maintained that the angels laboriously dictated several books to him this way, some in a special angelic or Enochian language.[15][16] Edward Kelley, nineteenth-century portrait Edward Kelley or Kelly, also known as Edward Talbot (August 1, 1555 - 1597) was a spirit medium who worked with John Dee in his magical investigations. ... Mary Magdalene in prayer. ... Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... Enochian is an occult language introduced by John Dee and Edward Kelley in the 16th Century. ...


In 1583, Dee met the visiting Polish nobleman Albert Łaski, who invited the Englishman to accompany him on his return to Poland.[4] With some prompting by the angels, Dee was persuaded to go. Dee, Kelley, and their families left for the Continent in September 1583, but Łaski proved to be bankrupt and out of favour in his own country.[17] Dee and Kelley began a nomadic life in Central Europe, but they continued their spiritual conferences, which Dee recorded meticulously.[15][16] He had audiences with Emperor Rudolf II and King Stephen of Poland in which he chided them for their ungodliness and attempted to convince them of the importance of his angelic communications. He was not taken up by either monarch.[17] Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration - see text) in the UK. Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of a individuals or organizations to pay their... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II Rudolph IIs personal imperial crown, later crown of the Austrian Empire Rudolf II Habsburg was an emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, king of Bohemia, and king of Hungary. ... István) see: István Báthory Reign From December 9, 1575 until December 12, 1586 Elected On December 9, 1575 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On May 1, 1576 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Noble Family Bathory Parents Stephen Bathory Catherine Telegdi Consorts Anna...


During a spiritual conference in Bohemia, in 1587, Kelley told Dee that the angel Uriel had ordered that the two men should share their wives. Kelley, who by that time was becoming a prominent alchemist and was much more sought-after than Dee, may have wished to use this as a way to end the spiritual conferences.[17] The order caused Dee great anguish, but he did not doubt its genuineness and apparently allowed it to go forward, but broke off the conferences immediately afterwards and did not see Kelley again. Dee returned to England in 1589.[17][18] Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Uriel (אוּרִיאֵל Flame of God, Auriel/Oriel (light of god) Standard Hebrew Uriʾel, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÛrîʾēl) is one of the archangels of post-Exilic Rabbinic tradition, and also of certain Christian traditions. ... Open marriage typically refers to a marriage in which the partners agree that each is free to engage in extramarital sexual relationships, without regarding this as sexual infidelity. ...


Final years

Dee returned to Mortlake after six years to find his library ruined and many of his prized books and instruments stolen.[5][17] He sought support from Elizabeth, who finally made him warden of Christ's College, Manchester (now Manchester Grammar School) in 1592.[19] However, he could not exert much control over the Fellows, who despised or cheated him.[2] Early in his tenure, he was consulted on the demonic possession of seven children, but took little interest in the matter, although he did allow those involved to consult his still extensive library.[2] He left Manchester in 1605 to return to London.[20] By that time, Elizabeth was dead, and James I, unsympathetic to anything related to the supernatural, provided no help. Dee spent his final years in poverty at Mortlake, forced to sell off various of his possessions to support himself and his daughter, Katherine, who cared for him until the end.[20] He died in Mortlake late in 1608 or early 1609 aged 82 (there are no extant records of the exact date as both the parish registers and Dee's gravestone are missing).[2][21] This article is becoming very long. ... The Manchester Grammar School (MGS) is an independent boys school (ages 11-18) in Fallowfield, Manchester, England. ... James VI and I (James Stuart) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625) was King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland. ... Mortlake is a part of south west London between Sheen and Barnes and bounded by the river Thames to the north. ...


Personal life

Dee was married twice and had eight children. Dee was first married to a Katherine Constable from 1565 to 1576 when his wife mysteriously died. From 1577 to 1601 Dee kept a meticulous diary.[3] In 1578 he married the twenty-three year old Jane Fromond (Dee was fifty-one at the time). She was to be the wife that Kelley claimed Uriel had demanded that he and Dee share, and although Dee complied for a while this eventually caused the two men to part company.[3] Jane died during the plague in Manchester in 1605, along with a number of his children: Theodore is known to have died in Manchester, but although no records exist for his daughters Madinia, Frances and Margaret after this time, Dee had by this time ceased keeping his diary.[2] His eldest son was Arthur Dee, about whom Dee wrote a letter to his headmaster at Westminster School which echos the worries of boarding school parents in every century; Arthur was also an alchemist and hermetic author.[2] John Aubrey gives the following description of Dee: "He was tall and slender. He wore a gown like an artist's gown, with hanging sleeves, and a slit.... A very fair, clear sanguine complexion... a long beard as white as milk. A very handsome man."[21] Arthur Dee (1571-1651) was the eldest son of Dr John Dee. ... The Royal College of large men at Westminster (almost always known as Westminster School) is one of Britains top boys independent schools and one of the nine British public schools, as set out in the Public Schools Act 1868. ... John Aubrey. ...


