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Encyclopedia > John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough
6 June 165027 June 1722

The Duke of Marlborough. Oil by Adriaen van der Werff.
Place of birth Ashe House, Devon
Place of death Windsor Lodge
Allegiance Kingdom of Great Britain
Battles/wars Monmouth Rebellion
Battle of Sedgemoor
War of the Grand Alliance
Battle of Walcourt
War of the Spanish Succession
Battle of Schellenberg
Battle of Blenheim
Battle of Elixheim
Battle of Ramillies
Battle of Oudenarde
Battle of Malplaquet
Awards Order of the Garter

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 165016 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. His rise to prominence began as a lowly page in the royal court of Stuart England, but his natural courage on the field of battle soon ensured quick promotion and recognition from his master and mentor James, Duke of York. When James became king in 1685, Churchill played a major role in crushing the Duke of Monmouth's rebellion; but just three years later, Churchill abandoned his Catholic king for the Protestant William of Orange. is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... Image File history File links John_Churchill_Marlborough_porträtterad_av_Adriaen_van_der_Werff_(1659-1722). ... Adriaen van der Werff (1659–1722) was an accomplished Dutch painter of devotional and mythological scenes and portraits, active in Rotterdam and, to a lesser extent, Düsseldorf. ... “Devonshire” redirects here. ... Built 1650 in Windsor Great Park, south of Royal Lodge, Cumberland Lodge was called Byfield House till 1670. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... The Monmouth Rebellion of 1685, also known as the Pitchfork Rebellion, was an attempt to overthrow the King of England, James II, who became king when his elder brother, Charles II, died on 6 February 1685. ... The Battle of Sedgemoor was fought on 6 July 1685. ... Nine Years War redirects here. ... Combatants France England United Provinces Commanders Duke of Humières Prince of Waldeck Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 600–1,000 dead or wounded Unknown The Battle of Walcourt was a sharp skirmish on August 27, 1689 near the Belgian village of Walcourt, as a part of the War of the... Combatants Habsburg Empire, England (1701-1706) Great Britain (1707-1714),[1] Dutch Republic, Kingdom of Portugal, Crown of Aragon, Others[2] Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Spain, Electorate of Bavaria, Hungarian Rebels Others[3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Marquis de Ruvigny, Count... The Battle of Schellenberg was fought on 2 July 1704. ... Combatants England,[1] Austria, Dutch Republic, Prussia, Denmark, Hesse, Hanover France, Bavaria Commanders Duke of Marlborough, Eugene of Savoy Duc de Tallard, Maximilian II Emanuel, Ferdinand de Marsin Strength 52,000, 60 guns[2] 56,000, 90 guns Casualties 4,542 killed, 7,942 wounded 20,000 killed, drowned, or... Combatants England Dutch Republic German states France Commanders Duke of Marlborough Hendrik van Nassau-Ouwerkerk Duc de Villeroi Strength 14,000 (initially) 3,000 - 15,000 Casualties 50 - 200 3,000 The Battle of Elixheim, 18 July 1705, also known as the Passage of the Lines of Brabant was a... The Battle of Ramillies was a major battle in the War of Spanish Succession, May 23, 1706. ... Combatants Great Britain United Provinces Holy Roman Empire France Commanders Duke of Marlborough Prince Eugene of Savoy Louis, duc de Bourgogne Duc de Vendôme Strength 105,000 100,000 Casualties 3,000 15,000 The Battle of Oudenarde (or Oudenaarde) was a key battle in the War of the... The Battle of Malplaquet was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession that took place on September 11, 1709 between France and a British–Austrian alliance (known as the Allies). ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... James Crofts, later James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and of Buccleuch (April 9, 1649 – July 15, 1685), was an English nobleman who was executed in 1685 after making an unsuccessful attempt to claim the British throne, the Monmouth Rebellion. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28...


Honoured at William's coronation, Churchill, now the Earl of Marlborough, served with distinction in Ireland and Flanders during the War of the Grand Alliance. However, throughout the reign of William and Mary, their relationship with Marlborough and his influential wife Sarah, remained cool. After damaging allegations of collusion with the exiled court of King James, Marlborough was dismissed from all civil and military offices and temporarily imprisoned in the Tower of London. Only after the death of Mary, and the threat of another major European war, did Marlborough return to favour with William. Flanders (Dutch: ) is a large historical region overlapping Belgium, France and the Netherlands. ... Nine Years War redirects here. ... William III Mary II The phrase William and Mary usually refers to the joint sovereignty over the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland of King William III and his wife Queen Mary II. Their joint reign began in February, 1689, when they were called to the throne by... Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, c. ... Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ...


Marlborough's influence at court reached its zenith with the accession of Sarah's close friend Queen Anne. Promoted to Captain-General of British forces, and later to a dukedom, Marlborough found international fame in the War of the Spanish Succession where, on the fields of Blenheim, Ramillies and Oudenarde, his place in history as one of Europe's great generals was assured. However, when his wife fell from royal grace as Queen Anne's favourite, the Tories, determined on peace with France, pressed for his downfall. Marlborough was dismissed from all civil and military offices on charges of embezzlement, but the Duke eventually regained favour with the accession of George I in 1714. Although returned to his former offices, the Duke's health soon deteriorated and, after a series of strokes, he eventually succumbed to his illness in his bed at Windsor Lodge on 16 June 1722. Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) followed Englands only joint monarchy to become Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702 after the passing of both William and Mary. ... Captain General (and its literal equivalent in several languages) is or was a high military rank and a gubernatorial title. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire, England (1701-1706) Great Britain (1707-1714),[1] Dutch Republic, Kingdom of Portugal, Crown of Aragon, Others[2] Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Spain, Electorate of Bavaria, Hungarian Rebels Others[3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Marquis de Ruvigny, Count... Combatants England,[1] Austria, Dutch Republic, Prussia, Denmark, Hesse, Hanover France, Bavaria Commanders Duke of Marlborough, Eugene of Savoy Duc de Tallard, Maximilian II Emanuel, Ferdinand de Marsin Strength 52,000, 60 guns[2] 56,000, 90 guns Casualties 4,542 killed, 7,942 wounded 20,000 killed, drowned, or... The Battle of Ramillies was a major battle in the War of Spanish Succession, May 23, 1706. ... Combatants Great Britain United Provinces Holy Roman Empire France Commanders Duke of Marlborough Prince Eugene of Savoy Louis, duc de Bourgogne Duc de Vendôme Strength 105,000 100,000 Casualties 3,000 15,000 The Battle of Oudenarde (or Oudenaarde) was a key battle in the War of the... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[1] was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. ... Stroke (or cerebrovascular accident or CVA) is the clinical designation for a rapidly developing loss of brain function due to an interruption in the blood supply to all or part of the brain. ... Built 1650 in Windsor Great Park, south of Royal Lodge, Cumberland Lodge was called Byfield House till 1670. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ...

Contents

Early life (1650–78)

Ashe House

At the end of the English Civil War, Lady Eleanor Drake was joined at her Devon home, Ashe House, by her third daughter Elizabeth, and Elizabeth's husband, Winston Churchill. Unlike his mother-in-law, who had supported the Parliamentary cause, Winston had had the misfortune of fighting on the losing side of the war for which he, like so many other cavaliers, was forced to pay recompense; in his case £4,446.[2] This crippling fine had impoverished the ex-Royalist cavalry captain whose motto Fiel Pero Desdichado (Faithful but Unfortunate) is still today used by his descendants. The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... “Devonshire” redirects here. ... Sir Winston Churchill FRS (18 April 1620-26 March 1688), was an English soldier, historian and politician. ... The Roundheads was the nickname given to the supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War. ...

The Duke of Marlborough's genealogy. With no surviving male heir, Henrietta became the 2nd Duchess of Marlborough. On her death in 1733, Anne's son Charles became the 3rd Duke of Marlborough.
The Duke of Marlborough's genealogy. With no surviving male heir, Henrietta became the 2nd Duchess of Marlborough. On her death in 1733, Anne's son Charles became the 3rd Duke of Marlborough.

