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Encyclopedia > John Davis (English explorer)

John Davis (1543December 29, 1605), was one of the chief English navigators and explorers under Elizabeth I, especially in Polar regions. John Davis may refer to: // John Davis (jurist) (1761–1847), Massachusetts state representative John Davis (Kansas politician) (1826–1901), U.S. Representative from Kansas John Davis (Massachusetts Governor) (1787-1854), Governor of Massachusetts, 1834-1835; 1841-1843 John Davis (Pennsylvania) (1788-1878), U.S. Resresentative from Pennsylvania John Davis (Texas... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ...


Davis was born at Sandridge near Dartmouth 1543. From a boy he was a sailor, and early went on voyages with Adrian Gilbert; both the Gilbert and Raleigh families were Devonians of his own neighbourhood, and through life he seems to have profited by their friendship. The town seen from the River Dart Dartmouth is a town in Devon in the south-west of England. ... Adrian Gilbert (Born July 1949) is an bestselling British author and independent publisher who lives in Dorset, England. ... This article is about the sixteenth-century explorer. ...


In January 1583 he appears to have broached his design of a Northwest Passage to Francis Walsingham and John Dee; various consultations followed; and in 1585 he started on his first north-western expedition. On this he began by encountering the ice-bound east shore of Greenland, which he followed south to Cape Farewell; thence he turned north once more and coasted the west Greenland littoral some way, until, finding the sea free from ice, he shaped a course for China going north-west. In 66° N, however, he encountered Baffin Island, and though he pushed some way up Cumberland Sound, and professed to recognize in this the hoped strait, he now turned back (end of August). For other uses, see Northwest Passage (disambiguation). ... Francis Walsingham by John de Critz (detail) Sir Francis Walsingham (c. ... For the American college basketball coach, see John Dee (basketball coach). ... A littoral is the region near the shoreline of a body of fresh or salt water. ... Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada. ... The Cumberland Sound is a body of water between Baffin Islands Hall Peninsula and the Cumberland Peninsula in Nunavut, Canada. ...


He tried again in 1586 and 1587; in the last voyage he pushed through the straits still named after him into Baffin Bay, coasting west Greenland to 73° N., almost to Upernavik, and thence making a last effort to find a passage westward along the north of America. Many points in Arctic latitudes (Cumberland Sound, Cape Walsingham, Exeter Sound, etc) retain names given them by Davis, who ranks with William Baffin and Henry Hudson as the greatest of early Arctic explorers and, like Martin Frobisher, narrowly missed the discovery of Hudson Bay via Hudsons Straits (the Furious Overfall of Davis). Baffin Bay, lying between Nunavut, Canada and Greenland. ... Location of the Upernavik municipality in Greenland Upernavik , meaning Springtime Place, is a small town on the west coast of Greenland. ... William Baffin (1584 – January 23, 1622) was an English navigator and discoverer. ... No portrait of Hudson is known to be in existence. ... Martin Frobisher by Cornelis Ketel. ... New York Harbor, the outflow for Hudson River, is sometimes called Hudsons Bay. Hudson Bay, Canada. ...


In 1588 he seems to have commanded the Black Dog against the Spanish Armada; in 1589 he joined the earl of Cumberland off the Azores; and in 1591 he accompanied Thomas Cavendish on his last voyage, with the special purpose, as he tells us, of searching that north-west discovery upon the back parts of America. After the rest of Cavendish's expedition returned unsuccessful, he continued to attempt on his own account the passage of the Strait of Magellan; though defeated here by foul weather, he discovered the Falkland Islands in August 1592 aboard the vessel Desire. His crew was forced to kill about 14,000 penguins for food while on the Falkland Islands. They stored the penguin meat as well as they could and sailed for home, but the meat spoiled once they reached the tropics. This made the passage home disastrous, and he brought back only fourteen of his seventy-six men. Black dog may refer to: Black dog (ghost), a ghostly dog in British folklore Black Dog (film), a 1998 film Black Dog (song), a song by Led Zeppelin from Led Zeppelin IV The Black Dog, a restaurant on the island of Marthas Vineyard BlackDog, a mobilizing device, a fully... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured... The title of Earl of Cumberland was created in the Peerage of England in 1525 for the Baron de Clifford. ... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... Thomas Cavendish (1555-1592) was born in Trimley St. ... A map of the Strait of Magellan The Strait of Magellan is a navigable sea route immediately south of mainland Chile, South America and north of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. ...


After his return in 1593 he published a valuable treatise on practical navigation in The Seaman's Secrets (1594), and a more theoretical work in The World's Hydrographical Description (1595). His invention of backstaff and double quadrant (called a Davis Quadrant after him) held the field among English seamen till long after Hadley's reflecting quadrant had been introduced. In 1596-1597 Davis seems to have sailed with Raleigh (as master of Sir Walter's own ship) to Cádiz and the Azores; and in 1598-1600 he accompanied a Dutch expedition to the East Indies as pilot, sailing from Flushing, returning to Middleburg, and narrowly escaping destruction from treachery at Achin in Sumatra. The backstaff, or back-quadrant, is a navigational tool that was used to determine latitude. ... Octant Octant is a measuring instrument similar to a sextant. ... Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ...


In 1601-1603 he accompanied Sir James Lancaster as first pilot on his voyage in the service of the British East India Company; and in December 1604 he sailed again for the same destination as pilot to Sir Edward Michelborne (or Michelbourn). On this journey he was killed by Japanese pirates off Bintang near Sumatra. Sir James Lancaster (1554(?)–May 1618) was an English navigator, statesman, and pioneer of the British Indian trade and empire. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Bir Bintang Bintang Beer (Indonesian: Bir Bintang, lit. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ...


See also

Map of Baffin Island and surrounding areas, including Davis Strait. ...

External Links

  • The Seaman's Secrets; text of Davis' publication with illustrations.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nunavut - MSN Encarta (1283 words)
English explorer John Davis followed in Frobisher’s footsteps in the 1580s, although the ice around Baffin Island prevented him from exploring west of the island.
In 1610 English navigator Henry Hudson discovered Hudson Strait (between Québec and Baffin Island), and during the 17th century a number of explorers unsuccessfully searched the strait and Hudson Bay for possible passages through the Arctic.
Sir John Ross explored the area along the north coast of Baffin Island during the early 1830s, discovering Boothia Peninsula, the Gulf of Boothia, and King William Island.
John Davis - The New Continent - 16th Century - Pathfinders and Passageways (898 words)
John Davis had the good luck to have very special childhood neighbours in his home and birthplace of Sandridge, Devonshire: Humphrey and Adrien Gilbert, as well as their half-brother, Walter Raleigh.
Davis left Dartmouth on June 7, 1585 with two ships, and followed the same route as Frobisher, passing south of Greenland, where he met some of the Inuit of that country.
John Davis stands out as one of the excellent early English navigators, attested to in part by his invention of the "Davis quadrant" and his book, "The Seaman's Secrets." His findings played an important role in the continuing exploration of the Canadian Arctic.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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