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Encyclopedia > John D. Rockefeller
John Davison Rockefeller

J. D. Rockefeller in 1885
Born July 8, 1839(1839-07-08)
Richford, New York, U.S.A
Died May 23, 1937 (aged 97)
The Casements, Ormond Beach, Florida
Occupation Chairman of Standard Oil Company; investor; philanthropist
Net worth $192 billion, according to The New York Times: The Wealthiest Americans Ever - July 2007; or $305.3 billion, according to Forbes Magazine: The All-Time Richest Americans - September 2007

John Davison Rockefeller, Sr. (July 8, 1839May 23, 1937) was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, Rockefeller founded the Standard Oil Company and ran it until he retired in the late 1890s. He kept his stock and as gasoline grew in importance, his wealth soared and he became the world's richest man and first U.S. dollar billionaire, and is often regarded as the richest person in history.[1][2][3][4] Standard Oil was convicted in Federal Court of monopolistic practices and broken up in 1911. Rockefeller spent the last 40 years of his life in retirement. His fortune was used to create the modern systematic approach of targeted philanthropy with foundations that had a major effect on medicine, education, and scientific research. His foundations pioneered the development of medical research, and were instrumental in the eradication of hookworm and yellow fever. He was a devout Northern Baptist and supported many church-based institutions throughout his life. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Richford is a town located in Tioga County, New York. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Casements in Rockefellers day; courtesy of the Florida Photographic Collection The Casements is a building in Ormond Beach constructed in 1910 by the Reverend Harwood Huntington, husband of a Pullman heiress. ... Ormond Beach is a city located in Volusia County, Florida. ... Standard Oil was an oil refining organization founded by John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937) and partners beginning in 1863. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Business magnate. ... A philanthropist is someone who engages in philanthropy; that is, someone who donates his or her time, money, or reputation to a charitable cause. ... The oil industry is a type of industry which brings petroleum to a financial market. ... Standard Oil was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. ... Forbes magazine annually lists the worlds wealthiest individuals: The Worlds Billionaries. ... This article is about the type of currency. ... A billionaire is a person who has a net worth of at least one billion units of currency, such as United States Dollars (USD), Pounds or Euros. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The United States federal courts are the system of courts organized under the Constitution and laws of the federal government of the United States. ... Species Species N. americanus and A. duodenale The hookworm is a parasitic worm (nematode) that lives in the small intestine of its host, which may be a mammal such as a dog, cat, or human. ... The Northern Baptist Convention was founded in Washington, D.C. on May 17, 1907. ...


Always avoiding the spotlight, Rockefeller was remembered for handing dimes to those he encountered in public. He married Laura Celestia ("Cettie") Spelman in 1864 and outlived her. The Rockefellers had four daughters and one son, John D. Rockefeller, Jr.. "Junior" was largely entrusted with the supervision of the foundations. Laura Spelman Rockefeller, (1839-1915), (known as Cettie), was a philanthropist, the namesake of Spelman College and the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial, and the wife of the richest man who has ever lived, John D. Rockefeller, the founder of both Standard Oil and the Rockefeller family dynasty. ... John D. Rockefeller Jr. ...

Contents

Early life

Age 18
Age 18

Rockefeller was the second of six children born to William Avery Rockefeller (November 13, 1810 - May 11, 1906) and Eliza Davison (September 12, 1813 - March 28, 1889). Genealogists trace his line back to Germany in the 1600s [5][verification needed]. His father was a traveling salesman of patent medicine such as "cancer cures and aids." As Will was frequently gone for extended periods, Eliza struggled to maintain a semblance of stability at home. Young Rockefeller's contemporaries described him as articulate, methodical, and discreet.[6] When he was a boy, his family moved from Cleveland to Moravia and, in 1851, to Owego, where he attended Owego Academy. In 1853, his family bought a house in Strongsville, a town close to Cleveland, Ohio. When Rockefeller was 16 he got his first job as a clerk. At that time he promised when he retired he would give 1/10 of his money to charity. Image File history File links John_D._Rockefeller_aged_18_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_17090. ... Image File history File links John_D._Rockefeller_aged_18_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_17090. ... William Avery Rockefeller (November 13, 1810 - May 11, 1906) was the father of American oil tycoon, John Davison Rockefeller (July 8, 1839 - May 23, 1937). ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... E.W. Kembles Deaths Laboratory in Colliers Magazine in 1906 Patent medicine is the somewhat misleading term given to various medical compounds sold under a variety of names and labels, though they were, for the most part, actually medicines with trademarks, not patented medicines. ... Strongsville is a city located in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... Cleveland redirects here. ...


