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Encyclopedia > John Constable
A self portrait by John Constable
A self portrait by John Constable

John Constable (11 June 177631 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. Born in Suffolk, he is known principally for his landscape paintings of Dedham Vale, the area surrounding his home—now known as "Constable Country"—which he invested with an intensity of affection. "I should paint my own places best", he wrote to his friend John Fisher in 1821, "painting is but another word for feeling".[1] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (662x990, 1403 KB) John Constables Self Portrait, British Painter The portrait copied from a Chinese book published in 1961 before the copyright law of China established in 1991. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (662x990, 1403 KB) John Constables Self Portrait, British Painter The portrait copied from a Chinese book published in 1961 before the copyright law of China established in 1991. ... Self-portrait by Vincent Van Gogh A portrait is a painting, photograph, or other artistic representation of a person. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the industrial revolution. ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... Dedham Vale is a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty on the Suffolk-Essex border. ...


His most famous paintings include Dedham Vale of 1802 and The Hay Wain of 1821. Although his paintings are now among the most popular and valuable in British art, he was never financially successful and did not become a member of the establishment until he was elected to the Royal Academy at the age of 43. He sold more paintings in France than in his native England. Dedham Vale is a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty on the Suffolk-Essex border. ... --69. ... The Hay Wain is an oil on canvas painting by John Constable. ... The coronation banquet for George IV 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article refers to an art institution in London. ...

Contents

Biography

Early career

John Constable was born in East Bergholt, a village on the River Stour in Suffolk, to Golding and Ann Constable. His father was a wealthy corn merchant, owner of Flatford Mill and, later, Dedham Mill. Although Constable was his parents' second son, his older brother was mentally handicapped and so John was expected to succeed his father in the business. He worked at the corn business after leaving school, but his younger brother Abram eventually took over the running of the mills. Waterloo celebration in East Bergholt, John Constable, 1st quarter of 19th century East Bergholt is a village in the south of Suffolk, England, just north of the Essex border. ... The River Stour is a river in East Anglia, England. ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... Flatford Mill Flatford Mill is a Grade I listed 18th Century watermill built in 1733 in Flatford, East Bergholt, Suffolk, England. ...


In his youth, Constable embarked on amateur sketching trips in the surrounding Suffolk countryside that was to become the subject of a large proportion of his art. These scenes, in his own words, "made me a painter, and I am grateful"; "the sound of water escaping from mill dams etc., willows, old rotten planks, slimy posts, and brickwork, I love such things."[2] He was introduced to George Beaumont, a collector, who showed him his prized Hagar and the Angel by Claude Lorrain, which inspired Constable. Later, while visiting relatives in Middlesex, he was introduced to the professional artist John Thomas Smith, who advised him on painting but also urged him to remain in his father's business rather than take up art professionally. Claude Lorrain (Lorraine, c. ...

Constable's Dedham Vale of 1802
Constable's Dedham Vale of 1802

In 1799, Constable persuaded his father to let him pursue art, and Golding even granted him a small allowance. Entering the Royal Academy Schools as a probationer, he attended life classes and anatomical dissections as well as studying and copying Old Masters. Among works that particularly inspired him during this period were paintings by Thomas Gainsborough, Claude Lorrain, Peter Paul Rubens, Annibale Carracci and Jacob van Ruisdael. He also read widely among poetry and sermons, and later proved a notably articulate artist. By 1803, he was exhibiting paintings at the Royal Academy. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (580x750, 163 KB) John Constable, Dedham Vale, 1802, oil on canvas, Victoria and Albert Museum, London. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (580x750, 163 KB) John Constable, Dedham Vale, 1802, oil on canvas, Victoria and Albert Museum, London. ... Self-portrait, painted 1759 Thomas Gainsborough (May 14, 1727 (baptised) – August 2, 1788) was one of the most famous portrait and landscape painters of 18th century Britain. ... Claude Lorrain (Lorraine, c. ... Rubens and Isabella Brant in the Honeysuckle Bower Alte Pinakothek Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was the most popular and prolific Flemish and European painter of the 17th century. ... The Flight into Egypt (1603) Annibale Carracci (November 3, 1560, in Bologna - July 15, 1609, in Rome) was a prominent Bolognese Baroque painter. ... Bentheim Castle (1653) Jacob Izaaksoon van Ruysdael (or Ruisdaal) (c. ...