Achievements

Thought

Dee was an intensely pious Christian, but his Christianity was deeply influenced by the Hermetic and Platonic-Pythagorean doctrines that were pervasive in the Renaissance.[22] He believed that number was the basis of all things and the key to knowledge, that God's creation was an act of numbering.[6] From Hermeticism, he drew the belief that man had the potential for divine power, and he believed this divine power could be exercised through mathematics. His cabalistic angel magic (which was heavily numerological) and his work on practical mathematics (navigation, for example) were simply the exalted and mundane ends of the same spectrum, not the antithetical activities many would see them as today.[11] His ultimate goal was to help bring forth a unified world religion through the healing of the breach of the Catholic and Protestant churches and the recapture of the pure theology of the ancients.[6] Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; circa 580 BC – circa 500 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Hermeticism should not be confused with the concept of a hermit. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...


Reputation and significance

About ten years after Dee's death, the antiquarian Robert Cotton purchased land around Dee's house and began digging in search of papers and artefacts. He discovered several manuscripts, mainly records of Dee's angelic communications. Cotton's son gave these manuscripts to the scholar Méric Casaubon, who published them in 1659, together with a long introduction critical of their author, as A True & Faithful Relation of What passed for many Yeers between Dr. John Dee (A Mathematician of Great Fame in Q. Eliz. and King James their Reignes) and some spirits.[15] As the first public revelation of Dee's spiritual conferences, the book was extremely popular and sold quickly. Casaubon, who believed in the reality of spirits, argued in his introduction that Dee was acting as the unwitting tool of evil spirits when he believed he was communicating with angels. This book is largely responsible for the image, prevalent for the following two and a half centuries, of Dee as a dupe and deluded fanatic.[22] An antiquarian or antiquary is one concerned with antiquities or things of the past. ... Portrait of Robert Cotton, commissioned 1626 and attributed to Cornelius Johnson (or Janssen), (1593-1661). ... (Florence Estienne) Meric Casaubon (August 14, 1599 - July 14, 1671), son of Isaac Casaubon, was an English classical scholar. ...


Around the same time the True and Faithful Relation was published, members of the Rosicrucian movement claimed Dee as one of their number.[23] There is doubt, however, that an organized Rosicrucian movement existed during Dee's lifetime, and no evidence that he ever belonged to any secret fraternity.[13] Dee's reputation as a magician and the vivid story of his association with Edward Kelley have made him a seemingly irresistible figure to fabulists, writers of horror stories and latter-day magicians. The accretion of false and often fanciful information about Dee often obscures the facts of his life, remarkable as they are in themselves.[24] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In its strict sense a fable is a short story or folk tale embodying a moral, which may be expressed explicitly at the end as a maxim. ... Horror fiction is, broadly, fiction in any medium intended to scare, unsettle, or horrify the reader. ... Look up magician in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A re-evaluation of Dee's character and significance came in the 20th century, largely as a result of the work of the historian Frances Yates, who brought a new focus on the role of magic in the Renaissance and the development of modern science. As a result of this re-evaluation, Dee is now viewed as a serious scholar and appreciated as one of the most learned men of his day.[22][25] Dame Frances Amelia Yates (1899-1981) was a noted British historian. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ...


His personal library at Mortlake was the largest in the country, and was considered one of the finest in Europe, perhaps second only to that of de Thou. As well as being an astrological, scientific and geographical advisor to Elizabeth and her court, he was an early advocate of the colonization of North America and a visionary of a British Empire stretching across the North Atlantic.[8] Jacques Auguste de Thou (Thuanus) (1553 - May 7, 1617) was a French historian. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ...