Standard Oil

Main article: Standard Oil
John D. Rockefeller ca. 1875
John D. Rockefeller ca. 1875

By the end of the Civil War, Cleveland was one of the five main refining centers in the U.S. (besides Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, New York, and the region in northwestern Pennsylvania where most of the oil originated). Eight years later, Rockefeller formed Standard Oil of Ohio, which rapidly became the most profitable refiner in Cleveland. When it was found that at least part of Standard Oil's cost advantage came from secret rebates from the railroads bringing oil into Cleveland, the competing refiners insisted on getting similar rebates, and the railroads quickly complied. By then, however, Standard Oil had grown to become one of the largest shippers of oil and kerosene in the country. Standard Oil was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. ... File links The following pages link to this file: John D. Rockefeller Categories: U.S. history images ... File links The following pages link to this file: John D. Rockefeller Categories: U.S. history images ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Cleveland redirects here. ...


The railroads were competing fiercely for traffic and, in an attempt to create a cartel to control freight rates, formed the South Improvement Company. Rockefeller agreed to support this cartel if they gave him preferential treatment as a high volume shipper which included not just steep rebates for his product, but also rebates for the shipment of competing products. Part of this scheme was the announcement of sharply increased freight charges. This touched off a firestorm of protest, which eventually led to the discovery of Standard Oil's part of the deal. A major New York refiner, Charles Pratt and Company, headed by Charles Pratt and Henry H. Rogers, led the opposition to this plan, and railroads soon backed off. The South Improvement Company was a Pennsylvania corporation in 1871-1872. ... Charles Pratt and Company was formed in Brooklyn, New York in the United States by Charles Pratt and Henry H. Rogers in 1867. ... Charles Pratt Charles Pratt (2 October, 1830 - 4 May, 1891) was a United States capitalist, businessman and philanthropist. ... Henry Huttleston Rogers (January 29, 1840 – May 19, 1909) was a United States capitalist, businessman, industrialist, financier, and philanthropist. ...


Undeterred, Rockefeller continued with his self-reinforcing cycle of buying competing refiners, improving the efficiency of his operations, pressing for discounts on oil shipments, undercutting his competition, and buying them out. In six weeks in 1872, Standard Oil had absorbed 22 of its 26 Cleveland competitors. Eventually, even his former antagonists, Pratt and Rogers saw the futility of continuing to compete against Standard Oil, and in 1874, they made a secret agreement with their old nemesis to be acquired. Pratt and Rogers became Rockefeller's partners. Rogers, in particular, became one of Rockefeller's key men in the formation of the Standard Oil Trust. Pratt's son, Charles Millard Pratt became Secretary of Standard Oil.

Standard Oil Trust Certificate 1896
Standard Oil Trust Certificate 1896

For many of his competitors, Rockefeller had merely to show them his books so they could see what they were up against, then make them a decent offer. If they refused his offer, he told them he would run them into bankruptcy, then cheaply buy up their assets at auction. Most capitulated. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (995x607, 195 KB) copy of US Standard Oil trust certificate from 1896. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (995x607, 195 KB) copy of US Standard Oil trust certificate from 1896. ...


Monopoly

Standard Oil gradually gained almost complete control of oil production in America. At that time, many legislatures had made it difficult to incorporate in one state and operate in another. As a result, Rockefeller and his partners owned separate companies across dozens of states, making their management of the whole enterprise rather unwieldy. In 1882, Rockefeller's lawyers created an innovative form of partnership to centralize their holdings, giving birth to the Standard Oil Trust. The partnership's size and wealth drew much attention. Despite improving the quality and availability of kerosene products while greatly reducing their cost to the public (the price of kerosene dropped by nearly 80% over the life of the company), Standard Oil's business practices created intense controversy. The firm was attacked by journalists and politicians throughout its existence, in part for its monopolistic practices, giving momentum to the anti-trust movement. Standard Oil was an oil refining organization founded by John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937) and partners beginning in 1863. ... This article is about the economic term. ... Media:Example. ...