In 1802 he refused the position of drawing master at Great Marlow Military College, a move which Benjamin West (then master of the RA) counselled would mean the end of his career. In that year, Constable wrote a letter to John Dunthorne in which he spelled out his determination to become a professional landscape painter: Self Portrait of Benjamin West, ca. ...

For the last two years I have been running after pictures, and seeking the truth at second hand. I have not endeavoured to represent nature with the same elevation of mind with which I set out, but have rather tried to make my performances look like the work of other men…There is room enough for a natural painter. The great vice of the present day is bravura, an attempt to do something beyond the truth.[3]

His early style has many of the qualities associated with his mature work, including a freshness of light, colour and touch, and reveals the compositional influence of the Old Masters he had studied, notably of Claude Lorrain.[4] Constable's usual subjects, scenes of ordinary daily life, were unfashionable in an age that looked for more romantic visions of wild landscapes and ruins, though he did make occasional trips further afield; for example, in 1803 he spent almost a month aboard the East Indiaman ship Coutts as it visited south-east coastal ports, and in 1806 he undertook a two-month tour of the Lake District.[5] But he told his friend and biographer Charles Leslie that the solitude of the mountains oppressed his spirits; Leslie went on to write: Claude Lorrain (Lorraine, c. ... An East Indiaman was a ship belonging to the British East India Company. ...

His nature was peculiarly social and could not feel satisfied with scenery, however grand in itself, that did not abound in human associations. He required villages, churches, farmhouses and cottages.[6]

In order to make ends meet, Constable took up portraiture, which he found dull work—though he executed many fine portraits. He also painted occasional religious pictures, but according to John Walker, "Constable's incapacity as a religious painter cannot be overstated."[7]


Constable adopted a routine of spending the winter in London and painting at East Bergholt in the summer. And in 1811 he first visited John Fisher and his family in Salisbury, a city whose cathedral and surrounding landscape were to inspire some of his greatest paintings.


Marriage and maturity

Maria Bicknell, painted by Constable in 1816
Maria Bicknell, painted by Constable in 1816

From 1809 onwards, his childhood friendship with Maria Bicknell developed into a deep, mutual love. But their engagement in 1816 was opposed by Maria's grandfather, Dr Rhudde, rector of East Bergholt, who considered the Constables his social inferiors and threatened Maria with disinheritance. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x2062, 460 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: John Constable ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x2062, 460 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: John Constable ... Waterloo celebration in East Bergholt, John Constable, 1st quarter of 19th century East Bergholt is a village in the south of Suffolk, England, just north of the Essex border. ...


Maria's father, Charles Bicknell, a solicitor, was reluctant to see Maria throw away this inheritance, and Maria herself pointed out that a penniless marriage would detract from any chances John had of making a career in painting.


Golding and Ann Constable, while approving the match, held out no prospect of supporting the marriage until Constable was financially secure; but they died in quick succession, and Constable inherited a fifth share in the family business.

Constable's Weymouth Bay
Constable's Weymouth Bay

John and Maria's marriage in October 1816 was followed by a honeymoon tour of the south coast, where the sea at Weymouth and Brighton stimulated Constable to develop new techniques of brilliant colour and vivacious brushwork. At the same time, a greater emotional range began to register in his art.[8] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1810, 435 KB) Description: Title: de: Weymouth Bay Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 53 × 75 cm Country of origin: de: Großbritanien Current location (city): de: London Current location (gallery): de: National Gallery Other notes: de: Landschaftsmalerei Source: The... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1810, 435 KB) Description: Title: de: Weymouth Bay Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 53 × 75 cm Country of origin: de: Großbritanien Current location (city): de: London Current location (gallery): de: National Gallery Other notes: de: Landschaftsmalerei Source: The...