Dee promoted the sciences of navigation and cartography. He studied closely with Gerardus Mercator, and he owned an important collection of maps, globes and astronomical instruments. He developed new instruments as well as special navigational techniques for use in polar regions. Dee served as an advisor to the English voyages of discovery, and personally selected pilots and trained them in navigation.[2][8] Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study, practice, science and art of making maps or globes. ... Gerardus Mercator (March 5, 1512 – December 2, 1594) was a Flemish cartographer. ... A map is a simplified depiction of a space which highlights relations between components (objects, regions) of that space. ... Antarctica Oceania Africa Asia Europe North America South America Middle East Caribbean Central Asia East Asia North Asia South Asia Southeast Asia SW. Asia Australasia Melanesia Micronesia Polynesia Central America Latin America Northern America Americas C. Africa E. Africa N. Africa Southern Africa W. Africa C. Europe E. Europe N... Earths polar regions are the areas of the globe surrounding the poles, north of the Arctic circle, or south of the Antarctic Circle. ...


He believed that mathematics (which he understood mystically) was central to the progress of human learning. The centrality of mathematics to Dee's vision makes him to that extent more modern than Francis Bacon, though some scholars believe Bacon purposely downplayed mathematics in the anti-occult atmosphere of the reign of James I.[26] It should be noted, though, that Dee's understanding of the role of mathematics is radically different from our contemporary view.[11][24][27] Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman and essayist, but is best known as a philosophical advocate and defender of the scientific revolution. ...


Dee's promotion of mathematics outside the universities was an enduring practical achievement. His "Mathematical Preface" to Euclid was meant to promote the study and application of mathematics by those without a university education, and was very popular and influential among the "mecanicians": the new and growing class of technical craftsmen and artisans. Dee's preface included demonstrations of mathematical principles that readers could perform themselves.[11]


Dee was a friend of Tycho Brahe and was familiar with the work of Copernicus.[2] Many of his astronomical calculations were based on Copernican assumptions, but he never openly espoused the heliocentric theory. Dee applied Copernican theory to the problem of calendar reform. His sound recommendations were not accepted, however, for political reasons.[6] Tycho Brahe Monument of Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler in Prague Tycho Brahe, born Tyge Ottesen Brahe (December 14, 1546 – October 24, 1601), was a Danish nobleman from the region of Scania (in modern-day Sweden), best known today as an early astronomer, though in his lifetime he was also... Nicolaus Copernicus (in Latin; Polish Mikołaj Kopernik, German Nikolaus Kopernikus - February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and economist who developed a heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system in a form detailed enough to make it scientifically useful. ... Heliocentric Solar System Heliocentrism (lower panel) in comparison to the geocentric model (upper panel) In astronomy, heliocentrism is the idea that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ...


He has often been associated with the Voynich Manuscript.[13][28] Wilfrid M. Voynich, who bought the manuscript in 1912, suggested that Dee may have owned the manuscript and sold it to Rudolph II. Dee's contacts with Rudolph were far less extensive than had previously been thought, however, and Dee's diaries show no evidence of the sale. Dee was, however, known to have possessed a copy of the Book of Soyga, another enciphered book.[29] The Voynich manuscript is written in an unknown script. ... Wilfrid Michael Voynich (1865 – 1930) was a Polish bibliophile. ... Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II Rudolph IIs personal imperial crown, later crown of the Austrian Empire Rudolf II Habsburg was an emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, king of Bohemia, and king of Hungary. ... The Book of Soyga, alternatively titled Aldaraia, is a mediaevel treatise on magic, one copy of which is known to have been possessed by the Elizabethan scholar John Dee. ...


Artifacts

The British Museum holds several items once owned by Dee and associated with the spiritual conferences: The centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2000 to become the Great Court, surrounding the original Reading Room. ...

  • Dee's Speculum or Mirror (an obsidian Aztec cult object in the shape of a hand-mirror, brought to Europe in the late 1520s), which was once owned by Horace Walpole.
  • The small wax seals used to support the legs of Dee's "table of practice" (the table at which the scrying was performed).
  • The large, elaborately-decorated wax "Seal of God", used to support the "shew-stone", the crystal ball used for scrying.
  • A gold amulet engraved with a representation of one of Kelley's visions.
  • A crystal globe, six centimetres in diameter. This item remained unnoticed for many years in the mineral collection; possibly the one owned by Dee, but the provenance of this object is less certain than that of the others.[30]