One of the most effective attacks on Rockefeller and his firm was the 1904 publication of The History of the Standard Oil Company, by Ida Tarbell. Tarbell was a leading muckraker. Although her work prompted a huge backlash against the company, Tarbell claims to have been surprised at its magnitude. “I never had an animus against their size and wealth, never objected to their corporate form. I was willing that they should combine and grow as big and wealthy as they could, but only by legitimate means. But they had never played fair, and that ruined their greatness for me.” (Tarbell's father had been driven out of the oil business during the South Improvement Company affair.) Ida Tarbell Ida Minerva Tarbell (November 5, 1857 - January 6, 1944) was an American author and journalist, known as one of the leading muckrakers. ... Bold text McClures Magazine (cover, Jan, 1901) published many early muckraker articles. ... The South Improvement Company was a Pennsylvania corporation in 1871-1872. ...

Rockefeller as an industrial emperor, 1901 cartoon from Puck magazine
Rockefeller as an industrial emperor, 1901 cartoon from Puck magazine

Ohio was especially vigorous in applying its state anti-trust laws, and finally forced a separation of Standard Oil of Ohio from the rest of the company in 1892, leading to the dissolution of the trust. Rockefeller continued to consolidate his oil interests as best as he could until New Jersey, in 1899, changed its incorporation laws to effectively allow a re-creation of the trust in the form of a single holding company. At its peak, Standard Oil had about 90% of the market for kerosene products. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (563x873, 105 KB) Summary 1907 US cartoon from Puck Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (563x873, 105 KB) Summary 1907 US cartoon from Puck Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ...


By 1896, Rockefeller shed all of his policy involvement in the affairs of Standard Oil; however he retained his nominal title as president until 1911; he kept his stock.


In 1911, the Supreme Court of the United States held that Standard Oil, which by then still had a 64% market share, originated in illegal monopoly practices and ordered it to be broken up into 34 new companies. These included, among many others, Continental Oil, which became Conoco; Standard of Indiana, which became Amoco; Standard of California, which became Chevron; Standard of New Jersey, which became Esso (and later, Exxon); Standard of New York, which became Mobil; and Standard of Ohio, which became Sohio. Rockefeller, who had rarely sold shares, owned stock in all of them. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... Categories: Companies traded on NYSE | Corporation stubs | Oil companies of the United States | Fortune 500 companies | Companies based in Texas ... The American Oil Company, or Amoco, was a global chemical and oil company, founded in Baltimore in 1910 and incorporated in 1922 by Louis Blaustein and his son Jacob, but now part of BP. The firms early innovations include the gasoline tanker truck and the drive-through filling station. ... Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ... This article is about the trade name. ... This article is about the fuel brand. ... Mobil gas station in the Loisaida section of the East Village of New York City Mobil was a major American oil company which merged with Exxon in 1999 to form ExxonMobil. ... Standard Oil of Ohio or Sohio was an American oil company that was acquired by British Petroleum, now part of BP. It was one of the successor companies to Standard Oil after the antitrust breakup in 1911. ...


Philanthropy

From his very first paycheck, Rockefeller tithed ten percent of his earnings to his church. As his wealth grew, so did his giving, primarily to educational and public health causes, but also for basic science and the arts. He was advised primarily by Frederick T. Gates after 1891, and, after 1897, also by his son. A tithe (from Old English teogoþa tenth) is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a (usually) voluntary contribution or as a tax or levy, usually to support a Jewish or Christian religious organization. ... Frederick T. Gates (1853-1929) was a leading American philanthropist, and the main philanthropic advisor to John D. Rockefeller from 1891 to 1912. ...


Rockefeller believed in the Efficiency Movement, arguing that The Efficiency Movement was a major dimension of the Progressive Era in the United States. ...

"To help an inefficient, ill-located, unnecessary school is a waste...it is highly probable that enough money has been squandered on unwise educational projects to have built up a national system of higher education adequate to our needs, if the money had been properly directed to that end."