Elizabeth gave birth to 12 children, only five of whom survived infancy. The eldest daughter, Arabella was born in February 1649; the eldest son, John, was born the following year on 26 May 1650 (O.S). Growing up in these impoverished conditions, with family tensions soured by conflicting allegiances, may have had a lasting impression on the young Churchill. His father's namesake, and John Churchill's biographer, Sir Winston Churchill, asserted – "[The conditions at Ashe] might well have aroused in his mind two prevailing impressions: First a hatred of poverty. . . and secondly, the need of hiding thoughts and feelings from those to whom their expression would be repugnant."[3] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (917x577, 64 KB) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (917x577, 64 KB) (All user names refer to en. ... Henrietta Godolphin, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough (July 19, 1681–October 24, 1733) was the daughter of the 1st Duke of Marlborough and Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough. ... Lady Anne Churchill (February 27, 1683 - April 15, 1716) was the second daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough and Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough. ... Charles Spencer, 3rd Duke of Marlborough (1706-1758) was a British politician of the 18th century. ... Arabella Churchill (February 23, 1648 - May 30, 1730) was the mistress of King James II of England and VII of Scotland, and the mother of at least four of his children. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. ...


After the Restoration of King Charles II in 1660 his father's fortunes took a turn for the better, although he remained far from prosperous.[4] As a mark of Royal favour Winston had received rewards for losses incurred fighting Parliament during the civil war, including the appointment as Commissioner for Irish Land Claims in Dublin in 1662. While in Ireland, John attended the Free School, but a year later his studies were transferred to St Paul's School in London, after his father was recalled to take up the position of Junior Clerk Comptroller of the King's Household at Whitehall. Charles' own penury, however, meant the old cavaliers received scant financial reward, but what the prodigal king could offer – which would cost him nothing – were positions at court for their progeny. So it was that in 1665, Winston Churchill's eldest daughter, Arabella, became Maid of Honour to Anne Hyde, the Duchess of York, joined some months later by her brother John, as page to her husband, James.[5] King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: 01, +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... The Kings Hospital is a Church of Ireland co-educational fee-paying boarding and day school. ... St Pauls School St Pauls School is a boys public school, founded in 1509 by John Colet. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... In all the medieval monarchies of western Europe the general system of government sprang from, and centred in, the royal household. ... The Palace of Whitehall by Hendrick Danckerts. ... Arabella Churchill (February 23, 1648 - May 30, 1730) was the mistress of King James II of England and VII of Scotland, and the mother of at least four of his children. ... Lady Anne Hyde (March 1637 – March 31, 1671), daughter of Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, became the first wife of James, Duke of York (the future King James II of England), and the mother of two British queens, Mary II and Anne. ...


Early military experience

James, Duke of York's passion for all things naval and military rubbed off on young Churchill. Often accompanying the Duke inspecting the troops in the royal parks, it was not long before the boy had set his heart on becoming a soldier himself. On 14 September 1667 (O.S), soon after his 17th birthday, he obtained a commission as ensign in the King's Own Company in the 1st Guards, later to become the Grenadier Guards.[6] His career was further advanced when in 1668, Churchill sailed for the North African outpost of Tangier, recently acquired as part of the dowry of Charles' Portuguese wife, Catherine of Braganza. In a rude contrast to life at court, Churchill stayed here for three years, gaining first-class tactical training and field experience skirmishing with the Moors.[7] James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The Grenadier Guards is the most senior regiment of the Guards Division of the British Army, and, as such, is the most senior regiment of infantry. ... A view of Tangier bay at sunrise as seen from Cape Malabata Tangier - Avenue Mohammed VI Tangier (Tanja طنجة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish, Tânger in Portuguese, and Tanger in French) is a city of northern Morocco with a population of 669,680 (2004 census). ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given to the family of the bridegroom by the family of the bride at the time of their marriage. ... Catherine of Braganza (November 25, 1638 – November 30, 1705) (Catherine Henrietta, Portuguese: Catarina Henriqueta de Bragança), was the queen consort of King Charles II of England. ... The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of the western Mediterranean and western Sahara, including: al-Maghrib (the coastal and mountain lands of present day Morocco and Algeria, and Tunisia although Tunisia often is separately called Ifriqiya after the former Roman province of Africa); al-Andalus (the former Islamic sovereign...


Back in London by February 1671, Churchill's handsome features and manner – described by Lord Chesterfield as "irresistible to either man or woman" – had soon attracted the ravenous attentions of one of the King's most noteworthy mistresses, Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland.[8] But his liaisons with the insatiable temptress were indeed dangerous. One account has it that upon His Majesty's appearance, Churchill leapt out of his lover's bed and hid in the cupboard, but the King, himself wily in such matters, soon discovered young Churchill who promptly fell to his knees – "You are a rascal," said the King, "but I forgive you because you do it to get your bread."[9] Philip Stanhope, 2nd Earl of Chesterfield (1634-1714) inherited the title of Earl of Chesterfield upon his grandfathers death in 1656. ... Barbara Villiers, Countess of Castlemaine Barbara Villiers (November 1640 - October 9, 1709), Duchess of Cleveland, was one of the most notorious of Charles IIs mistresses. ...

Battle of Solebay by Willem van de Velde the Younger. Churchill here learned the uncertainties and hazards of naval warfare.
Battle of Solebay by Willem van de Velde the Younger. Churchill here learned the uncertainties and hazards of naval warfare.[10]

A year later Churchill went to sea again. Whilst fighting the Dutch navy at the Battle of Solebay off the Suffolk coast in June 1672, valorous conduct aboard the Duke of York's flagship, the Royal Prince, earned Churchill promotion (above the resentful heads of more senior officers) to a captaincy in the Lord High Admiral's Regiment.[11] The following year Churchill gained a further commendation at the Siege of Maastricht when the young captain distinguished himself as part of the 30-man forlorn hope, successfully capturing and defending part of the fortress. During this incident Churchill is credited with saving the Duke of Monmouth's life, receiving a slight wound in the process but gaining further praise from a grateful House of Stuart, as well as recognition from the House of Bourbon. King Louis XIV in person commended the deed, from which time forward bore Churchill an enviable reputation for physical courage, as well as earning the high regard of the common soldier.[12] The Burning of the Royal James at the Battle of Solebay, 28 May 1672 by Willem van de Velde the younger The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life... The Burning of the Royal James at the Battle of Solebay, 28 May 1672 by Willem van de Velde the younger The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life... Combatants United Provinces (Netherlands) England, France Commanders Michiel de Ruyter Adriaen Banckert Willem Joseph van Ghent The Duke of York and Albany, The Earl of Sandwich, Jean II dEstrées Strength 75 ships 93 ships Casualties 1 ship destroyed, 1 captured 1 ship destroyed The naval Battle of Solebay... Ships Riding Quietely at Anchor, by Willem van de Velde, the younger. ... Combatants United Provinces (Netherlands) England, France Commanders Michiel de Ruyter Adriaen Banckert Willem Joseph van Ghent The Duke of York and Albany, The Earl of Sandwich, Jean II dEstrées Strength 75 ships 93 ships Casualties 1 ship destroyed, 1 captured 1 ship destroyed The naval Battle of Solebay... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... Combatants France United Provinces Spain Commanders Louis XIV Jacques de Fariaux Strength 24,000 infantry 16,000 cavalry 5,000 infantry 1,200 cavalry Casualties Unknown Comte DArtagnan 6,000 dead, wounded, or captured The Siege of Maastricht was one of the key elements in King Louis XIVs... Forlorn hope is a military term that comes from the Dutch verloren hoop, which should be translated as lost troop although in Dutch it can also mean lost hope. The Dutch phrase fortutiously sounding like a accurate statement of the units future in English. ... James Crofts, later James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and of Buccleuch (April 9, 1649 – July 15, 1685), was an English nobleman who was executed in 1685 after making an unsuccessful attempt to claim the British throne, the Monmouth Rebellion. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ...


Although King Charles' anti-French Parliament had forced England to withdraw from the Franco-Dutch War in 1674, some English regiments remained in French service. In April Churchill was appointed the colonelcy of one such regiment, thereafter serving with, and learning from, the great Marshal Turenne. Churchill was present at the hard-fought battles of Sinzheim and Entzheim, for which he earned further praise – he may also have been present at Sasbach in June 1675, where Turenne was killed.[13] On his return to St James' Palace, Churchill's attention was drawn towards other matters, and to a fresh face at court. The Dutch War (1672–1678) was a war fought between France and a quadruple alliance consisting of Brandenburg, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and the United Provinces. ... Henri de la Tour dAuvergne, Vicomte de Turenne, often referred to as Turenne (September 11, 1611 - July 27, 1675) was Marshal of France. ... Main entrance of St. ...


