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Encyclopedia > John Curtin
Rt Hon John Curtin


In office
7 October 1941 – 5 July 1945
Preceded by Arthur Fadden
Succeeded by Frank Forde

Born 8 January 1885(1885-01-08)
Creswick, Victoria, Australia
Died 5 July 1945 (aged 60)
Canberra, ACT
Political party Labor

John Joseph Curtin (8 January 18855 July 1945), Australian politician and 14th Prime Minister of Australia, led Australia when the Australian mainland came under direct military threat during the Japanese advance in World War II. He is widely regarded as one of the country's greatest Prime Ministers.[1] General Douglas MacArthur said that Curtin was "one of the greatest of the wartime statesmen".[2] His Prime Ministerial predecessor, Arthur Fadden of the Country Party wrote: "I do not care who knows it but in my opinion there was no greater figure in Australia public life in my lifetime than Curtin."[3] This article is about the California state senator. ... John Curtin This work is copyrighted. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on October 23, 1937. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on September 21, 1940. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on August 21, 1943. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Sir Arthur William Fadden GCMG (April 13, 1895–April 21, 1973), Australian politician and 13th Prime Minister of Australia, born at Ingham, Queensland, the son of a Presbyterian police officer. ... Francis Michael Forde (18 July 1890 – 28 January 1983) was an Australian politician and the 15th Prime Minister of Australia. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Creswick is a town in west-central Victoria, Australia. ... “VIC” redirects here. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Sir Arthur William Fadden GCMG (April 13, 1895–April 21, 1973), Australian politician and 13th Prime Minister of Australia, born at Ingham, Queensland, the son of a Presbyterian police officer. ... The National Party of Australia is an Australian political party. ...

Contents

Militant youth

John Curtin in 1908
John Curtin in 1914

Curtin was born in Creswick in central Victoria. (His name is sometimes shown as "John Joseph Ambrose Curtin". He chose the name "Ambrose" as a Catholic confirmation name at around age 14, but this was never part of his legal name. He left the Catholic faith as a young man, and also dropped the "Joseph" from his name.) Image File history File links Size of this preview: 444 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (523 × 706 pixel, file size: 37 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)John Curtin in his early 20s, c1908. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 444 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (523 × 706 pixel, file size: 37 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)John Curtin in his early 20s, c1908. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1332x2021, 1016 KB) 1means the typographical arrangement and layout of a published work. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1332x2021, 1016 KB) 1means the typographical arrangement and layout of a published work. ... Creswick is a town in west-central Victoria, Australia. ... “VIC” redirects here. ...


His father was a police officer of Irish descent. He had some primary education, but by the age of twelve he was working in a factory in Melbourne. He soon became active in both the Australian Labor Party and the Victorian Socialist Party, a Marxist group. He wrote for radical and socialist newspapers as "Jack Curtin". This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Victorian Socialist Party (VSP) was a socialist political party in Victoria, Australia in the early 20th century. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ...


In 1911 Curtin was employed as secretary of the Timberworkers' Union, and during World War I he was a militant anti-conscriptionist. He was the Labor candidate for Balaclava in 1914. He was briefly imprisoned for refusing to attend a compulsory medical examination, even though he knew he would fail the exam due to his very poor eyesight. The strain of this period led him to drink heavily, a vice which blighted his career for many years. In 1917 he married Elsie Needham, the sister of a Labor Senator. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Division of Balaclava was an Australian Electoral Division in Victoria. ...


Labor politician

Curtin moved to Perth in 1918 to become editor of the Westralian Worker, the official trade union newspaper. He enjoyed the less pressured life of Western Australia and his political views gradually moderated. He stood for Parliament several times before winning the federal seat of Fremantle in 1928. He expected to be chosen as a minister in James Scullin's Labor cabinet when it was formed in 1929, but disapproval of his drinking kept him on the back bench. He lost his seat in 1931, but won it back three years later. Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $100,900 (4th)  - Product per capita  $50,355/person... The Division of Fremantle is an Australian Electoral Division in Western Australia. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... James Henry Scullin (September 18, 1876 – January 28, 1953), Australian Labor politician and ninth Prime Minister of Australia. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


When Scullin resigned as Labor leader in 1935, Curtin was unexpectedly elected (by just one vote) to succeed him. The left wing and trade union group in the Caucus backed him because his better known rival, Frank Forde, had supported the economic policies of the Scullin administration. This group also made him promise to give up drinking, which he did. He made little progress against Joseph Lyons' government (which was returned to office at the 1937 election by a comfortable margin); but after Lyons' death in 1939, Labor's position improved. Curtin fell only a few seats short of winning the 1940 election. 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Francis Michael Forde (18 July 1890 – 28 January 1983) was an Australian politician and the 15th Prime Minister of Australia. ... Joseph Aloysius Lyons (15 September 1879 – 7 April 1939), Australian politician, tenth Prime Minister of Australia. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Prime Minister 1941-45