He and his advisors invented the conditional grant that required the recipient to "root the institution in the affections of as many people as possible who, as contributors, become personally concerned, and thereafter may be counted on to give to the institution their watchful interest and cooperation."[7]


In 1884, he provided major funding for a college in Atlanta for black women that became Spelman College (named for Rockefeller's in-laws who were ardent abolitionists before the Civil War). Rockefeller also gave considerable donations to Denison University and other Baptist colleges. Spelman College is a four-year liberal arts womans college in Atlanta, Georgia. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Rockefeller gave $80 million to the University of Chicago under William Rainey Harper, turning a small Baptist college into a world-class institution by 1900. He later called it "the best investment I ever made."[8] His General Education Board, founded in 1902, was established to promote education at all levels everywhere in the country. It was especially active in supporting black schools in the South. Its most dramatic impact came by funding the recommendations of the Flexner Report of 1910, which had been funded by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching; it revolutionized the study of medicine in the United States. Rockefeller also provided financial support to Yale, Harvard, Columbia, Brown, Bryn Mawr, Wellesley and Vassar. For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... William Rainey Harper ( 1856- 1906) Noted academic; organizer and first President of the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. ... The General Education Board was a philanthopy created by John D. Rockefeller and Frederick T. Gates in 1902. ... The Flexner Report, written by the professional educator Abraham Flexner (1866-1959), advocated radical change in the way medical schools were run in Canada and the United States. ... Carnagie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching was founded by Andrew Carnegie in 1905 and chartered in 1906 by an Act of Congress. ...


Despite his personal preference for homeopathy, Rockefeller, on Gates's advice, became one of the first great benefactors of medical science. In 1901, he founded the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in New York. It changed its name to Rockefeller University in 1965, after expanding its mission to include graduate education. It claims a connection to 23 Nobel laureates. He founded the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission in 1909, an organization that eventually eradicated the hookworm disease that had long plagued the American South. The Rockefeller Foundation was created in 1913 to continue and expand the scope of the work of the Sanitary Commission, which was closed in 1915. He gave nearly $250 million to the foundation, which focused on public health, medical training, and the arts. It endowed Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, the first of its kind. It built the Peking Union Medical College into a great institution, helped in World War I war relief, and it employed William Lyon Mackenzie King of Canada to study industrial relations. Rockefeller's fourth main philanthropy, the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Foundation, created in 1918, supported work in the social studies; it was later absorbed into the Rockefeller Foundation. However, all told, Rockefeller gave away about $550 million. Homeopathic remedy Rhus toxicodendron, derived from poison ivy. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... Founders Hall Rockefeller University is a private university focusing primarily on graduate and postgraduate education research in the biomedical fields, located between 63rd and 68th Streets along York Avenue, on the Upper East Side of Manhattan island in New York City, New York. ... Founders Hall Rockefeller University is a private university focusing primarily on graduate and postgraduate education research in the biomedical fields, located between 63rd and 68th Streets along York Avenue, on the Upper East Side of Manhattan island in New York City, New York. ... Species Species N. americanus and A. duodenale The hookworm is a parasitic worm (nematode) that lives in the small intestine of its host, which may be a mammal such as a dog, cat, or human. ... The Rockefeller Foundation (RF) is a prominent philanthropic organization based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. ... The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health is part of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. It was the first institution of its kind in the world. ... Peking Union Medical College (中国协和医科大学) is a university in Beijing, China. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Not to be confused with William Lyon Mackenzie, Mackenzie Kings grandfather. ...


Oddly enough, Rockefeller was probably best known in his later life for the practice of giving dimes to children wherever he went. He even gave dimes as a playful gesture to men like tire mogul Harvey Firestone and President Hoover. During the Great Depression, Rockefeller switched to giving nickels instead of dimes. Harvey Samuel Firestone was the founder of the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company, one of the first global makers of automobile tires and an important contributor to North American economic growth in the 20th century. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


Legacy

John D. Rockefeller's painting by John Singer Sargent in 1917
John D. Rockefeller's painting by John Singer Sargent in 1917

As a youth, Rockefeller allegedly said that his two great ambitions were to make $100,000 and to live 100 years. Rockefeller died on May 23, 1937, 26 months shy of his 100th birthday, at the Casements, his home in Ormond Beach, Florida. He was buried in Lake View Cemetery in Cleveland. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 434 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (633 × 874 pixel, file size: 134 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) John D. Rockefeller painted in 1917 by John Singer Sargent. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 434 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (633 × 874 pixel, file size: 134 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) John D. Rockefeller painted in 1917 by John Singer Sargent. ... Self Portrait, 1906, oil on canvas, 70 x 53 cm, Uffizi Gallery, Florence. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Casements in Rockefellers day; courtesy of the Florida Photographic Collection The Casements is a building in Ormond Beach constructed in 1910 by the Reverend Harwood Huntington, husband of a Pullman heiress. ... Ormond Beach is a city located in Volusia County, Florida. ... Lakeview Cemetary, Cleveland, Ohio Founded in 1869, Lake View Cemetery sits on 285 acres (1. ...