From martial to marital matters

Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, c.1700 by Sir Godfrey Kneller.
Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, c.1700 by Sir Godfrey Kneller.[14]

"I beg you will let me see you as often as you can," pleaded Churchill in a letter to Sarah Jennings, "which I am sure you ought to do if you care for my love. . ."[15] Sarah Jennings' social origins were in many ways similar to Churchill's – minor gentry blighted by debt-induced poverty. After her father died when she was eight, Sarah, together with her mother and sisters, moved to London – a city still recovering from the Great Fire of two years previous. As Royalist supporters, the Jennings' loyalty to the crown, like the Churchill's, was repaid with court employment – by 1673, Sarah had become a Maid of Honour to the Duchess of York, Mary of Modena, second wife to James, Duke of York.[16] Image File history File links Sarah_Churchill,_Duchess_of_Marlborough. ... Image File history File links Sarah_Churchill,_Duchess_of_Marlborough. ... Sarah Churchill, née Jennings, Duchess of Marlborough (May 29, 1660 - October 18, 1744), rose to be one of the most influential women in British history, largely as a result of her close friendship with Queen Anne. ... Sir Godfrey Kneller (August 8, 1646 -October 19, 1723) was an artist, court painter to several British monarchs. ... Sarah Churchill, née Jennings, Duchess of Marlborough (May 29, 1660 - October 18, 1744), rose to be one of the most influential women in British history, largely as a result of her close friendship with Queen Anne. ... Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ... Mary of Modena (October 5, 1658 – May 7, 1718) was the queen consort of King James II of England. ...


Sarah was about fifteen when Churchill returned from the Continent in 1675, and he appears to have been almost immediately captivated by her charms and not inconsiderable good looks.[15] But Churchill's amorous, almost abject, missives of devotion were, it seems, received with suspicion and accusations of incredulity – his first lover, Barbara Villiers, was just moving her household to Paris, feeding doubts that he may well have been looking at Sarah as a replacement mistress rather than a fiancée.[17] "You say I pretend passion for you," protested Churchill. . . "I cannot imagine what you mean by it."[18] However, his persistent courtship over the coming months eventually won over the beautiful, if relatively poor, Maid of Honour. Although Sir Winston wished his son to marry the wealthy Catherine Sedley (if only to ease his own burden of debt), Colonel Churchill married Sarah sometime in the winter of 1677–78, possibly in the apartments of the Duchess of York.[19] City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Catherine Sedley, countess of Dorchester (c. ...


Mid-life crises (1678–1700)

Churchill (now Gentleman of the Bedchamber and Master of the Robes to Prince George), together with Sarah, shared life between his parent's home in Dorset (much to his wife's chagrin) and, when in London, his bachelor lodgings in Jermyn Street. It was not long though before Churchill was awarded his first important diplomatic mission to the Continent. Accompanied by his friend and rising politician, Sidney Godolphin, Churchill was assigned to negotiate a treaty in The Hague with the Dutch and Spanish in preparation for war – this time against France.[20] The young diplomat's essay in international statecraft proved personally successful, bringing him into contact with William, Prince of Orange, who was highly impressed by the shrewdness and courtesy of Churchill's negotiating skills.[21] The assignment had helped Churchill develop a breadth of experience that other mere soldiers were never to achieve,[21] but because of the duplicitous dealings of Charles's secret negotiations with King Louis (Charles had no intention of waging war against France), the mission ultimately proved abortive.[22] Gentleman of the bedchamber was an office in a European royal household beginning from about the early in the 11th century. ... The Master of the Robes was an office in the British Royal Household. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dÉ”.sÉ™t], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... Jermyn Street is a street in central London, England, parallel and adjacent to Piccadilly that is famous for its resident shirtmakers. ... Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin (c. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... William I of England (c. ...


On his return to England, Churchill was appointed temporary rank of Brigadier-General of Foot, but hopes of promised action on the Continent proved illusory as the warring factions sued for peace and signed the Treaty of Nijmegen.[22] However, in the coming years, troubles nearer to home would further test Churchill's statesmanship, generalship and most controversially, his loyalty. Brigadier General (sometimes known as a one-star general from the United States insignia) is the lowest rank of general officer in some countries, usually ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... The Treaty of Nijmegen (1678) was signed in Nijmegen, and ended the Dutch War. ...


Plot

A later painting of The Marlborough family by Johann Baptist Closterman. On the Duke's left are Elizabeth, Mary, the Duchess, Henrietta, Anne and John.

The iniquities of the Popish Plot (Titus Oates' fabricated conspiracy aimed at excluding the Catholic Duke of York from the English accession), meant temporary banishment for James – an exile that would last nearly three years. Churchill was obliged to attend his master – who in due course was permitted to move to Scotland – but it was not until 1682, after Charles' complete victory over the exclusionists, that the Duke of York was allowed to return to London and Churchill's career could again prosper.[23] Image File history File links The_Marlborough_Family. ... Image File history File links The_Marlborough_Family. ... Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, c. ... Henrietta Godolphin, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough (July 19, 1681–October 24, 1733) was the daughter of the 1st Duke of Marlborough and Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough. ... Lady Anne Churchill (February 27, 1683 - April 15, 1716) was the second daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough and Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough. ... The Popish Plot was an alleged Catholic conspiracy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... During the reign of Charles II of England, the Exclusion Bill crisis ran from 1678 till 1681. ... This article is about the country. ...


Made Lord Churchill of Eyemouth in the peerage of Scotland in December 1682, and with the additional appointment as colonel of the King's Own Royal Regiment of Dragoons the following year, the Churchills' combined income ensured a life of some style and comfort; as well as maintaining their residence in London (staffed with seven servants), they were also able to purchase Holywell House in St Albans where their growing family could enjoy the benefits of country life.[24] Eyemouth Harbour. ... The Peerage of Scotland is the division of the British Peerage for those peers created in the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707. ... The Royal Dragoon Guards is an armoured regiment of the British Army. ... , St Albans is the main urban area of the City and District of St Albans in southern Hertfordshire, England, around 22 miles (35. ...


The Churchills were however, soon drawn back to court. With her marriage to Prince George of Denmark, the 18-year-old Princess Anne offered Sarah – of whom she had been passionately fond since childhood – an appointment to her household. Their relationship continued to blossom, so much so that years later Sarah wrote – "To see [me] was a constant joy; and to part with [me] for never so short a time, a constant uneasiness. . . This worked even to the jealousy of a lover."[25] For his part, Churchill treated the princess with respectful affection and grew genuinely attached to her, assuming – in his reverence to royalty – the chivalrous role of a knightly champion.[26] Prince George of Denmark Prince George of Denmark (April 2, 1653 - October 28, 1708) was the Prince consort of Queen Anne of Great Britain. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) followed Englands only joint monarchy to become Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702 after the passing of both William and Mary. ...


Revolution

With the death of King Charles in 1685, his brother, James, Duke of York became King James II, much to the consternation of the bastard son of Charles and Lucy Walter, James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth. Urged on by malcontents and various Whig conspirators (exiled for their part in the failed Rye House plot), Monmouth prepared to take what he considered rightfully his – the Protestant crown of England. Lucy Walter (c. ... James Crofts, later James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and of Buccleuch (April 9, 1649 – July 15, 1685), was an English nobleman who was executed in 1685 after making an unsuccessful attempt to claim the British throne, the Monmouth Rebellion. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... Rye House 1823 The Rye House Plot of 1683 was a plan to assassinate King Charles II of England and his brother (and heir to the throne) James, Duke of York. ...

Monmouth's execution on Tower Hill, 15 July 1685 (O.S). Other rebels, including Daniel Defoe, were more fortunate and managed to escape.
Monmouth's execution on Tower Hill, 15 July 1685 (O.S). Other rebels, including Daniel Defoe, were more fortunate and managed to escape.