Although he had scraped an income from painting, it was not until 1819 that Constable sold his first important canvas, The White Horse, which led to a series of "six footers", as he called his large-scale paintings.


He was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy that year, and in 1821 he showed The Hay Wain (a view from Flatford Mill) at the Academy's exhibition. Théodore Géricault saw it on a visit to London and was soon praising Constable in Paris, where a dealer, John Arrowsmith, bought four paintings, including The Hay Wain, which was exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1824, winning a gold medal. Monument at Gericaults tomb. ... Aaron Arrowsmith (1750-1823) was an English geographer (mapmaker) and member of the Arrowsmith family of geographers. ... Honoré Daumier satirized the bourgeoises scandalized by the Salons Venuses, 1864 The Paris Salon (French: Salon de Paris) is the official art exhibition of the Académie des beaux-arts in Paris, France. ...


Of Constable's colour, Delacroix wrote in his journal: "What he says here about the green of his meadows can be applied to every tone".[9] Delacroix repainted the background of his 1824 Massacre de Scio after seeing the Constables at Arrowsmith's Gallery, which he said had done him a great deal of good.[10] Eugène Delacroix (portrait by Nadar) Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 - August 13, 1863) was an important painter from the French romantic period. ...


In his lifetime Constable was to sell only twenty paintings in England, but in France he sold more than twenty in just a few years. Despite this, he refused all invitations to travel internationally to promote his work, writing to Francis Darby: "I would rather be a poor man [in England] than a rich man abroad."[11] Darby is a surname, and may refer to Abraham Darby I (1678–1717), British ironmaster Abraham Darby II (1711–1763), British ironmaster, son of Abraham I Abraham Darby III (1750–1791), son of Abraham II, builder of the Iron Bridge George Andrew Darby engineer and inventor Harry Darby, American politician...


In 1825, perhaps due partly to the worry of his wife's ill-health, the uncongeniality of living in Brighton ("Piccadilly by the Seaside"[12]), and the pressure of numerous outstanding commissions, he quarrelled with Arrowsmith and lost his French outlet.


After the birth of her seventh child in January 1828, Maria fell ill and died of tuberculosis that November at the age of forty-one. Intensely saddened, Constable wrote to his brother Golding, "hourly do I feel the loss of my departed Angel—God only knows how my children will be brought up…the face of the World is totally changed to me".[13] Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease that is caused by mycobacteria, primarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...


Thereafter, he always dressed in black and was, according to Leslie, "a prey to melancholy and anxious thoughts". He cared for his seven children alone for the rest of his life.

Constable's The Hay Wain of 1821
Constable's The Hay Wain of 1821

Shortly before her death, Maria's father had died, leaving her £20,000. Constable speculated disastrously with this money, paying for the engraving of several mezzotints of some of his landscapes in preparation for a publication. He was hesitant and indecisive, nearly fell out with his engraver, and when the folios were published, could not interest enough subscribers. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1456, 288 KB) Description: Title: de: Der Heuwagen Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 130,5 × 185,5 cm Country of origin: de: Großbritanien Current location (city): de: London Current location (gallery): de: National Gallery Other notes: de: Landschaftsmalerei... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1456, 288 KB) Description: Title: de: Der Heuwagen Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 130,5 × 185,5 cm Country of origin: de: Großbritanien Current location (city): de: London Current location (gallery): de: National Gallery Other notes: de: Landschaftsmalerei... Mezzotint is a printing process of the intaglio family, in which the surface of a metal plate is roughened evenly; the image is then brought out by smoothing the surface, creating the image by working from dark to light. ...


