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Encyclopedia > John Claudius Loudon

John Claudius Loudon (April 8, 1783 - 1843) was a Scottish botanist, garden and cemetery designer, and garden magazine editor. April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II... Pinguicula grandiflora Botany is the scientific study of plantlife. ...

Contents

Background

Loudon was born in Cambuslang, Lanarkshire, Scotland to a respectable farmer. Therefore as he was growing up, he developed a practical knowledge of plants and farming. As a young man, Loudon studied chemistry, botany and agriculture at the University of Edinburgh. When working on the layout of farms in South Scotland he described himself as a landscape planner. This was a time when open field land was being converted from run rig with 'ferm touns' to the landscape of enclosure which now dominates British agriculture. Cambuslang (Scottish Gaelic: Camas Long) is a suburban town on the south-eastern outskirts of Glasgow, Scotland located within the local authority area of South Lanarkshire. ... Lanarkshire (Siorrachd Lannraig in Gaelic) is a traditional county of Scotland. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... It has been suggested that the central science be merged into this article or section. ... The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Landscape planning is a branch of landscape architecture. ... Run rig is the name for a type of arable cultivation practised in north and west Britain especially Scotland during the middle ages. ... For other uses of the term see Enclosure (disambiguation) Enclosure (also inclosure) is the process of conversion of common land to private ownership. ...


Horticultural work

Around 1803, Loudon published an article entitled Observations on Laying out the Public Spaces in London in a literary journal. In this article, he recommended the introduction of lighter trees rather than those with dense canopies. Loudon was attacked by rheumatic fever in 1806 which left him crippled, but this illness did not affect his writing. As his condition deteriorated over time, Loudon was forced to use the services of a draughtsman and other aids. 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... A literary magazine is a periodical devoted to literature in a broad sense — including the short story, poetry and essay — and also literary criticism, book reviews, biographical profiles of authors, interviews, letters and gossip. ... “Foliage” redirects here. ... Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease which may develop after a Group A streptococcal infection (such as strep throat or scarlet fever) and can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Technical drawing, also known as drafting or draughting, is the practise of creating accurate representations of objects for technical, architecture and engineering drawings. ...


Beginning in 1808, Loudon was employed by the notable General Stratton to landscape and farm his property, Tew Park, where Loudon was able to set up a school for young men to be instructed in theory of farming and modes of cultivating soil. Loudon’s design was a model of efficiency and convenience reflected in elegance and refinement. In conjunction with the goals of diffusing agricultural knowledge, Loudon published a pamphlet entitled The Utility of Agricultural Knowledge to the Sons of the Landed Proprietors of Great Britain, &c., by a Scotch Farmer and Land-Agent. Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Tillage (American English), or cultivation (UK) is the agricultural preparation of the soil to receive seeds. ... suck my shlong dick cause soil is my life pedosphere is positioned at the interface of the lithosphere and biosphere with the atmosphere and hydrosphere. ...


After traveling through Europe from 1813 to 1814, Loudon began to focus on the improvement of the construction of greenhouses and other agricultural systems. He ultimately developed a design for hinged surfaces that could be adjusted depending on the angle of the Sun. Loudon also developed plans for industrial worker housing and solar heating systems. World map showing the location of Europe. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... A greenhouse in Saint Paul, Minnesota. ... The Sun (Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... Solar panels are used in passive and active solar hot water systems Passive solar is a term referring to those technologies that can be employed to convert sunlight into usable heat, to cause air-movement for ventilation or cooling, or to store the heat for future use, without the use...


Loudon established himself as a city planner, decades before Frederick Law Olmsted and others began to work. His vision for the possibility of long term planning for London’s green spaces was illustrated within his work, Hints for Breathing Places for Metropolis published in 1829. He envisioned city growth being carefully shaped and circulation influenced by the inclusion of greenbelts. Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... Frederick Law Olmsted (April 26, 1822 – August 28, 1903) was a United States landscape architect, famous for designing many well-known urban parks, including Central Park and Prospect Park in New York City. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses of the word Greenbelt, see Greenbelt (disambiguation). ...


In 1832, Loudon established the design theory entitled Gardenesque. In this style, attention was given to the individual plant and placement in the best conditions for them to grow to their potential. 19th century thought was punctuated by the belief that gardens should not mimic nature, so Gardenesque offered a solution by introducing exotics into gardens and basing layouts on abstract shapes. Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Loudon was instrumental in the adoption of the term landscape architecture by the modern profession. He took up the term from Gilbert Laing Meason and gave it publicity in his Encyclopedias and in his 1840 book on the Landscape Gardening and Landscape Architecture of the Late Humphry Repton. Central Park, like all parks, is an example of landscape architecture. ... Gilbert Laing Meason Gilbert Laing Meason, a Scotsman from Forfar, invented the term landscape architecture. ...