Newly-promoted Major-General Churchill was to be robbed of overall command of His Majesty's forces chosen to face Monmouth; the honour instead passed to the limited, but highly loyal, Louis de Duras, 2nd Earl of Feversham. "I see plainly that the trouble is mine," complained Churchill to Lord Clarendon, "and that the honour will be another's."[27] Monmouth's ill-timed, ill-equipped and ill-advised peasant rebellion eventually floundered on the West Country field of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685 (O.S); but although his role was subordinate to Feversham, Churchill's administrative organisation, tactical skill and courage in battle in his first independent command was pivotal in the victory – the man who saved Monmouth's life at Maastricht had now brought about his demise at Sedgemoor. Image File history File links Monmouth's_Execution. ... Image File history File links Monmouth's_Execution. ... James Crofts, later James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and of Buccleuch (April 9, 1649 – July 15, 1685), was an English nobleman who was executed in 1685 after making an unsuccessful attempt to claim the British throne, the Monmouth Rebellion. ... Tower Hill is an elevated spot outside the Tower of London and just outside the limits of the City of London in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?] â€“ April 24 [?], 1731)[1] was an English writer, journalist, and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... Major General or Major-General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Louis de Duras, 2nd Earl of Feversham , (1641 - 19 April 1709), was a French nobleman who became Earl of Feversham in Stuart England. ... Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (18 February 1609–9 December 1674) was an English historian, statesman and grandfather of two queens regnant, Mary II and Anne. ... The Monmouth Rebellion of 1685, also known as the Pitchfork Rebellion, was an attempt to overthrow the King of England, James II, who became king when his elder brother, Charles II, died on 6 February 1685. ... The West Country is an informal term for the area of south-western England roughly corresponding to the modern South West England government region. ... The Battle of Sedgemoor was fought on 6 July 1685. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ...


As prophesised, Feversham received the lion's share of the reward. Churchill was not entirely forgotten – in August he was awarded the lucrative colonelcy of the Third Troop of Life Guards – but the witch-hunt that followed the rebellion, driven by the bloodthirsty zeal of Judge Jeffreys, sickened his sense of propriety.[28] Indeed, it may be possible that the Sedgemoor campaign, and its subsequent persecutions, set in train a process of disillusion that culminated in his abandonment of his king, and long-time patron and friend, just three short years later.[29] The Life Guards is the senior regiment of the British Army. ... George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys (1648-1689), Baron Wem, better known as Hanging Judge Jeffreys, became notorious during the reign of King James II, rising to the position of Lord Chancellor. ...

John Churchill in his thirties, attributed to John Riley. The Star of the Order of the Garter was added after 1707.

Churchill remained at court, but was anxious not to be seen as sympathetic towards the King's growing religious ardour.[30] James' Catholicising of English institutions – including the army – engendered first suspicion, and ultimately sedition in his mainly Protestant subjects. Some in the King's service, such as the Earl of Salisbury and the Earl of Melfort betrayed their Protestant upbringing in order to gain favour at court, but Churchill remained true to his conscience, "I have been bred a Protestant, and intend to live and die in that communion."[31] The 'Glorious Revolution' of 1688 was to put this declaration to the test. Image File history File links John_Churchill_in_his_thirties. ... Image File history File links John_Churchill_in_his_thirties. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... Sedition is a term of law to refer to covert conduct such as speech and organization that is deemed by the legal authority as tending toward insurrection against the established order. ... William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Salisbury KG (28 March 1591–3 December 1668) was the son of the 1st Earl of Salisbury. ... John Drummond, 1st Earl and titular 1st Duke of Melfort (1649-1714) was a Scottish nobleman. ... The Revolution of 1688, commonly known as the Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ...


Although the invitation by various Whigs, Tories and Protestant churchmen for William, Prince of Orange to invade England was not signed by Churchill, he declared his intention through William's principal English contact in The Hague – "If you think there is anything else that I ought to do, you have but to command me."[32] Churchill, like many others, was looking for an opportune time to desert James. This article is about the British Whig party. ... The term Tory derives from the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ...


William landed at Torbay on 5 November 1688 (O.S). From there, he moved his forces to Exeter. James' forces – once again commanded by Lord Feversham – moved to Salisbury, but few of its officers were eager to fight – even James' daughter Princess Anne wrote to William to wish him "good success in this so just an undertaking."[33] Torbay (IPA: ) is an east-facing bay, at the western most end of Lyme Bay in the south-west of England, situated roughly midway between the cities of Exeter and Plymouth. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in the southwest of England, also known as the West Country. ... Salisbury (IPA: , or — moving from RP to local dialect) is a cathedral city in Wiltshire, England. ...


Churchill, promoted to Lieutenant-General, was still at his king's side but un-characteristic displays of disloyalty, showing "the greatest transports of joy imaginable" at the desertion of Lord Cornbury, led to entreaties from Feversham for his arrest. Churchill himself had openly encouraged defection to the Orangist cause, but James continued to prevaricate.[34] Soon it was too late to act. After the meeting of the council of war on the morning of 23 November (O.S), Churchill, accompanied by some 400 officers and men, slipped from the royal camp and rode towards William in Axminster. Before his desertion, Churchill left behind him a letter of apology and self-justification: "I am activated by a higher principle. . . I will always with hazard of my life and fortune (so much as Your Majesty's due) endeavour to preserve your royal person and lawful rights, with all the tender concerns and dutiful respect that becomes, sir, Your Majesty's most dutiful and most obliged subject and servant, Churchill." Churchill, who was a staunch Anglican, found that the cause of religion was worth a technical act of betrayal.[35] James, who in the words of one French contemporary, had "given up three kingdoms for a Mass", fled to France, taking with him his heir, James, Prince of Wales (later known as "The Old Pretender"). With barely a shot fired, William had secured the throne, reigning as joint sovereign with James' eldest daughter, Mary. Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Edward Hyde, 3rd Earl of Clarendon, also known by the courtesy title of Lord Cornbury (November 28, 1661 - March 31, 1723) was Governor of New York and New Jersey and perhaps best known for the claims of him cross-dressing while in office. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... Location within the British Isles Arms of Axminster Town Council Axminster is a small market town on the eastern border of Devon, England. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Traitor redirects here. ... James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart, the Old Pretender, (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed King James II of England and VII of Scots, and as such laid claim to the English and Scottish thrones (as... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ...


War of the Grand Alliance

In April 1689, as part of William's coronation honours, Churchill was created Earl of Marlborough. His elevation in the peerage led to accusatory rumours from James' supporters that Marlborough had disgracefully betrayed his erstwhile King for personal gain; William himself entertained reservations about the man who had deserted James.[36] Marlborough's apologists though (including his most notable descendant Winston Churchill) have been at pains to attribute patriotic, religious and moral motives to his action, but, in the words of historian David Chandler, it must be plainly asserted that Marlborough was also motivated by ambition and self-interest – it is difficult to absolve Marlborough of ruthlessness, ingratitude, intrigue and treachery against a man to whom he owed virtually everything in his life and career to date.[37]


Less than six months after James' departure for the Continent, England declared war on France as part of a powerful coalition aimed at curtailing the ambitions of King Louis XIV; but although the War of the Grand Alliance lasted nine years (1688-97), Marlborough saw only three years' service in the field, and then mostly in subordinate commands. However, at Walcourt on 25 August 1689 Marlborough won praise from the Dutch commander, Prince Waldeck, – ". . . despite his youth he displayed greater military capacity than do most generals after a long series of wars. . . He is assuredly one of the most gallant men I know."[38] Nine Years War redirects here. ... Combatants France England United Provinces Commanders Duke of Humières Prince of Waldeck Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 600–1,000 dead or wounded Unknown The Battle of Walcourt was a sharp skirmish on August 27, 1689 near the Belgian village of Walcourt, as a part of the War of the... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... Prince Georg Friedrich of Waldeck (* January 31, 1620 in Arolsen; † November 19, 1692 in Arolsen) was a German Field Marshal and a Dutch General. ...

When he returned to England, Marlborough was presented with further opportunities. As commander-in-chief of the forces in England he became highly knowledgeable of all the intricacies and illogicalities of the English military system, and played a major role in its reorganisation and recruitment; but since Walcourt, Marlborough's popularity at court had waned.[39] William and Mary distrusted both Lord and Lady Marlborough's influence as confidents and supporters of the Princess; so much so that a resentful Mary asked her sister to choose between herself and the King on the one hand, and the Marlboroughs on the other – unhesitantly, Anne chose the latter.[40] For the moment though, the clash of tempers were over-shadowed by more pressing events in Ireland, where James had landed in March 1689 in his attempt to regain his throne. When William left for Ireland in June 1690, Marlborough was appointed a member of the Council of Nine to advise Queen Mary in the King's absence, but she made scant effort to disguise her distaste at his appointment – "I can neither trust or esteem him," she wrote to William.[39] Image File history File links Princess_Anne_c. ... Image File history File links Princess_Anne_c. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) followed Englands only joint monarchy to become Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702 after the passing of both William and Mary. ... Michael Dahl (1656-1743), Swedish portrait painter, was born at Stockholm. ...