Curtin with Douglas MacArthur

Curtin refused Robert Menzies' offer to form a wartime "national government," partly because he feared it would split the Labor Party. In October 1941 the two independent MPs who had been keeping the conservatives (led first by Menzies, then by Sir Arthur Fadden) in power since 1940 switched their support to Labor, and Curtin became Prime Minister. Curtin and MacArthur File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Curtin and MacArthur File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, KT, AK, CH, FRS, QC (20 December 1894 – 15 May 1978), Australian politician, was the twelfth and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia, serving eighteen and a half years. ... Sir Arthur William Fadden GCMG (April 13, 1895–April 21, 1973), Australian politician and 13th Prime Minister of Australia, born at Ingham, Queensland, the son of a Presbyterian police officer. ...


On December 8, the Pacific War broke out. Curtin took several crucial decisions. On 26 December, the Melbourne Herald published a New Year's message from Curtin, who wrote: "[w]ithout any inhibitions of any kind, I make it clear that Australia looks to America, free of any pangs as to our traditional links or kinship with the United Kingdom." This was received badly in Australia, the UK and US;[4] it angered Winston Churchill, and President Roosevelt said it "smacked of panic". The article nevertheless achieved the effect of drawing attention to the possibility that Australia would be invaded by Japan. is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Herald was a broadsheet newspaper published in Melbourne Australia from 1840 to 1990. ... The New Year is an event that happens when a culture celebrates the end of one year and the beginning of the next year. ... “Churchill” redirects here. ... FDR redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Curtin formed a close working relationship with the Allied Supreme Commander in the South West Pacific Area, General Douglas MacArthur. Curtin realised that Australia would be ignored unless it had a strong voice in Washington, and he wanted that voice to be MacArthur's. He gave control of Australian forces to MacArthur, directing Australian commanders to treat MacArthur's orders as coming from the Australian government. A map of the Pacific Theater. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ...


The Australian government had agreed that the Australian Army's I Corps — centred on the 6th and 7th Infantry Divisions — would be transferred from North Africa to the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command, in the Netherlands East Indies. In February, following the fall of Singapore and the loss of the 8th Division, Churchill attempted to divert I Corps to reinforce British troops in Burma, without Australian approval. Curtin insisted that it return to Australia, although he agreed that the main body of the 6th Division could garrison Ceylon. I Corps of the Australian Army was the main frontline corps of the army during World War II. Various Australian and other Allied divisions came under its control at various times. ... The 6th Division of the Australian Army was a unit in the Second Australian Imperial Force (2nd AIF) during World War II. It served in the North African campaign, the Greek campaign and the New Guinea campaign, including the crucial battles of the Kokoda Track, among others. ... December 27, 1943. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... ABDACOM Area The American-British-Dutch-Australian (ABDA) Command, code name ABDACOM, was a short-lived, supreme command for all Allied forces in South East Asia, in early 1942, during the Pacific War. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands Indië) was the name of the colonies colonised by the Dutch East India Company which came under administration of the Netherlands during the ninteenth century (see Indonesia). ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... The 8th Division of the Australian Army was formed to serve in World War II, as part of the Second Australian Imperial Force, who were in turn, part of the Allies of World War II. The 8th Division was raised from regular army units and new, all-volunteer infantry brigades...

Wife Elsie Curtin (nee Needham) standing next to John.

The Japanese threat was underlined on February 19, when Japan bombed Darwin, the first of many air raids on northern Australia. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Australia; United States Japan Commanders David V. J. Blake Chuichi Nagumo Strength 30 planes 242 planes Casualties 251 killed 23 planes destroyed 10 ships sunk 1 killed  ? missing; 6 POW Four planes destroyed in Australian airspace; ? failed to return. ... From February 1942 to November 1943, during the Pacific War, the Australian mainland and offshore islands were attacked at least 97 times by aircraft from the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army Air Force. ...