In December 2004, both a shew stone (a stone used for scrying) formerly belonging to Dee and a mid-1600s explanation of its use written by Nicholas Culpeper were stolen from the Science Museum in London; they were recovered shortly afterwards.[31] Obsidian from Lake County, Oregon Counterclockwise from top: obsidian, pumice and rhyolite (light color) Obsidian is a rock which is a type of naturally occurring glass, produced by volcanoes (igneous origin) when a felsic lava cools rapidly and freezes without sufficient time for crystal growth (see glass transition temperature). ... The Aztecs is a collective term used for all of the Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples under the control of the Mexica, founders of Tenochtitlan, and their two principal allies, who built an extensive empire in the late Postclassic period in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries in Central Mexico. ... Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, more commonly known as Horace Walpole, (September 24, 1717 – March 2, 1797), was a politician, writer, and architectural innovator He was born in London, the youngest son of British Prime Minister Robert Walpole. ... Seal on envelope A seal is an impression printed on, embossed upon, or affixed to a document (or any other object) in order to authenticate it, in lieu of or in addition to a signature. ... Seer stone redirects here. ... A crystal ball is a crystal or glass ball believed to aid clairvoyance. ... An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire An amulet (from Latin amuletum, meaning A means of protection) or a talisman (from Arabic tilasm, ultimately from Greek telesma or from the Greek word talein wich means to initiate into the mysteries. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... A crystal ball is a crystal or glass ball believed to aid clairvoyance. ... Nicholas Culpeper - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Science Museum on Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London is part of the National Museum of Science and Industry. ...

John Dee and Edward Kelley evoking a spirit.
John Dee and Edward Kelley evoking a spirit.

Image File history File links John_Dee_evoking_a_spirit. ... Image File history File links John_Dee_evoking_a_spirit. ... Edward Kelley, nineteenth-century portrait Edward Kelley or Kelly, also known as Edward Talbot (August 1, 1555 - 1597) was a spirit medium who worked with John Dee in his magical investigations. ...

Dee in fiction

Dee has become a popular figure in literary works, particularly fiction or fantasy set during his lifetime or which deals with magic or the occult. William Shakespeare may have modelled the character of Prospero in The Tempest on Dee;[13] Woolley (see below), suggests that Edmund Spenser refers to Dee in The Faerie Queen (1596). Ben Jonson includes a scrying session, during which the spirits render up the name of Dee, in his play The Alchemist (1610). The Irish Gothic novelist Charles Maturin refers to Dee and Kelley in his novel Melmoth the Wanderer (1820). H. P. Lovecraft's short story "The Dunwich Horror" (1929) credits Dee with translating the Necronomicon into English; and John Crowley's sequence of novels Ægypt includes Dee, Edward Kelley, and Giordano Bruno as characters. In Umberto Eco's book Foucault's Pendulum, Dee is presented as a central character in the "Plan" (the overall conspiracy that the book is concerned with) and in one of the main character (Belbo)'s fictions concerning it. A series of books by Armin Shimerman fictionalizes Dee's life by providing a basis in science fiction for his supposed magic, and he is a major character in Diana Redmond's time-travel children's book Joshua Cross & the Queen's Conjuror (2004). Dee also appears as a character in The Ringed Castle (1971), part of Dorothy Dunnett's Lymond Chronicles. He is presented as an associate of Robert Dudley in "The Queen's Fool" (2004) by Philippa Gregory. He is also mentioned and referred to in the novel "Fire Rose" by Mercedes Lackey. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Prospero and Miranda by William Maw Egley Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Prospero Prospero is the protagonist in The Tempest, a play by William Shakespeare. ... The Tempest is a play written by William Shakespeare. ... Edmund Spenser Spenser redirects here. ... Una and the Lion by Briton Rivière The Faerie Queene is a poem by Edmund Spenser, first published in 1590 (the first half) with the more or less complete version being published in 1596. ... Benjamin Jonson (circa June 11, 1572 – August 6, 1637) was an English Renaissance dramatist, poet and actor. ... The Alchemist is the title of more than one major work. ... Charles Robert Maturin, also known as Charles Maturin or C.R. Maturin, was an Anglo-Irish Protestant clergyman (ordained by the Church of Ireland) and a writer of gothic plays and novels. ... Melmoth the Wanderer is a gothic novel published in 1820, written by Charles Robert Maturin. ... Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy, horror and science fiction. ... The Dunwich Horror is a short story by H. P. Lovecraft. ... See also: 1928 in literature, other events of 1929, 1930 in literature, list of years in literature. ... The Necronomicon is a fictional book from the stories of horror writer H.P. Lovecraft. ... John Crowley (born December 1, 1942 in Presque Isle, Maine) is an American author of fantasy, science fiction and mainstream fiction. ... Ægypt is a (projected) sequence of four novels by John Crowley detailing the work and life of Pierce Moffett, who prepares a manuscript for publication even as it prepares him for some as-of-yet unknown destiny, all set amidst strange and subtle Hermetic manipulations among the Faraway Hills of... Edward Kelley, nineteenth-century portrait Edward Kelley or Kelly, also known as Edward Talbot (August 1, 1555 - 1597) was a spirit medium who worked with John Dee in his magical investigations. ... Giordano Bruno. ... Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ... Cover of Foucaults Pendulum, 1989 Picador edition. ... Armin Shimerman (born November 5, 1949) is an American actor. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Dorothy Dunnett (August 25, 1923 – November 9, 2001) was a Scottish historical novelist. ... Francis Crawford of Lymond is a fictional character created by the novelist Dorothy Dunnett. ... The Queens Fool by Philippa Gregory is a 2004 historical fiction novel aimed at young adults. ... Mercedes Lackey Mercedes Lackey (born June 24, 1950) (also known as Misty Lackey) is a prolific American author of fantasy novels. ...