William's decisive victory at the Boyne on 1 July 1690 (O.S) had forced James to abandon his army and flee back to France. After obtaining permission from William, Marlborough himself left for Ireland, capturing the ports of Cork and Kinsale in October, but he was to be disappointed in his hopes of an independent command. Although William recognised Marlborough's qualities as a soldier, he was still not disposed to fully trust anyone who had defected from King James, and loath to advance a career of a man whom he described to Lord Halifax as 'very assuming'.[41] Combatants Jacobite Forces -6000 French troops, 19,000 Irish Catholic troops Williamite Forces -English, Scottish, Dutch, Danish, Huguenot and Ulster Protestant troops Commanders James VII and II William III of England Strength 25,000 36,000 Casualties ~1,500 ~750 William III (William of Orange) King of England, Scotland and... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... Cork Harbour is the second largest natural harbour in the world by navigational area. ... Market Street in Kinsale, one of the towns oldest thoroughfares Kinsale (Cionn tSáile in Irish) is a town in County Cork, Ireland. ... Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax (April 16, 1661 - May 19, 1715) was Chancellor of the Exchequer, poet, statesman, and Earl of Halifax. ...


Dismissal and disgrace

The refusal of a dukedom and the Order of the Garter, as well as failing to be appointed Master-General of the Ordnance, rankled with the ambitious earl; nor had Marlborough concealed his bitter disappointment behind his usual bland discretion.[42] Using his influence in Parliament and the army, Marlborough aroused dissatisfaction concerning William's preferences for foreign commanders, an exercise designed to force the King's hand.[43] William, aware of this, in turn began to speak openly of his distrust of Marlborough; the Elector of Brandenburg's envoy to London overheard the King remark that he had been treated – "so infamously by Marlborough that, had he not been king, he would have felt it necessary to challenge him to a duel."[44] The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... The Master-General of the Ordnance (MGO) was an important British military position before 1855, when its duties were largely abolished. ... Friedrich I of Prussia, Kurfürst of Brandenburg, King in Russia (Fredrick I, July 11, 1857 -- February 25, 1913), Hohenzollern, was the first King in Prussia, reigning from January 18, 2001, until his death. ... A duel is a formalized type of combat. ...


Since January 1691, Marlborough had been in contact with James at Saint-Germain. The Duke was anxious to obtain the exiled King's pardon for deserting him in 1688 Рa pardon essential for the success of his future career in the not altogether unlikely event of James' restoration.[45] William was well aware of these contacts (as well as others such as Godolphin and Shrewsbury), but their double-dealing was seen more in the nature of an insurance policy, rather than as an explicit commitment Рa necessary element in a situation of unexampled complexity.[46] However, by the time William and Marlborough had returned from an uneventful campaign in the Spanish Netherlands in October 1691, their relationship had further deteriorated. The Ch̢teau de Saint-Germain-en-Laye. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ...

Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin, Lord Treasurer, Chief Minister and fellow Tory friend of Marlborough.
Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin, Lord Treasurer, Chief Minister and fellow Tory friend of Marlborough.

On 20 January 1692 (O.S), the Earl of Nottingham, Secretary of State, ordered Marlborough to dispose of all his posts and offices, both civil and military, and consider himself dismissed from the army and banned from court.[47] No reasons were given but Marlborough's chief associates were outraged; the Duke of Shrewsbury voiced his disapproval and Godolphin threatened to retire from government; Admiral Russell, now commander-in-chief of the Navy personally accused the King of ingratitude to the man who had "set the crown upon his head."[48] Image File history File links Godolphin. ... Image File history File links Godolphin. ... Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin (c. ... The Lord High Treasurer bears a white staff as his symbol of office. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ... Daniel Finch, 7th Earl of Winchilsea, 2nd Earl of Nottingham (July 2, 1647 – January 1, 1730), son of Heneage Finch, 1st Earl of Nottingham. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Charles Talbot, 1st Duke of Shrewsbury ( 24 July 1660 – 1 February 1718), was the only son of Francis Talbot, 11th Earl of Shrewsbury and his second wife, Anne-Marie Brudenell, a daughter of Robert Brudenell, 2nd Earl of Cardigan; (she became the notorious mistress of the 2nd Duke of... Categories: People stubs | 1653 births | 1727 deaths | Peers | Royal Navy admirals | Lords of the Admiralty ...


High treason

The nadir of Marlborough's fortunes had not yet been reached. The spring of 1692 brought renewed threats of a French invasion and new accusations of Jacobite treachery. Acting on the testimony of Robert Young, the Queen had arrested all the signatories to a letter purporting the restoration of James II and the seizure of King William. Marlborough, as one of these signatories was sent to the Tower of London on 14 May where he languished for five weeks; his anguish compounded by the news of the death of his younger son Charles. Young's letters were eventually discredited as forgeries and Marlborough released, but he continued his correspondence with James, leading to the celebrated incident of the "Camaret Bay letter" of 1694.[49] Jacobite refers to: A follower of Jacobitism, the political movement dedicated to the return of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland A member of the Jacobite Orthodox Church of Syria. ... Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Camaret Bay is a small bay on the north coast of Brittany, France. ...


For several months the Allies had been planning an attack against Brest, the French port in the Bay of Biscay. The French had received intelligence alerting them to the imminent assault, enabling Marshal Vauban to strengthen its defences and reinforce the garrison. Inevitably, the attack on 18 June, led by the English General Thomas Tollemache, ended in disaster; most of his men were killed or captured РTollemache himself died of his wounds shortly afterwards.[50] The Attack on Brest was an amphibious landing on June 18, 1694 by the English in an attempt to seize the French port of Brest, as part of the War of the Grand Alliance. ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ... S̩bastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Tollemache (c. ...


Despite lacking evidence of the letter Marlborough's detractors claim that it was he who had alerted the enemy.[51] But although it is practically certain that Marlborough sent a message across the channel in early May describing the impending attack on Brest, it is equally certain that the French had long learned of the expedition from another source Рpossibly Godolphin or the Earl of Danby.[49] Sir Winston Churchill goes as far to say that the letter was a forgery, however David Chandler states Р"the whole episode is so obscure and inconclusive that it is still not possible to make a definite ruling. In sum, perhaps we should award Marlborough the benefit of the doubt."[52] Brest (lol) is a city in Brittany, or the Bretagne r̩gion, north-west France, sous-pr̩fecture of the Finist̬re d̩partement. ... Thomas Osborne, 1st Duke of Leeds (February 20, 1631 - July 26, 1712), English statesman, commonly known also by his earlier title of Earl of Danby, served in a variety of offices under Kings Charles II and William III of England. ...

Queen Mary II. Mary died childless in 1695, leaving her sister Anne as heir apparent.

Image File history File links Queen_Mary_II.jpg‎ Portrait of Queen Mary II, Wearing a Blue and Red Dress and Holding a Sprig of Orange Blossom by William Wissing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those... Image File history File links Queen_Mary_II.jpg‎ Portrait of Queen Mary II, Wearing a Blue and Red Dress and Holding a Sprig of Orange Blossom by William Wissing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ...

Reconciliation

Mary's death on 28 December 1694 (O.S), eventually led to a formal, but cool, reconciliation between William and Anne, now heir to the throne. Marlborough hoped that the rapprochement would lead to his own return to office, but although he and Lady Marlborough were allowed to return to court, the earl received no offer of employment.[52] is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ...


In 1696 Marlborough, together with Godolphin, Russell and Shrewsbury, was yet again implicated in a treasonous plot with King James, this time instigated by the Jacobite militant Sir John Fenwick. The conspiracy was eventually dismissed as a fabrication and Fenwick executed – the King himself had remained incredulous of the accusations – but it was not until 1698, a year after the Treaty of Ryswick brought an end to the War of the Grand Alliance, that the corner was finally turned in William's and Marlborough's relationship.[52] On the recommendation of Lord Sunderland (whose wife was also a close friend of Lady Marlborough), William eventually offered Marlborough the post of governor to the Duke of Gloucester, Anne's eldest son. He was also restored to the Privy Council, together with his military rank.[53] However, striving to reconcile his close Tory connections with that of the dutiful royal servant was difficult, leading Marlborough to bemoan – "The King's coldness to me still continues."[54] John Fenwick - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Treaty of Ryswick was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick (also known as Rijswijk) in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands). ... Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland (1640 - September 28, 1702) was an English statesman and nobleman. ... William, Duke of Gloucester ( 24 July 1689 - 29 July 1700) was the only child of Princess (later Queen) Anne of England to survive infancy. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ...