By the end of 1942, the results of the battles of the Coral Sea, Milne Bay and on the Kokoda Track had averted the perceived threat of invasion. In August, Curtin led Labor to its greatest election victory up until that time. Combatants United States Navy Royal Australian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Frank J. Fletcher John G. Crace Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 light carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 fleet carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker sunk 543 killed 1 light carrier... Combatants Australia United States Empire of Japan Commanders Cyril Clowes Nishizo Tsukahara Shojiro Hayashi Minoru Yano Strength 9,000 (half non-combat personnel) 3,200 Casualties about 550 dead 1,000 dead New Guinea campaign Battle for Australia Air raids – Darwin – Broome – Coral Sea – Naval attacks – Sydney & Newcastle – Kokoda – Milne... Combatants  Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Thomas Blamey Sydney Rowell Edmund Herring Arthur Tubby Allen George Vasey Selwyn Porter Arnold Potts Hisaichi Terauchi Yosuke Yokoyama Tomitaro Horii â€  Strength 2,000 plus reinforcements 10,000 plus reinforcements Casualties 725 killed 1,055 wounded Hundreds sick with disease 6,500...


Curtin also expanded the terms of the Defence Act, so that conscripted Militia soldiers could be deployed outside Australia to "such other territories in the South-west Pacific Area as the Governor-General proclaims as being territories associated with the defence of Australia."[5] This met opposition from most of Curtin's old friends on the left, and from many of his colleagues, led by Arthur Calwell. This was despite Curtin furiously opposing conscription during World War I, and again in 1939 when it was introduced by the Menzies government. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Rt Hon Arthur Calwell (with young migrant, 1949) Arthur Augustus Calwell (August 28, 1896 - July 8, 1973) Australian politician, was Leader of the Australian Labor Party from 1960 to 1967. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, KT, AK, CH, FRS, QC (20 December 1894 – 15 May 1978), Australian politician, was the twelfth and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia, serving eighteen and a half years. ...


The stress of this bitter battle inside his own party took a great toll on Curtin's health, never robust even at the best of times. He suffered all his life from stress-related illnesses, and he also smoked heavily. In 1944, when he travelled to Washington and London for meetings with Roosevelt, Churchill and other Allied leaders, he already had heart disease, and in early 1945 his health deteriorated still more obviously. On July 5, 1945, at the age of 60, Curtin died: the second Australian Prime Minister to die in office within six years. He was buried at Karrakatta Cemetery in Perth. MacArthur said of Curtin that "the preservation of Australia from invasion will be his immemorial monument". is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Karrakatta Cemetery is a metropolitan cemetery in the suburb of Karrakatta in Perth, Western Australia. ... The Perth skyline viewed from the Swan River This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ...


He was succeeded as Prime Minister by Frank Forde (briefly) then, after a party ballot, by Ben Chifley. Francis Michael Forde (18 July 1890 – 28 January 1983) was an Australian politician and the 15th Prime Minister of Australia. ... Joseph Benedict Chifley (22 September 1885 – 13 June 1951), Australian politician and 16th Prime Minister of Australia, was one of Australias most influential Prime Ministers. ...


Legacy

John Curtin's grave at Karrakatta Cemetery.
John Curtin's grave at Karrakatta Cemetery.
John Curtin statue at Fremantle Town Hall.
John Curtin statue at Fremantle Town Hall.

Curtin is credited with leading the Australian Labor Party to its best federal election success in history, on a record 55.09% of the primary senate vote at the 1943 election. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 849 KB) Summary Image of John Curtins grave at Karrakatta Cemetery, Perth Western Australia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 849 KB) Summary Image of John Curtins grave at Karrakatta Cemetery, Perth Western Australia. ... Karrakatta Cemetery is a metropolitan cemetery in the suburb of Karrakatta in Perth, Western Australia. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (682 × 1024 pixel, file size: 429 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (682 × 1024 pixel, file size: 429 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The building remains almost unchanged since construction Fremantle Town Hall is a town hall located in the portside city of Fremantle, Western Australia and situated on the corner of High, William and Adelaide Streets. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on August 21, 1943. ...


His early death and the sentiments it aroused have given Curtin a unique place in Australian political history. Successive Labor leaders, particularly Bob Hawke and Kim Beazley, have sought to build on the Curtin tradition of "patriotic Laborism". Even some political conservatives pay at least formal homage to the Curtin legend. Robert James Lee (Bob) Hawke, AC (born 9 December 1929) is a former Australian trade union leader turned politician who became the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia. ... For Kim Beazleys father, Kim Beazley senior, see Kim Edward Beazley. ...


Curtin is commemorated by Curtin University of Technology in Perth, John Curtin College of the Arts in Fremantle the John Curtin School of Medical Research in Canberra and the John Curtin Prime Ministerial Library. On 14 August 2005, V-P Day, a bronze statue of Curtin was unveiled by Premier Geoff Gallop in front of Fremantle Town Hall.
Curtin University of Technology Curtin University of Technology is a university with its main campus at Bentley, southeast of Perth, the capital of Western Australia. ... John Curtin College of the Arts is a high school with student intake from the greater Fremantle area, in Western Australia. ... “Fremantle” redirects here. ... The John Curtin School of Medical Research (JCMSR) is a major biomedial research centre in Australia, based at the Australian National University. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Victory over Japan Day (V-J Day) is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which took place on August 15, 1945, ending the Second World War. ... Professor Geoffrey Ian Gallop (born 27 September 1951), Australian academic and former politician, was the Premier of Western Australia from 2001 to 2006. ...