Dee is a major character in various fantasy novels set in Elizabethan England, such as Robin Jarvis's novel Deathscent. Lisa Goldstein's novel The Alchemist's Door features Dee as the main character, who works with Rabbi Judah Loew, a mystic who creates a golem to defend Prague's Jewish Quarter by preventing the door to the spirit world from opening and unleashing demons. Dee's assistant Edward Kelley appears in the novel as a villain. In Maxie's Demon a novel in Michael Scott Rohan's Spiral series, Dee is portrayed as idealistic and unworldly, with Kelley as an unscrupulous con man playing on his beliefs. Dee also appears in The Science of Discworld II: The Globe, by Ian Stewart, Jack Cohen and Terry Pratchett. The House of Doctor Dee, a novel by Peter Ackroyd, tells of the haunting of an old house in Clerkenwell by the spirit of Dee, its one-time owner. Dee appears in Alan Moore's comic book Promethea, as does the 19th-century occultist Aleister Crowley. Dee and Kelley are the main characters in Gustav Meyrink's 1927 "The Angel of the West Window." Robin Jarvis (born May 8, 1963) is a British childrens novelist, who wrote fantasy novels, often about anthropomorphic rodents and small mammals - especially mice - and Tudor times. ... Judah Low ben Bezalel (1525 — 1609) was a Jewish scholar and rabbi, most of his life in Prague. ... For instances of Golem in popular culture, see Golem in popular culture. ... Nickname: City of a Hundred Spires Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... A Jewish quarter is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews. ... St. ... Michael Scott Rohan (born 1951 in Edinburgh) is a Scottish fantasy and science fiction author. ... The Science of Discworld II: The Globe (ISBN 0091888050) is a 2002 book written by novelist Terry Pratchett and popular science writers Ian Stewart and Jack Cohen. ... Ian Stewart, FRS (b. ... Jack Cohen is a reproductive biologist at the University of Warwick, England. ... Terence David John Pratchett OBE (born April 28, 1948, in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, England[1]) is an English fantasy author, best known for his Discworld series. ... Peter Ackroyd (born October 5, 1949, London) is an English author. ... Alan Moore (born November 18, 1953, in Northampton) is an English writer most famous for his influential work in comics, including the acclaimed graphic novels Watchmen, V for Vendetta and From Hell. ... Promethea is a comic book series created by Alan Moore and J.H. Williams III with Mick Gray, published by Americas Best Comics/Wildstorm. ... Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley, (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947; the surname is pronounced // i. ... Gustav Meyrink (January 19, 1868 – December 4, 1932) was an Austrian author, storyteller, dramatist, translator, banker and Buddhist. ...


He appears as a character in various film, television and radio productions, such as Derek Jarman's Jubilee; as the father of the character Ella in the Sky One TV series, Hex; and in the Doctor Who audio drama A Storm of Angels. Derek Jarman Derek Jarman (January 31, 1942 – February 19, 1994) was an English film director, stage designer, artist, and writer. ... Jubilee is a 1977 cult film directed by Derek Jarman and starring Jenny Runacre, Nell Campbell (Little Nell), Toyah Willcox, Adam Ant, Jordan (the Malcolm McLaren protege), and Hermine Demoriane. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Hex is a British television series developed by Shine Limited and aired on the Sky One satellite channel, about a remote country school that becomes the battleground between a demonic entity and the witches who oppose it. ... Doctor Who is a long-running British science fiction television programme (and 1996 television movie) produced by the BBC about the adventures of a mysterious time-traveller known as the Doctor, who explores time and space with his companions, solving problems and righting wrongs. ... A number of audio productions based upon Doctor Who have been produced over the years. ... A Storm of Angels is a Big Finish Productions audio drama based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. ...