Later life (1700–22)

A new Grand Alliance

With the death of the infirm and childless King Charles II of Spain on 1 November 1700, the succession of the Spanish throne, and subsequent control over her empire (including the Spanish Netherlands), once again embroiled Europe in war – the War of the Spanish Succession. On his deathbed, Charles had bequeathed his domains to King Louis XIV's grandson, Philip, Duc d'Anjou. This threatened to unite the Spanish and French kingdoms under the House of Bourbon – something unacceptable to England, the Dutch Republic and the Austrian Emperor, Leopold I, who had himself a claim to the Spanish throne. Charles II of Spain. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire, England (1701-1706) Great Britain (1707-1714),[1] Dutch Republic, Kingdom of Portugal, Crown of Aragon, Others[2] Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Spain, Electorate of Bavaria, Hungarian Rebels Others[3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Marquis de Ruvigny, Count... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ...


With William's health deteriorating (the King himself estimating he had but a short time to live), and with the Earl's undoubted influence over his successor Princess Anne, William decided that Marlborough should take centre stage in European affairs. Representing William in The Hague as Ambassador-Extraordinary, and as commander of English forces, Marlborough was tasked to negotiate a new coalition to oppose France and Spain. On 7 September 1701, the Treaty of the Second Grand Alliance was duly signed by England, the Emperor and the Dutch Republic to thwart the ambitions of Louis XIV and stem Bourbon power.[55] William however, was not to see England's declaration of war. On 8 March 1702 (O.S), the King, already in a poor state of health, died from injuries sustained in a riding accident, leaving his sister-in-law, Anne, to be immediately proclaimed as his successor. But although the King's death occasioned instant disarray amongst the coalition, Count Wratislaw was able to report – "The greatest consolation in this confusion is that Marlborough is fully informed of the whole position and by reason of his credit with the Queen can do everything."[56] Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ...

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough by Sir Godfrey Kneller. Pictured here in his garter robes.
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough by Sir Godfrey Kneller. Pictured here in his garter robes.

This 'credit with the Queen' also proved personally profitable to her long-standing friends. Anxious to reward Marlborough for his diplomatic and martial skills in Ireland and on the continent, Marlborough became the Master-General of the Ordnance – an office he had long desired – made a Knight of the Garter and Captain-General of her armies at home and abroad. With Lady Marlborough's advancements as Groom of the Stole, Mistress of the Robes and Keeper of the Privy Purse, the Marlboroughs, now at the height of their powers with the Queen, enjoyed a joint annual income of over £60,000, and unrivalled influence at court.[57] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (387x643, 34 KB) John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (387x643, 34 KB) John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. ... Sir Godfrey Kneller (August 8, 1646 -October 19, 1723) was an artist, court painter to several British monarchs. ... The Master-General of the Ordnance (MGO) was an important British military position before 1855, when its duties were largely abolished. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... Captain General (and its literal equivalent in several languages) is or was a high military rank and a gubernatorial title. ... This is an incomplete list of those who have served as Groom of the Stole in the British Royal Household. ... The Mistress of the Robes is the senior lady of the British Royal Household. ... The Keeper of the Privy Purse and Treasurer to the Queen is responsible for the financial management of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. ...


War of the Spanish Succession

On 4 May 1702 (O.S) England formally declared war on France. Marlborough was given command of the British, Dutch and hired German forces, but the command had its limitations: as Captain-General he had the power to give orders to Dutch generals only when Dutch troops were in action with his own; at all other times he had to rely on the consent of accompanying Dutch field deputies or political representatives of the States-General – his ability to direct Allied strategy would rely on his tact and powers of persuasion.[58] But despite being frustrated by his Dutch allies' initial lassitude to bring the French to battle, the war began well for Marlborough who managed to out-manoeuvre the French commander, Marshal Boufflers.[59] In 1702 he had captured Venlo, Roermond, Stevensweert and Liege in the Spanish Netherlands for which, in December, a grateful Queen publicly proclaimed Marlborough a duke.[60] is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... The States-General (Staten-Generaal) is the parliament of the Netherlands. ... Louis François, duc de Boufflers, comte de Cagny (January 10, 1644 - August 22, 1711) was a Marshal of France. ... Venlo ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands. ... Country Netherlands Province Limburg Area (2006)  - Municipality 46. ... Stevensweert is a village in the Dutch province of Limburg. ... Liège (Dutch: Luik, German: Lüttich; before 1946, the citys name was written Liége, with the acute accent) is a major city located in the Belgian province of Liège, of which it is the capital. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... The coat of arms of the Dukes of Marlborough The Dukedom of Marlborough (named after Marlborough, pronounced Maulbruh - in the IPA), is an hereditary title of British nobility in the Peerage of England. ...


On 9 February 1703, soon after the Marlboroughs' elevation, their daughter Elizabeth married Scroop Egerton, Earl of Bridgewater; this was followed in the summer by an engagement between Mary and John Montagu, heir to the Earl of, and later Duke of, Montagu, (they later married on 20 March 1705). Their two older daughters were already married: Henrietta to Godolphin's son Francis in April 1698, and Anne to the hot-headed and intemperate Charles Spencer, Earl of Sunderland in 1700.[61] However, Marlborough's hopes of founding a great dynasty of his own reposed in his eldest and only surviving son, John, who, since his father's elevation, had bore the courtesy title of Marquess of Blandford. But while studying at Cambridge in early 1703, the 17 year-old was stricken with a severe strain of smallpox. His parents rushed to be by his side, but on Saturday morning, 20 February the boy died, plunging the duke into 'the greatest sorrow in the world'; he later lamented to Lord Ailesbury – "I have lost what is so dear to me."[62] is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... Scroop Egerton, 1st Duke of Bridgewater (1681 – 1744) was an Earl and Duke in the Peerage of Great Britain. ... John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu (1689 - 1749), in 1745 raised a cavalry regiment known as Montagus Carabineers, which, however, was disbanded after Culloden. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ... Henrietta Godolphin, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough (July 19, 1681–October 24, 1733) was the daughter of the 1st Duke of Marlborough and Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lady Anne Churchill (February 27, 1683 - April 15, 1716) was the second daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough and Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough. ... Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland (c. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Right Honourable Thomas Bruce, 3rd Earl of Elgin, 2nd Earl of Ailesbury (1656–December 16, 1741) was the son of Robert Bruce, 2nd Earl of Elgin. ...


Bearing his grief, and leaving Sarah to hers, the Duke returned to The Hague at the beginning of March. By now Boufflers had been replaced by Marshal Villeroi as commander in the Spanish Netherlands,[63] but although Marlborough was able to take Bonn, Huy, and Limbourg in 1703, continuing Dutch hesitancy prevented him from bringing the French in Flanders to a decisive battle.[64] Domestically the Duke also encountered resistance. Both he and Godolphin were hampered by, and often at variance with, their High Tory colleagues who, rather than advocating a European policy, favoured the full employment of the Royal Navy in pursuit of trade advantages and colonial expansion overseas. For their part, the Whigs, although enthusiastic for the European strategy, had dropped all pretence at supporting the conduct of the war, accounting Marlborough and Godolphin guilty of failing to provide gains commensurate with the funds generously granted them in Parliament.[65] The moderate Tory ministry of Marlborough and Godolphin found itself caught between the political extremes. However Marlborough, whose diplomatic tact had held together a very discordant Grand Alliance, was now a general of international repute, and the limited success of 1703, was soon eclipsed by the Blenheim campaign of 1704.[66] François de Neufville, duc de Villeroi, by Alexandre-François Caminade François de Neufville, duc de Villeroi (April 7, 1644 - July 18, 1730), French soldier, came of a noble family which had risen into prominence in the reign of Charles IX. His father Nicolas de Neufville, marquis de... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Huy (Walloon: Hu; French: Huy, Dutch: Hoei) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... Limbourg is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... High Church is a term that may now be used in speaking of viewpoints within a number of denominations of Protestant Christianity in general, but it is one which has traditionally been employed in Churches associated with the Anglican tradition in particular. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ...