Popular culture

Michael Blakemore on the cover of his memoir, Arguments with England Michael Howell Blakemore, OBE, (b. ... Death of a Soldier is a 1986 Australian film based on the life of American serial killer Eddie Leonski. ... Terence Donovan (also known as Terry Donovan) is an Australian actor. ... Curtin is a telemovie about the wartime Prime Minister of Australia, John Curtin. ... William McInnes (b. ...

See also

The First Curtin Ministry was the thirtieth Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 7th October 1941 to 21st September 1943. ... The Second Curtin Ministry was the thirty-first Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 21st September 1943 to 6th July 1945. ... Australia entered World War II shortly after the invasion of Poland. ...

Further reading

  • David Day, Chapter 7. John Curtin: Taking his Childhood Seriously, Australian Political Lives: Chronicling political careers and administrative histories
  • Lloyd Ross, John Curtin, MacMillan Company of Australia, 1977, ISBN 0 522 84734 X
  • S.J. Butlin and C.B. Schedvin, War Economy 1942–1945, Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 1997
  • David Day, Curtin: A Life, Harper Collins, 1999
  • John Edwards, Curtin's Gift: Reinterpreting Australia's Greatest Prime Minister, Allen & Unwin, 2005
  • Bob Wurth, "Saving Australia: Curtin’s secret peace with Japan".

Primary sources

  • D. Black, In His Own Words: John Curtin's Speeches and Writings, Paradigm Books, Curtin University, Perth 1995

References

  1. ^ John Curtin. National Archives of Australia. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
  2. ^ General Douglas MacArthur, Reminiscences, Heinemann, London, 1967. Page 258.
  3. ^ Foreword by R.J. Hawke to John Curtin - Saviour of Australia, Norman E Lee, Longman Cheshire, 1983. Page 83
  4. ^ Peter Edwards, "Another look at Curtin and MacArthur" (Australian War Memorial) Access date: 20/04/06.
  5. ^ National Archives of Australia: National service and war, 1939–45

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
John Curtin
  • John Curtin - Australia's Prime Ministers / National Archives of Australia
  • John Curtin Prime Ministerial Library / Curtin University of Technology, Western Australia
  • John Curtin (1885 - 1945) - Australian Dictionary of Biography, Online Edition
Political offices
Preceded by
James Scullin
Leader of the Opposition
1935 – 1941
Succeeded by
Arthur Fadden
Preceded by
Arthur Fadden
Prime Minister of Australia
1941 – 1945
Succeeded by
Frank Forde
Parliament of Australia
Preceded by
William Watson
Member for Fremantle
1928 – 1931
Succeeded by
William Watson
Member for Fremantle
1934 – 1945
Succeeded by
Kim Beazley (senior)
Party political offices
Preceded by
James Scullin
Leader of the Australian Labor Party
1935 – 1945
Succeeded by
Ben Chifley
Prime Ministers of Australia
Barton | Deakin | Watson | Reid | Fisher | Cook | Hughes | Bruce | Scullin | Lyons | Page | Menzies | Fadden | Curtin | Forde | Chifley | Holt | McEwen | Gorton | McMahon | Whitlam | Fraser | Hawke | Keating | Howard

  Results from FactBites:
 
John Curtin (935 words)
Curtin became prime minister in 1941 and was able to concentrate the efforts of his party on winning the war.
John Curtin was born on 8 July, 1885 in the Victorian town of Crewick, near Ballarat.
Curtin approved the appointment of General Douglas MacArthur, who had escaped the Philippines ahead of the Japanese advance, to assume ultimate responsibility for the Allied effort in the Pacific.
Biography of John Curtin (6955 words)
John Joseph Ambrose Curtin was born in Creswick, Victoria on 8 January 1885, the eldest son of John Curtin (born 1853) and Catherine Bourke (born 1856), Irish immigrants who had married at St Patrick's Cathedral in Melbourne in June 1883.
Curtin was also finding it increasingly difficult to persuade the timber workers to respond to the socialist causes espoused in his articles in the union's journal and in November 1915 he resigned as union secretary.
One major source of concern to Curtin for much of the war was the ongoing conflict with sections of the trade union movement on the coalfields, which at times drove him to the point of despair; 34 however, despite numerous outbreaks of industrial conflict, no major strike took place.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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