He was elected to the Royal Academy in February 1829, at the age of 52, and in 1831 was appointed Visitor at the Royal Academy, where he seems to have been popular with the students. This article refers to an art institution in London. ...


He also began to deliver public lectures on the history of landscape painting, which were attended by distinguished audiences. In a series of such lectures at the Royal Institution, Constable proposed a threefold thesis: firstly, landscape painting is scientific as well as poetic; secondly, the imagination cannot alone produce art to bear comparison with reality; and thirdly, no great painter was ever self-taught. The Royal Institution of Great Britain was set up in 1799 by the leading British scientists of the age, including Henry Cavendish and its first president George Finch, the 9th Earl of Winchilsea, for diffusing the knowledge, and facilitating the general introduction, of useful mechanical inventions and improvements; and for...


He also later spoke against the new Gothic Revival movement, which he considered mere "imitation". Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic Revival was an architectural movement which originated in mid-18th century England. ...


In 1835, his last lecture to the students of the RA, in which he praised Raphael and called the R.A. the "cradle of British art", was "cheered most heartily".[14]He died on the night of the 31st March, apparently from indigestion.

Art

Constable's The Cornfield of 1826
Constable's The Cornfield of 1826

Constable quietly rebelled against the artistic culture that taught artists to use their imagination to compose their pictures rather than nature itself. He told Leslie, "When I sit down to make a sketch from nature, the first thing I try to do is to forget that I have ever seen a picture".[15] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2364, 789 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: John Constable User:Rl/Images ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2364, 789 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: John Constable User:Rl/Images ...


Although Constable produced paintings throughout his life for the "finished" picture market of patrons and R.A. exhibitions, constant refreshment in the form of on-the-spot studies was essential to his working method, and he never satisfied himself with following a formula. ""The world is wide," he wrote, "no two days are alike, nor even two hours; neither were there ever two leaves of a tree alike since the creation of all the world; and the genuine productions of art, like those of nature, are all distinct from each other."[16]


Constable painted many full-scale preliminary sketches of his landscapes in order to test the composition in advance of finished pictures. These large sketches, with their free and vigorous brushwork, were revolutionary at the time, and they continue to interest artists, scholars and the general public. The oil sketches of The Leaping Horse and The Hay Wain, for example, convey a vigour and expressiveness missing from Constable's finished paintings of the same subjects. Possibly more than any other aspect of Constable's work, the oil sketches reveal him in retrospect to have been an avant-garde painter, one who demonstrated that landscape painting could be taken in a totally new direction. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 550 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1409 pixel, file size: 257 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links No pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file. ...


Constable's watercolours were also remarkably free for their time: the almost mystical Stonehenge, 1835, with its double rainbow, is one of the greatest watercolours ever painted.[17]When he exhibited it in 1836, Constable appended a text to the title: "The mysterious monument of Stonehenge, standing remote on a bare and boundless heath, as much unconnected with the events of past ages as it is with the uses of the present, carries you back beyond all historical records into the obscurity of a totally unknown period."[18]


In addition to the full-scale oil sketches, Constable completed numerous observational studies of landscapes and clouds, determined to become more scientific in his recording of atmospheric conditions. The power of his physical effects was sometimes apparent even in the full-scale paintings which he exhibited in London; The Chain Pier, 1827, for example, prompted a critic to write: "the atmosphere possesses a characteristic humidity about it, that almost imparts the wish for an umbrella".[19] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 556 pixelsFull resolution (1094 × 760 pixel, file size: 170 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Kettenanlegesteg, Brighton, 1826/1827, London, Tate Gallery Source: German Wikipedia, original upload 5. ...