Marlborough writing the Blenheim despatch to Sarah, by Robert Alexander Hillingford. "I have no time to say more but to beg you will give my duty to the Queen, and let her know her army has had a glorious victory."[67]

Pressed by the French and Bavarians to the west and Hungarian rebels to the east, Austria faced the real possibility of being forced out of the war. Concerns over Vienna and the need to ensure the continuing involvement of Emperor Leopold I in the Grand Alliance, had convinced Marlborough of the necessity of sending aid to the Danube; but the scheme of seizing the initiative from the enemy was extremely bold. From the start the Duke resolved to mislead the Dutch who would never willingly permit any major weakening of the Allied forces in the Spanish Netherlands. To this end, Marlborough moved his English troops to the Moselle, (a plan approved of by The Hague), but once there, he resolved to slip the Dutch leash and march south to link up with Austrian forces in southern Germany.[68] Image File history File links Duke-of-Marlborough-signing-Despatch-Blenheim-Bavaria-1704. ... Image File history File links Duke-of-Marlborough-signing-Despatch-Blenheim-Bavaria-1704. ... The Duke of Marlborough Signing the Despatch at Blenheim Robert Alexander Hillingford (1825-1904) was an English painter. ... Francis II Rákóczi Francis II Rákóczi (Borsi, March 27, 1676 - Rodosto, Ottoman Empire, April 8, 1735) was the leader of the Hungarian uprising against the Habsburgs in 1703-11 as the prince (fejedelem) of the Estates Confederated for Liberty of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... Mosel basin area The Moselle (French Moselle, German Mosel, Luxembourgish Musel, Dutch Moezel, from Latin Mosella, little Meuse) is a river flowing through France, Luxembourg and Germany. ...


A combination of strategic deception and brilliant administration enabled Marlborough to achieve his purpose.[69] After covering approximately 250 miles in five weeks, Marlborough – together with Prince Eugene of Savoy – delivered a crushing defeat of the Franco-Bavarian forces at the Battle of Blenheim. The whole campaign, which historian John Lynn describes as one of the greatest examples of marching and fighting before Napoleon, had been a model of planning, logistics and tactical skill, the successful outcome of which had altered the course of the conflict – Bavaria and Cologne were knocked out of the war, and Louis' hopes of an early victory were destroyed.[70] The campaign continued with the capture of Landau on the Rhine, followed by Trier and Trarbach on the Moselle. With these successes, Marlborough now stood as the foremost soldier of the age; even the Tories, who had declared that should he fail they would "break him up like hounds on a hare", could not entirely restrain their patriotic admiration.[71] Prince Eugen von Savoyen in a contemporary painting François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan, known as Prinz Eugen von Savoyen in German and Eugenio, Principe di Savoia in Italian (October 18, 1663 – April 24, 1736) was arguable the greatest general to serve the Habsburgs. ... Combatants England,[1] Austria, Dutch Republic, Prussia, Denmark, Hesse, Hanover France, Bavaria Commanders Duke of Marlborough, Eugene of Savoy Duc de Tallard, Maximilian II Emanuel, Ferdinand de Marsin Strength 52,000, 60 guns[2] 56,000, 90 guns Casualties 4,542 killed, 7,942 wounded 20,000 killed, drowned, or... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... Landau or Landau in der Pfalz (pop. ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ... Traben-Trarbach is a town and a municipality in the district Bernkastel-Wittlich, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ...

Sir John Vanbrugh's Blenheim Palace. Begun in 1705, but plagued by financial troubles, this ‘pile of stones’, as the Duchess resentfully called it, was finally completed in 1722.

The Queen lavished upon her favourite the royal manor of Woodstock and the promise of a fine palace commemorative of his great victory, but since her accession, her relationship with Sarah had become progressively distant.[72] The Duke and Duchess had risen to greatness not least because of their intimacy with Anne, but Sarah had tired of petty ceremony and formality of court life and increasingly found her mistress's company wearisome. For her part, Anne, now Queen of England and no longer the timid adolescent so easily dominated by her more beautiful friend, had grown tired of Sarah's tactless political hectoring and increasingly haughty manner.[73] Blenheim Palace: THE GREAT COURT AND NORTH FRONT: AN 18th century engraving. ... Blenheim Palace: THE GREAT COURT AND NORTH FRONT: AN 18th century engraving. ... Sir John Vanbrugh in Godfrey Knellers Kit-cat portrait, considered one of Knellers finest portraits. ... Blenheim Palace is a large and monumental country house situated in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England. ... Map sources for Woodstock at grid reference SP4416 Woodstock is a small town in Oxfordshire in the United Kingdom. ... Blenheim Palace is a large and monumental country house situated in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England. ...


After the success of Blenheim, the campaign of 1705 brought little reason for satisfaction on the continent. Endless delays and evasions from his allies had once again frustrated Marlborough's attempts at any major offensive.[74] "I find so little zeal for the common cause that it is enough to break a better heart than mine," he confided to Anthonie Heinsius.[75] Although Marlborough had been able to penetrate the Lines of Brabant in July, Allied indecision had prevented the Duke from pressing his advantage.[76] But if 1705 had proved frustrating, 1706 was to provide ample compensation. Anthonie Heinsius (1640 - 1720) was a Dutch statesman during his period of reign 1688 - 1720 as the Grand Pensionary of Holland. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic German states France Commanders Duke of Marlborough Hendrik van Nassau-Ouwerkerk Duc de Villeroi Strength 14,000 (initially) 3,000 - 15,000 Casualties 50 - 200 3,000 The Battle of Elixheim, 18 July 1705, also known as the Passage of the Lines of Brabant was a... Historically, Brabant has been the name of several administrative entities in the Low Countries with quite different geographical extent: as Carolingian shire (pagus Bracbatensis), located between the rivers Scheldt and Dijle (between 9th-11th century); as landgraviat: the part of the shire between the rivers Dender and Dijle (from 1085...

The Duke at the Battle of Ramillies receives captured French standards.

On 23 May 1706, near the village of Ramillies in the Spanish Netherlands, Marlborough inflicted "the most shameful, humiliating and disastrous of routs" on French forces, this time commanded by Marshal Villeroi. Town after town fell, but although the campaign was not decisive, it was an unsurpassed operational triumph for the English general.[77] When Marlborough eventually closed down the Ramillies campaign, he had completed the conquest of almost all the Spanish Netherlands. Good news also arrived from the Italian front – Prince Eugène had routed the French army at Turin. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Battle of Ramillies was a major battle in the War of Spanish Succession, May 23, 1706. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... The Battle of Ramillies was a major battle in the War of Spanish Succession, May 23, 1706. ... The Battle of Turin took place on 7 September 1706 west of the city of Turin during the War of the Spanish Succession. ...


Falling out of favour

While Marlborough fought in Flanders, a series of personal and party rivalries instigated a general reversal of fortune. The Whigs, who were the main prop of the war, had been laying siege to Marlborough's close friend and ally, Lord Godolphin. As a price for supporting the government in the next parliamentary session, the Whigs demanded a share of public office with the appointment of a leading member of their 'Junto', the Earl of Sunderland, to the post of Secretary of State for the Southern Department.[78] The Queen, who loathed the Whigs, bitterly opposed the move; but Godolphin, increasingly dependent on Whig support, had little room for manoeuvre. With Sarah's tactless, unsubtle backing, Godolphin relentlessly pressed the Queen to submit to Whig demands. In despair, Anne finally relented and Sunderland received the seals of office, but the special relationship between Godolphin, Sarah, and the Queen had taken a severe blow and she began to turn increasingly to a new favourite, Abigail Masham. Anne also became ever more reliant on the advice of Godolphin's and Marlborough's fellow moderate Tory Robert Harley, who, convinced that the duumvirate's policy of appeasing the Whig Junto was unnecessary, had set himself up as alternative source of advice to a sympathetic Queen.[79] The Whig Junto is the name given to a group of leading Whigs who were seen to direct the management of the Whig party and often the government, during the reigns of William III and Anne. ... Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland (c. ... The Secretary of State for the Southern Department was a position in the cabinet of the government of United Kingdom up to 1782. ... Abigail Hill Masham Lady Abigail Masham, née Abigail Hill (d. ... Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Mortimer (5 December 1661 – 21 May 1724), was an English statesman of the Stuart and early Georgian periods. ... A duumvirate is an alliance between two equally powerful political or military leaders. ...


The Allies' annus mirabilis was followed in 1707 with a resurgence in French arms in all fronts of the war, and a return to political squabbling and indecision within the Grand Alliance. Marlborough's diplomatic skill was able to prevent Charles XII, King of Sweden, from entering the war against the Empire, but Prince Eugène's retreat from Toulon, and major setbacks in Spain and in Germany had ended any lingering hopes of a war-winning blow that year.[80] Annus Mirabilis is a Latin expression which means miraculous year. ... Charles XII is: Charles XII, or Karl XII, (1682 - 1718), King of Sweden - see Charles XII of Sweden a 19th_century racehorse _ see Charles XII (horse) a pub in the Yorkshire village of Heslington, named after the racehorse - see Heslington This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which... Panorama of Toulon area Satellite view Coat of Arms of Toulon view of Toulon harbour around 1750, by Joseph Vernet. ...