Rockefeller had a long and controversial career in the industry followed by a long career in philanthropy. His image is an amalgam of all of these experiences and the many ways he was viewed by his contemporaries. These contemporaries include his former competitors, many of whom were driven to ruin, but many others of whom sold out at a profit (or a profitable stake in Standard Oil, as Rockefeller often offered his shares as payment for a business), and quite a few of whom became very wealthy as managers as well as owners in Standard Oil. They also include politicians and writers, some of whom served Rockefeller's interests, and some of whom built their careers by fighting Rockefeller and the "robber barons." This article is about mixtures (alloys) of mercury with other elements. ... John D. Rockefeller Sr. ...


Biographer Allan Nevins, answering Rockefeller's enemies, concluded:

The rise of the Standard Oil men to great wealth was not from poverty. It was not meteor-like, but accomplished over a quarter of a century by courageous venturing in a field so risky that most large capitalists avoided it, by arduous labors, and by more sagacious and farsighted planning than had been applied to any other American industry. The oil fortunes of 1894 were not larger than steel fortunes, banking fortunes, and railroad fortunes made in similar periods. But it is the assertion that the Standard magnates gained their wealth by appropriating "the property of others" that most challenges our attention. We have abundant evidence that Rockefeller's consistent policy was to offer fair terms to competitors and to buy them out, for cash, stock, or both, at fair appraisals; we have the statement of one impartial historian that Rockefeller was decidedly "more humane toward competitors" than Carnegie; we have the conclusion of another that his wealth was "the least tainted of all the great fortunes of his day."[9] Andrew Carnegie (last name pronounced IPA: )[1] (November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was a Scottish industrialist, businessman, a major philanthropist, and the founder of Pittsburghs Carnegie Steel Company which later became U.S. Steel. ...

Biographer Ron Chernow wrote of Rockefeller:

What makes him problematic—and why he continues to inspire ambivalent reactions—-is that his good side was every bit as good as his bad side was bad. Seldom has history produced such a contradictory figure."[10]

Notwithstanding these varied aspects of his public life, Rockefeller may ultimately be remembered simply for the raw size of his wealth. In 1902, an audit showed Rockefeller was worth about $200 million—compared to the total national wealth that year of $101 billion. His wealth grew significantly after as the demand for gasoline soared, eventually reaching about $900 million, including significant interests in banking, shipping, mining, railroads, and other industries. By the time of his death in 1937, Rockefeller's remaining fortune, largely tied up in permanent family trusts, was estimated at $1.4 billion. Rockefeller's net worth over the last decades of his life would easily place him among the very wealthiest persons in history. As a percentage of the United States economy, no other American fortune—including Bill Gates or Sam Walton—would even come close. For other persons named Bill Gates, see Bill Gates (disambiguation). ... Samuel Moore Walton (March 29, 1918 – April 6, 1992), born in Kingfisher, Oklahoma was the founder of two American retailers Wal-Mart and Sams Club. ...


The Rockefeller wealth, distributed as it was through a system of foundations and trusts, continued to fund family philanthropic, commercial, and, eventually, political aspirations throughout the 20th century. Grandson David Rockefeller was a leading New York banker, serving for over 20 years as CEO of Chase Manhattan (now the retail financial services arm of JP Morgan Chase). Another grandson, Nelson A. Rockefeller, was Republican governor of New York and the 41st Vice President of the United States. A third grandson, Winthrop Rockefeller, served as Republican Governor of Arkansas. Great-grandson, John D. "Jay" Rockefeller IV is currently a Democratic Senator from West Virginia, and another, Winthrop Paul Rockefeller, served ten years as Lieutenant Governor of Arkansas. David Rockefeller, Sr. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 - January 26, 1979) was a Governor of New York and the 41st Vice President of the United States of America from December 19, 1974 to January 20, 1977. ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... This article is about the Governor of Arkansas (1967-1971). ... This is a list of governors of Arkansas. ... John Davison Rockefeller IV (born June 18, 1937), generally known as Jay Rockefeller, has served as a Democratic U.S. Senator from West Virginia since 1985. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 19, 1863. ... Winthrop Paul Win Rockefeller (September 17, 1948 – July 16, 2006) was Lieutenant Governor of the U.S. state of Arkansas from 1996 until his death. ...