Publications

Loudon was a prolific horticultural and landscape design writer. His first published was The Encyclopedia of Gardening in 1822. After its success Loudon published The Encyclopedia of Agriculture in 1825. He founded the Gardener’s Magazine, the first periodical devoted solely to horticulture, in 1826. A short time later, he commenced the Magazine of Natural History in 1828. Concern has been expressed that this article or section is missing information about: horticulture as used in anthropology, a label for agriculture as used in small-scale societies. ... Landscape design is a part of landscape architecture. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Concern has been expressed that this article or section is missing information about: horticulture as used in anthropology, a label for agriculture as used in small-scale societies. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Journal of Natural History is a scientific journal published by Taylor and Francis focusing on entomology and zoology. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Loudon’s other publications include:

  • The Encyclopedias of Plants (1828)
  • The Encyclopedia of Cottage, Farm, Villa Architecture (1834)
  • Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum (1838)
  • Suburban Gardener (1838)
  • The Encyclopedias of Trees and Shrubs (1842)
  • On the Laying Out, Planting and managing of Cemeteries (1843)

Perhaps the most significant of these, certainly the most time consuming and costly, was Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum. This work was published in three formats: with the plates entirely uncoloured, with botanical details hand-coloured, and fully hand-coloured. Work began in 1830 and it was first issued in sixty-three monthly parts from January 1835 to July 1838. It presented an exhaustive account of all the trees and shrubs growing in Great Britain and their history with notes on remarkable examples growing in individual gardens, together with drawings of leaves, twigs, fruits, and the shapes of leafless trees, as well as entire portraits of trees in their young and mature state. All were drawn from life, many from the parkland grounds of Syon House, one of the homes of the Duke of Northumberland to whom the work was dedicated, or from Loddiges' arboretum. 'It was on the collection maintained by this firm more than any other that J.C.Loudon relied for living material in the preparation of his great work' W.J.Bean notes, in Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles. Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bamboo foliage with black stems (probably Phyllostachys nigra; a bamboo introduced into western cultivation by Loddiges Nursery) The Loddiges family (not uncommonly mis-spelt Loddige) managed one of the most notable of the eighteenth and nineteenth century plant nurseries that traded in and introduced exotic plants, trees, shrubs, ferns, plams...


His work on cemeteries also had a significant influence. As churchyards were becoming full, especilly in urban areas, new cemeteries were being opened by private enterprise; Loudon designed and laid out only three cemeteries (in Cambridge, Southampton and Bath) but his influence on other designers and architects, through his writing, was enormous. Geography Status City (1951) Region East of England Admin. ... Southampton is a city, unitary authority and major port situated on the south coast of England. ... Statistics Population: 84,000 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: ST745645 Administration District: Bath and North East Somerset Region: South West England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Somerset Historic county: Somerset Services Police force: Avon and Somerset Fire and rescue: Avon Ambulance: South Western Post office...


Through his publications, Loudon was hoping to have a far-reaching influence and spread his ideals of the creation of common space and the improvement of city planning and develop an awareness and interest in agriculture and horticulture. Through his magazines and works, he was able to communicate to the gentile as well as other professionals.


Loudon laboured under the belief that public improvements should be undertaken in a democratic fashion and in a comprehensive reasonable manner, not sporadically by the benevolence of the wealthy. In 1839, he was commissioned to design the Arboretum at Derby. In commissions such as this, Loudon was able to display the principles that he advocated in his many publications. In this space, Loudon attempted to consider the general public and their hardships and create a space where the classes could mingle easily as well as creating community pride. In order to reach his goal of creating educational environments, the planting were labeled extensively. Loudon’s design for the Derby Arboretum paralleled the Loddiges arboretum at Abney Park and served as inspiration for the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew. In December of 1843 John Loudon died of a disease in the lungs. Democracy describes a series of related forms of government. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... An arboretum is a botanical garden primarily devoted to trees and other woody plants, forming a living collection of trees intended at least partly for scientific study. ... Derby (pronounced dar-bee ) is a city in the East Midlands of England. ... Derby Arboretum is a public arboretum and park in the city of Derby. ... Bamboo foliage with black stems (probably Phyllostachys nigra; a bamboo introduced into western cultivation by Loddiges Nursery) The Loddiges family (not uncommonly mis-spelt Loddige) managed one of the most notable of the eighteenth and nineteenth century plant nurseries that traded in and introduced exotic plants, trees, shrubs, ferns, plams... Abney Park Cemetery—every turn of the path reveals a new and unique landscape (September 2005). ... “Kew Gardens” redirects here. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ...