John Dee is the given name of the DC Comics supervillain Doctor Destiny, who, in the spirit of his namesake, uses both magic and science together to alter, control, and manifest dreams. DC Comics is one of the largest American companies in comic book and related media publishing. ... Doctor Doom, one of the most archetypal supervillains and his arch-enemies The Fantastic Four (in background). ... Doctor Destiny is a fictional supervillain published by DC Comics. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Gerolamo Cardano (trans. by Jean Stoner) (2002). De Vita Propria (The Book of My Life). New York: New York Review of Books, viii. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Fell Smith, Charlotte (1909). John Dee: 1527 - 1608. London: Constable and Company. 
  3. ^ a b c Julian Roberts:A John Dee Chronology, 1509-1609. RENAISSANCE MAN: The Reconstructed Libraries of European Scholars: 1450-1700 Series One: The Books and Manuscripts of John Dee, 1527-1608. Adam Matthew Publications (2005). Retrieved on 27 October, 2006.
  4. ^ a b (1792) "Mortlake". The Environs of London: County of Surrey 1: 364-88. Retrieved on 27 October 2006. 
  5. ^ a b Books owned by John Dee. St. John's College, Cambridge. Retrieved on 26 October, 2006.
  6. ^ a b c d Dr. Robert Poole (2005-09-06). John Dee and the English Calendar: Science, Religion and Empire. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved on 26 October, 2006.
  7. ^ Szönyi, György E. (2004). "John Dee and Early Modern Occult Philosophy". Literature Compass 1 (1): 1-12. 
  8. ^ a b c d Ken MacMillan (2001-04). "Discourse on history, geography, and law: John Dee and the limits of the British empire, 1576-80". Canadian Journal of History. 
  9. ^ Forshaw, Peter J. (2005). "The Early Alchemical Reception of John Dee's Monas Hieroglyphica". Ambix 52 (3): 247-269. 
  10. ^ John Dee (1527-1608): Alchemy - the Beginings of Chemistry. Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester (2005). Retrieved on 26 October, 2006.
  11. ^ a b c d Stephen Johnston (1995). The identity of the mathematical practitioner in 16th-century England. Museum of the History of Science, Oxford. Retrieved on 27 October, 2006.
  12. ^ Frank Klaassen (2002-08). "John Dee's Conversations with Angels: Cabala, Alchemy, and the End of Nature". Canadian Journal of History. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f Calder, I.R.F. (1952). John Dee Studied as an English Neo-Platonist. University of London. Retrieved on 26 October, 2006.
  14. ^ "Dee, John". Encyclopædia Britannica. (2006). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 27 October.
  15. ^ a b c Meric Casaubon (1659 Republished by Magickal Childe (1992)). A True & Faithful Relation of What passed for many Yeers between Dr. John Dee (A Mathematician of Great Fame in Q. Eliz. and King James their Reignes) and some spirits. ISBN 0-939708-01-9. 
  16. ^ a b Dee, John. Quinti Libri Mysteriorum. 
  17. ^ a b c d e Mackay, Charles (1852). "4", Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds. London: Office of the National Illustrated Library. 
  18. ^ History of the Alchemy Guild. International Alchemy Guild. Retrieved on 26 October, 2006.
  19. ^ "John Dee". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th Ed.). (1911). London: Cambridge University Press.
  20. ^ a b Fell Smith, Charlotte (1909). John Dee: 1527 - 1608: Appendix 1. London: Constable and Company. 
  21. ^ a b John Aubrey (1898). in Rev. Andrew Clark: Brief Lives chiefly of Contemporaries set down John Aubrey between the Years 1669 and 1696. Clarendon Press. 
  22. ^ a b c Walter I. Trattner (01-1964). "God and Expansion in Elizabethan England: John Dee, 1527-1583". Journal of the History of Ideas 25 (1): 17-34. 
  23. ^ Ron Heisler (1992). "John Dee and the Secret Societies". The Hermetic Journal. 
  24. ^ a b Katherine Neal (1999). The Rhetoric of Utility: Avoiding Occult Associations For Mathematics Through Profitability and Pleasure. University of Sydney. Retrieved on 27 October, 2006.
  25. ^ Frances A. Yates (1987). Theatre of the World. London: Routledge, 7. 
  26. ^ Brian Vickers (1992-07). "Francis Bacon and the Progress of Knowledge". Journal of the History of Ideas 53 (3): 495-518. 
  27. ^ Stephen Johnston (1995). Like father, like son? John Dee, Thomas Digges and the identity of the mathematician. Museum of the History of Science, Oxford. Retrieved on 27 October, 2006.
  28. ^ Gordon Rugg (2004-07). The Mystery of the Voynich Manuscript. Scientific American. Retrieved on 28 October, 2006.
  29. ^ Jim Reeds (1996). John Dee and the Magic Tables in the Book of Soyga. Retrieved on 8 November, 2006.
  30. ^ BSHM Gazetteer -- LONDON: British Museum, British Library and Science Museum. British Society for the History of Mathematics (2002-08). Retrieved on 27 October, 2006.
  31. ^ Adam Fresco (2004-12-11). Museum thief spirits away old crystal ball. The Times. Retrieved on 27 October, 2006.