Constable's Seascape Study with Rain Cloud c.1824
Constable's Seascape Study with Rain Cloud c.1824

The sketches themselves were the first ever done in oils directly from the subject in the open air. To convey the effects of light and movement, Constable used broken brushstrokes, often in small touches, which he scumbled over lighter passages, creating an impression of sparkling light enveloping the entire landscape. One of the most expressionistic and powerful of all his studies is Seascape Study with Rain Cloud, painted in around 1824 at Brighton, which captures with slashing dark brushstrokes the immediacy of an exploding cumulus shower at sea.[20] Constable also became interested in painting rainbow effects, for example in Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows, 1831, and in Cottage at East Bergholt, 1833. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 577 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 1460 pixel, file size: 294 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John Constable User:Qp10qp Category: ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 577 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 1460 pixel, file size: 294 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John Constable User:Qp10qp Category: ... Painting technique Glaze is a term for painting with a transparent medium. ... Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows was painted by John Constable in 1829, one year after his wife’s death. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


To the sky studies he added notes, often on the back of the sketches, of the prevailing weather conditions, direction of light, and time of day, believing that the sky was "the key note, the standard of scale, and the chief organ of sentiment" in a landscape painting.[21] In this habit he is known to have been influenced by the pioneering work of the meteorologist Luke Howard on the classification of clouds; Constable's annotations of his own copy of Researches About Atmospheric Phaenomena by Thomas Forster show him to have been fully abreast of meteorological terminology.[22] "I have done a good deal of skying", Constable wrote to Fisher on 23 October 1821; "I am determined to conquer all difficulties, and that most arduous one among the rest".[23] Luke Howard Luke Howard (November 28, 1772 – March 21, 1864) was a British meteorologist with broad interests in science. ...


Constable once wrote in a letter to Leslie, "My limited and abstracted art is to be found under every hedge, and in every lane, and therefore nobody thinks it worth picking up".[24] He could never have imagined how influential his honest techniques would turn out to be. Constable's art inspired not only contemporaries like Géricault and Delacroix, but the Barbizon School, and the French impressionists of the late nineteenth century. Théodore Géricaults Insane Théodore Géricault (September 26, 1791 in Rouen, Normandy - January 26, 1824) was a famous French painter, known for The Raft of the Medusa and other paintings. ... Eugène Delacroix (portrait by Nadar) Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 - August 13, 1863) was an important painter from the French romantic period. ... The Gleaners. ... See also Impressionist (entertainment): A girl with a watering can by Renoir, 1876 Impressionism was a 19th century art movement, which began as a private association of Paris-based artists who exhibited publicly in 1874. ...


Constable collaborated closely with the talented mezzotinter David Lucas on some 40 prints after his landscapes, one of which went through 13 proof stages, corrected by Constable in pencil and paint. Constable said "Lucas showed me to the public without my faults", but the venture was not a financial success.[25] Mezzotint is a printing process of the intaglio family, in which the surface of a metal plate is roughened evenly; the image is then brought out by smoothing the surface, creating the image by working from dark to light. ...

Paintings

Salisbury Cathedral by John Constable, ca. 1825. As a gesture of appreciation for the Bishop of Salisbury, who commissioned this painting, Constable included the Bishop and his wife in the canvas. Their figures can be seen at the bottom left of the painting, behind the fence and under the shade of the trees.
Salisbury Cathedral by John Constable, ca. 1825. As a gesture of appreciation for the Bishop of Salisbury, who commissioned this painting, Constable included the Bishop and his wife in the canvas. Their figures can be seen at the bottom left of the painting, behind the fence and under the shade of the trees.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 770 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (3176 × 2472 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 770 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (3176 × 2472 pixel, file size: 1. ... Salisbury Cathedral in the early morning light. ... Dedham Vale is a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty on the Suffolk-Essex border. ... --69. ... The Hay Wain is an oil on canvas painting by John Constable. ... The coronation banquet for George IV 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Salisbury Cathedral in the early morning light. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Categories: Art stubs | Paintings ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows was painted by John Constable in 1829, one year after his wife’s death. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Download high resolution version (2048x1188, 195 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Download high resolution version (2024x1657, 460 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 494 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 988 pixel, file size: 134 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Study of Cirrus Clouds, c. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Constable locations