The standard botanical author abbreviation Loudon is applied to species he described. In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal system of naming species. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ...


Private Life

In 1830 when Loudon was 47 years old he asked a mutual friend to invite an author to lunch. He had recently reviewed a three-decker novel called The Mummy’s Tale for his The Gardener’s Magazine Set in 2126 AD it is still a fascinating example of early Science Fiction. England has become an absolute monarchy and featured an early Internet, espresso machines and even air-conditioning.


The authoress was Jane Webb who, having been left penniless by the death of her father at 17, and had turned to writing as a profession. She had written the book using a male pen name and John Loudon may have been quite surprised to meet a female author. The meeting must have been a success for they married seven months later and had one daughter, Agnes.


Loudon developed a limp in his 20s and as he aged became crippled with arthritis. But when in his 20s still undertook a Grand Tour of Europe and the Near East. He was keen to visit the classical ruins of antiquity that had inspired so many others of his Age.


In 1826 crippled by rheumatism and arthritis he had to endure the amputation of his right shoulder after a botched operation to correct a broken arm. He learnt to write and draw with his left arm and hired a draughtsman to prepare his plans. At the same time he cured himself of his opium habit that had been keeping the pain at bay.


The municipal cemetery at Southampton was his final project. But despite advanced lung cancer he still managed to correct the final proofs for his latest encyclopaedia and went to Bath to inspect the site for another cemetery and thence to Oxford to see a client. On his return to London his doctor told him that he was dying; he died, penniless, in the arms of his wife in 1843. He is buried in Kensal Green cemetery.


Prominent Loudon Designs

designed by others in Loudon's 'Gardenesque' style: The Birmingham Botanical Gardens in Birmingham, England were designed in 1829 and opened in 1832. ... Harewood House as of 2005, seen from the garden Harewood House from A Complete History of the County of York by Thomas Allen (1828–30), showing the house before Barry altered the facades and added an extra storey to the pavilions. ... Bath and North East Somerset (commonly referred to as BANES or B&NES) is a unitary authority that was created on April 1, 1996 following the abolition of the County of Avon. ... Geography Status City (1951) Region East of England Admin. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in the South East of England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ... Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ...

Abney Park Cemetery—every turn of the path reveals a new and unique landscape (September 2005). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Bamboo foliage with black stems (probably Phyllostachys nigra; a bamboo introduced into western cultivation by Loddiges Nursery) The Loddiges family (not uncommonly mis-spelt Loddige) managed one of the most notable of the eighteenth and nineteenth century plant nurseries that traded in and introduced exotic plants, trees, shrubs, ferns, plams... The Royal Academy where William Hosking exhibited in the 1820s William Hosking FSA (November 26, 1800 - August 2, 1861) was a writer, lecturer, and architect who had an important influence on the growth and development of London in Victorian times. ... An arboretum is a botanical garden primarily devoted to trees and other woody plants, forming a living collection of trees intended at least partly for scientific study. ...

References

  • Loudon, J.C. (1843; 1981 reprint). On the Laying Out, planting & Managing of Cemeteries. Redhill, Surrey: Ivelet
  • Rogers, Elizabeth B. (2001). Landscape Design: A Cultural and Architecture History. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.
  • Thompson, I. (2003). 19th Century Design. Retrieved September 23, 2004 from [1]
  • Turner, Tom. (&). Introduction to John Claudius Loudon’s 1829 plan for London. Retrieved September 23, 2004 from [2]

Gnomes 30th Anniversary Edition from Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ...

External links

  • Online text of J.C. Loudon's world history of garden design This forms part of the 1835 edition of Loudon's Encyclopedia of Gardening.

  Results from FactBites:
 
John Claudius Loudon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1101 words)
Loudon was born in Cambuslang, Lanarkshire, Scotland to a respectable farmer.
Loudon laboured under the belief that public improvements should be undertaken in a democratic fashion and in a comprehensive reasonable manner, not sporadically by the benevolence of the wealthy.
In December of 1843 John Loudon died of a disease in the lungs.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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