October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ...

References

  • Ackroyd, Peter The House of Doctor Dee Penguin (1993)
  • Calder, I.R.F. John Dee Studied as an English Neo-Platonist University of London Dissertation (1952) Available online
  • Casaubon, M. A True and Faithful Relation of What Passed for many Yeers Between Dr. John Dee... (1659) repr. "Magickal Childe" ISBN 0-939708-01-9 New York 1992)
  • Dee, John Quinti Libri Mysteriorum. British Library, MS Sloane Collection 3188. Also available in a fair copy by Elias Ashmole, MS Sloane 3677.
  • Dee, John John Dee's five books of mystery: original sourcebook of Enochian magic: from the collected works known as Mysteriorum libri quinque edited by Joseph H. Peterson, Boston: Weiser Books ISBN 1-57863-178-5.
  • Fell Smith, Charlotte John Dee: 1527 - 1608. London: Constable and Company (1909) Available online.
  • French, Peter J. John Dee: The World of an Elizabethan Magus. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul (1972)
  • Woolley, Benjamin The Queen's Conjuror: The Science and Magic of Dr. John Dee, Adviser to Queen Elizabeth I. New York: Henry Holt and Company (2001)

Peter Ackroyd (born October 5, 1949, London) is an English author. ... Florence Estienne Méric Casaubon (August 14, 1599 - July 14, 1671), son of Isaac Casaubon, was an English classical scholar. ... British Library Ossulston St entrance, with distinctive red logo. ... Elias Ashmole by an unknown hand (detail), c. ...

External links

Persondata
NAME Dee, John
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Dr Dee
SHORT DESCRIPTION British mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, geographer, occultist, alchemist and philosopher.
DATE OF BIRTH 13 July 1527
PLACE OF BIRTH London
DATE OF DEATH c. 1608
PLACE OF DEATH Mortlake, Surrey

  Results from FactBites:
 
John Dee - LoveToKnow 1911 (0 words)
JOHN DEE (1527-1608), English mathematician and astrologer, was born on the 13th of July 1527, in London, where his father was, according to Wood, a wealthy vintner.
Shortly afterwards Kelly and Dee were introduced by the earl of Leicester to a Polish nobleman, Albert Laski, palatine of Siradz, devoted to the same pursuits, who persuaded them to accompany him to his native country.
Dee and Kelly lived for some years in Poland and Bohemia in alternate wealth and poverty, according to the credulity or scepticism of those before whom they exhibited.
John Dee - Crystalinks (2274 words)
John Dee (July 13, 1527 - 1608 or 1609) was a noted British mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, geographer, occultist, and consultant to Queen Elizabeth I. He also devoted much of his life to alchemy, divination, and Hermetic philosophy.
Dee was born in Tower Ward, London to a Welsh family, whose surname derived from the Welsh du ("fl").
Dee was offered a readership in mathematics at Oxford in 1554, which he declined, citing English universities' emphasis on rhetoric and grammar (which, together with logic, formed the academic trivium) over philosophy and science (the more advanced quadrivium, comprised of arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy) as offensive.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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