Bridge Cottage, is a National Trust property, open to the public. Nearby Flatford Mill and Willie Lott's cottage (the house visible in The Hay Wain) are used by the Field Studies Council for art courses. Bridge Cottage is a 16th-century thatched cottage in Flatford, East Bergholt, Suffolk, England. ... The standard of the National Trust The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as The National Trust, is a British preservation organization. ... The Field Studies Council (FSC) is an educational charity based in the UK. It opened its first Field Centre in 1947 at Flatford Mill, and now operates 17 Field Centres in various locations in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland offering both residential and non-residential field courses. ...


See also

On the Terrace, Renoir - a work that could be described chocolate box Chocolate box art originally referred literally to decorations on chocolate boxes. ... // The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. ... // Main article: History of painting The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition from Antiquity and, despite the achievements of other painting traditions, especially in Asia, has become the most influential and prestigeous globally. ...

References

  • Fraser, John Lloyd (1976). John Constable 1776~1837. Hutchinson & Co. 
  • Leslie, C.R. (1995 edition). Memoirs of the Life of John Constable: Composed Chiefly of His Letters, Phaidon, ISBN 0-7148-3360-6
  • Walker, John (1979). Constable. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-09133-1. 

Notes

  1. ^ Parkinson, Ronald, John Constable, the Man and his Art, London, V&A Publications, 1998, ISBN 1-85177-243-X, 9.
  2. ^ Parkinson, John Constable, 15.
  3. ^ Thornes, John.E. John Constable's Skies, The University of Birmingham Press, 1999, ISBN 1-902459-02-4, 96.
  4. ^ Parkinson, John Constable, 17.
  5. ^ Parkinson, John Constable, 18.
  6. ^ Parkinson, John Constable, 22.
  7. ^ Walker, John, Constable, London, Thames and Hudson, 1979, ISBN 0-500-09133-1
  8. ^ Parkinson, John Constable, 24.
  9. ^ Kelder, Diane, The Great Book of French Impressionism, Abbeville Press, 1980, ISBN 0-89659-151-4, 27.
  10. ^ Parkinson, John Constable, 132.
  11. ^ Walker, Constable
  12. ^ Thornes, John Constable's Skies, 128.
  13. ^ Parkinson, John Constable, 33.
  14. ^ Parkinson, John Constable, 50.
  15. ^ Thornes, John Constable's Skies, 51.
  16. ^ Parkinson, John Constable, 64.
  17. ^ Parkinson, John Constable, 73.
  18. ^ Parkinson, John Constable, 89.
  19. ^ Parkinson, John Constable, 102.
  20. ^ Thornes, John Constable's Skies, 128.
  21. ^ Parkinson, John Constable, 110.
  22. ^ Thornes, John Constable's Skies, 68.
  23. ^ Thornes, John Constable's Skies, 56.
  24. ^ Parkinson, John Constable, 129.
  25. ^ A Hyatt Mayor, Prints and People, Metropolitan Museum of Art/Princeton, 1971, nos 455-460.ISBN 0691003262

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  Results from FactBites:
 
John Constable - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (462 words)
John Constable (June 11, 1776 – March 31, 1837) was a British Romantic artist.
Constable is known for his landscape paintings, though he only sold 20 paintings in England during his lifetime and was not elected to the Royal Academy until he was 52, just 8 years before his death.
Constable loved Maria Bicknell, a local girl whose solicitor father was acquainted with the king, and who did not consider Constable good enough for his daughter.
John Constable - Simple English Wikipedia (223 words)
Constable's father wanted his son to take over the business after him, but Constable started painting at an early age, and convinced his father to let him follow art as a career.
Constable's most famous painting, The Hay Wain (now in the National Gallery in London), was first shown at the Paris Salon in 1824.
Constable was influenced by the French painter Claude Lorrain.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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