In popular culture

Rockefeller has passed into popular culture as the embodiment of wealth. Oysters Rockefeller was named for him because the dish was so 'rich'. The Rockefeller family was a major benefactor in funding the reconstruction effort in France after World War I. As a consequence, Rockefeller (along with the Rothschilds) was considered in that country the canonical billionaire—synonymous with extreme wealth. John D. Rockerduck is a Disney character popular in Europe who is a foil to other well-known rich duck, the avaricious Scrooge McDuck. Oysters Rockefeller is a famous oyster dish created at the New Orleans institution Antoines. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Rothschild Coat of Arms The Mayer Amschel Rothschild family (often referred to simply as The Rothschilds), is an eminent international banking and finance dynasty of German Jewish origin that established operations across Europe, and was ennobled by the Austrian and British governments. ... A billionaire is a person who has a net worth of at least one billion units of currency, such as United States Dollars (USD), Pounds or Euros. ... John D. Rockerduck is a fictional character from the Scrooge McDuck Universe. ... Alternate meanings: Disney (disambiguation) The Walt Disney Company (also known as Disney Enterprises, Inc. ... Scrooge McDuck or Uncle Scrooge is a fictional Scottish-born Glaswegian[1]anthropomorphic duck created by Carl Barks that first appeared in Four Color Comics #178, Christmas on Bear Mountain, published by Dell Comics in December, 1947. ...


Controversy

John D. Rockefeller laid claim to the title of being the "most ruthless American". He was a war profiteer during the Civil War selling unstamped Harkness liquor to Federal troops at a high profit, gaining the initial capital to embark on his drive for monopoly in the oil business.


In 1870 Rockefeller, along with his associates and older brother William, incorporated his petroleum holdings into the Standard Oil Company (Ohio). Rockefeller bought out his competitors or put them out of business through tactics that included price cutting and the acquisition of such supporting enterprises as pipelines, oil terminals, and cooperage plants. By 1881, when Rockefeller formed a trust with nine directors to control Standard Oil and its affiliates, he had a near monopoly of the petroleum industry in the United States. Rockefeller was also prominent in the affairs of railroads and banks, being second only to J. P. Morgan in the domain of finance.


When the United States Steel Corporation was formed (1901), Rockefeller was one of the directors. From 1897 Rockefeller had turned his interests toward philanthropy. He funded the Baptist Church, the YMCA, and to the Anti-Saloon League, and founded (1892) and endowed the University of Chicago, ultimately giving the school more than 80 million dollars. He endowed major philanthropic institutions, including the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, founded (1901) in New York City and since 1965 known as Rockefeller University, the General Education Board (1902), organized (1902) to make gifts to various educational and research agencies; the Rockefeller Foundation (1913), established to promote public health and to further the medical, natural, and social sciences; and the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Foundation (1918), named for his late wife.


1889 Rockefeller [made] the first of what would become $35 million in gifts, over a period of two decades, to found the University of Chicago. In 1903 he created the General Education Board at an ultimate cost of $129 million to promote education in the United States. Rockefeller was prepared to begin the Rockefeller Foundation in 1909, even signing a deed of trust to turn over 72,569 shares of Standard Oil of New Jersey stock worth $50 million. But delays and difficulties in seeking a federal charter for the Foundation resulted in a lapse until 1913, when the Foundation was officially incorporated in the state of New York. Since its inception the Rockefeller Foundation has given more than $2 billion to thousands of grantees worldwide and has assisted directly in the training of nearly 13,000 Rockefeller Foundation Fellows...


Quotations

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
  • "Let the good work go on. We must ever remember we are refining oil for the poor man and he must have it cheap and good." - Rockefeller in a letter in 1885, to one of his partners in the Standard Oil Trust.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

Children

Elizabeth Bessie Rockefeller Strong (1866–1906) was the oldest child of oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller (1839–1937) and his wife Laura Celestia Cettie Spelman (1839–1915). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Alice Rockefeller (1869–1870) was the second daughter born to Standard Oil co-founder John D. Rockefeller and his wife, wife Laura Celestia Cettie Spelman. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Alta Rockefeller Prentice (April 12, 1871–1962) was the third daughter of oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller (1839–1937) and his wife Laura Celestia Cettie Spelman (1839–1915). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edith Rockefeller McCormick (1872–1937) was an American socialite and opera patron. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... John D. Rockefeller Jr. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Standard Oil was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. ... Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil (NYSE: XOM), headquartered in Irving, Texas, is an oil producer and distributor formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ... The Rockefeller family, the family of John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937) (Senior) and his brother William Rockefeller (1841-1922), is an American industrial, banking, philanthropic, and political family of German American origin that made the worlds largest private fortune in the oil business during the late 19th and early... The Rockefeller Foundation (RF) is a prominent philanthropic organization based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. ... Founders Hall Rockefeller University is a private university focusing primarily on graduate and postgraduate education research in the biomedical fields, located between 63rd and 68th Streets along York Avenue, on the Upper East Side of Manhattan island in New York City, New York. ... Lower Plaza at Rockefeller Center. ... John D. Rockefeller Jr. ... Stephen Harkness was an American bussinessman who ate snails and chili dogs and invested along with the oil titan, John D. Rockefeller, Sr. ... Laura Spelman Rockefeller, (known as Cettie) (1839-1915) was a philanthropist, namesake of Spelman College and wife to John D. Rockefeller. ... Frederick T. Gates (1853-1929) was a leading American philanthropist, and the main philanthropic advisor to John D. Rockefeller from 1891 to 1912. ... William Rockefeller (May 31, 1841-June 24, 1922), American financier, was a cofounder of the prominent United States Rockefeller family. ... Henry Morrison Flagler (January 2, 1830 – May 20, 1913) was a United States tycoon, real estate promoter, railroad developer and Rockefeller partner. ... Henry Huttleston Rogers (January 29, 1840 – May 19, 1909) was a United States capitalist, businessman, industrialist, financier, and philanthropist. ... Charles Pratt Charles Pratt (2 October, 1830 - 4 May, 1891) was a United States capitalist, businessman and philanthropist. ... John Dustin Archbold (1848-1916) was an American capitalist and one of the United States earliest oil refiners. ... Ida Tarbell Ida Minerva Tarbell (November 5, 1857 - January 6, 1944) was an American author and journalist, known as one of the leading muckrakers. ... Ivy Ledbetter Lee (July 16, 1877 – November 9, 1934) is considered by some to be the founder of modern public relations, although the title could also be held by Edward Bernays. ... Jay Gould (1836-1892) Jason Gould (May 27, 1836 – December 2, 1892) was an American financier. ... Andrew Carnegie (last name pronounced IPA: )[1] (November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was a Scottish industrialist, businessman, a major philanthropist, and the founder of Pittsburghs Carnegie Steel Company which later became U.S. Steel. ... This article is about the financier. ... GE Building at Rockefeller Center The GE Building at night Close-up against the night sky At night, from the ground View from Top of the Rock at dusk The GE Building is a slim gothic skyscraper and the focal point at the Rockefeller Center. ... Kykuit was built for John D. Rockefeller in 1913 by the architects Chester Holmes Aldrich and William Adams Delano. ... This article is about the economic term. ... The oil industry is a type of industry which brings petroleum to a financial market. ... John D. Rockefeller Sr. ...

Bibliography

  • Bringhurst, Bruce. Antitrust and the Oil Monopoly: The Standard Oil Cases,. New York: Greenwood Press, 1979.
  • Chernow, Ron. Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. Warner Books. (1998). ISBN 0-679-75703-1 Online review.
  • Collier, Peter, and David Horowitz. The Rockefellers: An American Dynasty. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976.
  • Ernst, Joseph W., editor. "Dear Father"/"Dear Son:" Correspondence of John D. Rockefeller and John D. Rockefeller, Jr. New York: Fordham University Press, with the Rockefeller Archive Center, 1994.
  • Folsom, Jr., Burton W. The Myth of the Robber Barons. New York: Young America, 2003.
  • Fosdick, Raymond B. The Story of the Rockefeller Foundation. New York: Transaction Publishers, Reprint, 1989.
  • Gates, Frederick Taylor. Chapters in My Life. New York: The Free Press, 1977.
  • Giddens, Paul H. Standard Oil Company (Companies and men). New York: Ayer Co. Publishing, 1976.
  • Goulder, Grace. John D. Rockefeller: The Cleveland Years. Western Reserve Historical Society, 1972.
  • Harr, John Ensor, and Peter J. Johnson. The Rockefeller Century: Three Generations of America's Greatest Family. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1988.
  • Harr, John Ensor, and Peter J. Johnson. The Rockefeller Conscience: An American Family in Public and in Private. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1992.
  • Hawke, David Freeman. John D: The Founding Father of the Rockefellers. New York: Harper and Row, 1980.
  • Hidy, Ralph W. and Muriel E. Hidy. History of Standard Oil Company (New Jersey : Pioneering in Big Business). New York: Ayer Co. Publishing, Reprint, 1987.
  • Jonas, Gerald. The Circuit Riders: Rockefeller Money and the Rise of Modern Science. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1989.
  • Josephson, Matthew. The Robber Barons. London: Harcourt, 1962.
  • Kert, Bernice. Abby Aldrich Rockefeller: The Woman in the Family. New York: Random House, 1993.
  • Klein, Henry H. Dynastic America and Those Who Own It. New York: Kessinger Publishing, [1921] Reprint, 2003.
  • Knowlton, Evelyn H. and George S. Gibb. History of Standard Oil Company: Resurgent Years 1956.
  • Latham, Earl ed. John D. Rockefeller: Robber Baron or Industrial Statesman? 1949.
  • Manchester, William. A Rockefeller Family Portrait: From John D. to Nelson. New York: Little, Brown, 1958.
  • Morris, Charles R. The Tycoons: How Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, Jay Gould, and J. P. Morgan Invented the American Supereconomy . New York: Owl Books, Reprint, 2006.
  • Nevins, Allan. John D. Rockefeller: The Heroic Age of American Enterprise. 2 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1940.
  • Nevins, Allan. Study in Power: John D. Rockefeller, Industrialist and Philanthropist. 2 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953.
  • Pyle, Tom, as told to Beth Day. Pocantico: Fifty Years on the Rockefeller Domain. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pierce, 1964.
  • Roberts, Ann Rockefeller. The Rockefeller Family Home: Kykuit. New York: Abbeville Publishing Group, 1998.
  • Rockefeller, John D.; Random Reminiscences of Men and Events. New York: Sleepy Hollow Press and Rockefeller Archive Center, 1984 [1909].
  • Rose, Kenneth W. and Stapleton, Darwin H. "Toward a "Universal Heritage": Education and the Development of Rockefeller Philanthropy, 1884; 1913 " Teachers College Record" 1992/93(3): 536-555. ISSN.
  • Sampson, Anthony. The Seven Sisters: The Great Oil Companies and the World They Made. Hodder & Stoughton., 1975.
  • Stasz, Clarice. The Rockefeller Women: Dynasty of Piety, Privacy, and Service. St. Martins Press, 1995.
  • Tarbell, Ida M. The History of the Standard Oil Company 2 vols, Gloucester, Mass: Peter Smith , 1963. [1904].
  • Williamson, Harold F. and Arnold R. Daum. The American Petroleum Industry: The Age of Illumination,, 1959; also vol 2, American Petroleum Industry: The Age of Energy, 1964.
  • Yergin, Daniel. The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.

Joseph Allan Nevins (May 20, 1890 - March 5, 1971) was an educator, historian, and author and journalist. ... Daniel H. Yergin (born February 6, 1947) is an American author and economic researcher. ... The Prize (1991; ISBN 0671502484) is Daniel Yergins 800-page history of the global oil industry from the 1850s through 1990. ...

References

  1. ^ Top 10 Richest Men Of All Time. AskMen.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  2. ^ The Rockefellers. PBS. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  3. ^ The Richest Americans. Fortune. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  4. ^ The Wealthiest Americans Ever. The New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  5. ^ Chernow, (1998) p. 10
  6. ^ Chernow, (1998)
  7. ^ [Rockefeller p 183]
  8. ^ A Brief History of the University of Chicago. The University of Chicago (2000). Retrieved on 2006-04-30.
  9. ^ [Latham p 104]
  10. ^ [Chernow, Ron. Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. 1998]

AskMen. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up fortune in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Persondata
NAME Rockefeller, John Davison
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Rockefeller, John
SHORT DESCRIPTION American industrialist, philanthropist
DATE OF BIRTH 8 July 1839
PLACE OF BIRTH Richford, New York, U.S.A
DATE OF DEATH 23 May 1937
PLACE OF DEATH The Casements, Ormond Beach, Florida

 
 

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