Marlborough returned to England and a political storm. The High Tories were critical of Marlborough's failure to win the war in 1707 and demanded the transfer of 20,000 troops from the Low Countries to the Spanish theatre. For their part the Whigs, infuriated by the Queen's appointment of Tory bishops, threatened to withdraw support from the government. To the Duke and Godolphin this necessitated further wooing of the Junto in order to win back their support (the Junto were full of zeal for the war and, like Marlborough, considered Spain a military sideshow).[81] Yet the more they urged the Queen to make concessions to the Whigs, the more they pushed her into Harley's hands; at every stage of this process, the wider the breach became between the Queen and her Captain-General.[82]


In 1708 Marlborough was able to regain the strategic initiative for the Allies. Despite his ill-health, and the initial loss of Bruges and Ghent to French forces, the Duke's victory over Vendôme at the Battle of Oudenarde on 11 July, had demoralised the French army in Flanders; his eye for ground, his sense of timing and his keen knowledge of the enemy were again amply demonstrated.[83] Marlborough professed himself satisfied with the campaign, but he had become increasingly fatigued by the worsening atmosphere at court; on hearing the news of the Duke's victory the Queen initially exclaimed – "Oh Lord, when will all this bloodshed cease!"[84] Sarah also vexed the Duke. Relentlessly bombarding him with letters of complaint, he had at one point wearily replied – "I have neither spirits nor time to answer your three last letters."[85] Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Bruges Coordinates , , Area 138. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province East Flanders Arrondissement Ghent Coordinates , , Area 156. ... Louis Joseph, duc de Vendôme (1654 - June 11, 1712), marshal of France, was the son of Louis, 2nd duke of Vendôme, and the great-grandson of Henry IV and Gabrielle dEstrée. ... Combatants Great Britain United Provinces Holy Roman Empire France Commanders Duke of Marlborough Prince Eugene of Savoy Louis, duc de Bourgogne Duc de Vendôme Strength 105,000 100,000 Casualties 3,000 15,000 The Battle of Oudenarde (or Oudenaarde) was a key battle in the War of the... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Marlborough's main battles and sieges in the War of the Spanish Succession. In the decade he held command, 1702–11, Marlborough fought five great battles and besieged and captured over thirty enemy fortresses.

On 22 October Marlborough captured Lille, the strongest fortress in Europe (Boufflers yielded the city's citadel on 10 December); he also re-took Bruges and Ghent, but the Duke and Godolphin found themselves ever more uncomfortably placed between the Whig demands for office, and a Queen strongly disinclined to reconciliation. By November, the Whig Junto had gained ascendancy in British politics, reducing the Tories to an ineffective minority; but the more the Queen resisted the Whigs, the more Godolphin and Marlborough were attacked by them for not succeeding in persuading her to give way, and in turn, attacked by the Tories for endeavouring to do so.[86] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1104x865, 155 KB) Description  The War of Spanish Succession, Marlboroughs Gains in Ten Campaigns Author/Source  The Department of History, United States Military Academy Licensing  In the public domain as an original work of the United States federal government and... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1104x865, 155 KB) Description  The War of Spanish Succession, Marlboroughs Gains in Ten Campaigns Author/Source  The Department of History, United States Military Academy Licensing  In the public domain as an original work of the United States federal government and... Combatants Habsburg Empire, England (1701-1706) Great Britain (1707-1714),[1] Dutch Republic, Kingdom of Portugal, Crown of Aragon, Others[2] Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Spain, Electorate of Bavaria, Hungarian Rebels Others[3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Marquis de Ruvigny, Count... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... New city flag Traditional coat of arms Motto: – Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Nord-Pas de Calais Department Nord (59) Intercommunality Urban Community of Lille Métropole Mayor Martine Aubry  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 39. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ...


After the Oudenarde campaign, and one of the worst winters in modern history, France was on the brink of collapse.[87] However, formal peace talks broke down in April 1709 after uncompromising and exacting Whig demands were rejected by King Louis. But despite his opposition to Whig obduracy, Marlborough no longer had the support of the Queen he had once enjoyed, and, with the Whigs holding the reins of British policy, he played only a subordinate role throughout the negotiations. To compound his troubles news arrived in August of fresh trouble between the Queen and his wife; Anne had informed Sarah that finally she had had enough of her bullying, writing – "It is impossible for you to recover my former kindness. . ."[88]


After outwitting Marshal Villars to take the town of Tournai on 3 September, the two opposing generals finally met at the tiny village of Malplaquet on 11 September.[88] Although the battle was a technical victory for the Allies, the cost in human life was high. The Allied casualty figures were approximately double that of the French, leading Marlborough to admit – "The French have defended themselves better in this action than in any battle I've seen."[89] Marlborough proceeded to take Mons on 20 October, but on his return to England his enemies used the Malplaquet casualty figures to sully his repute. Harley, now master of the Tory party, did all he could to persuade his colleagues that the Whigs – and by their apparent concord with Whig policy, Marlborough and Godolphin – were bent on leading the country to ruin, even hinting that the Duke was prolonging the war to line his own pockets.[90] Marshal Villars of France. ... Tournai (in Dutch: Doornik in Latin: Tornacum) is a municipality located 85 kilometres southwest of Brussels, on the river Scheldt (in French: Escaut, in Dutch: Schelde), in the Belgian province of Hainaut. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Malplaquet was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession that took place on September 11, 1709 between France and a British–Austrian alliance (known as the Allies). ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Hainaut Arrondissement Mons Coordinates , , Area 146. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In March 1710 fresh peace talks re-opened between Louis and the Allies, but despite French concessions the Whig government remained unwilling to compromise. However, support for the pro-war policy of the Whigs was ebbing away and, by a series of successive steps, the whole character of the government was altered. Godolphin was forced from office and, after the general election in October, a new Tory ministry installed. Although Marlborough remained a national hero and a figure of immense European prestige, it took urgent entreaties from both Prince Eugène and Godolphin to prevent the Duke from proffering his resignation.[91]

Marlborough and John Armstrong his chief engineer, possibly by Enoch Seeman. Depicted discussing the Siege of Bouchain.

Image File history File links Malborough_and_Colonel_Armstrong. ... Image File history File links Malborough_and_Colonel_Armstrong. ... John Armstrong (1674–1742) was a British Engineer. ... Enoch Seeman the Younger was born in Danzig, now Gdansk, Poland, around 1694. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic German states France Commanders Duke of Marlborough Claude Villars de Ravignau Strength 85,000 90,000 Casualties 4,080 2,500 killed and wounded 2,500 captured The Siege of Bouchain (9 August - 12 September 1711), following the Passage of the Lines of Ne Plus Ultra...

Endgame

In January 1711, Marlborough – 'much thinner and greatly altered' – returned to England; the crowds cheered but the Queen's new ministers, Harley and Henry St John were less welcoming; if he wished to continue to serve, he was to be nothing more than their obedient military servant.[92] The Queen, who had recently expressed her intention of dismissing his wife, remained cold.[93] The Duke saw Anne in a last attempt to save his wife from dismissal, but she was not to be swayed by his supplicatory pleading, and demanded Sarah give up her Gold Key, the symbol of her office, within two days, warning – "I will talk of no other business till I have the key."[94] Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke (1678 - December 12, 1751) was an English statesman and writer. ...


Notwithstanding all this turmoil – and his declining health – Marlborough returned to The Hague in March to prepare for what was to be his last campaign, and one of his greatest. Once again Marlborough and Villars formed against each other in line of battle, this time along the Avesnes-le Comte-Arras sector of the lines of Non Plus Ultra (see map).[95] Expecting another onslaught on the scale of Malplaquet, the Allied generals surmised that their commander, distressed from domestic turmoil, was leading them to an appalling slaughter.[96] But by an exercise of brilliant psychological deception,[97] and a secretive night march covering 40 miles in 18 hours, the Allies penetrated the allegedly impregnable lines without losing a single man; Marlborough was now in position to besiege the fortress of Bouchain.[98] Villars, deceived and outmanoeuvred, was helpless to intervene, compelling the fortress's unconditional surrender on 12 September. Historian David Chandler writes – "The pure military artistry with which he repeatedly deceived Villars during the first part of the campaign has few equals in the annals of military history. . . the subsequent siege of Bouchain with all its technical complexities, was an equally fine demonstration of martial superiority."[99] Avesnes is a small commune in the département of Pas-de-Calais, France. ... Arras (Dutch: ) is a town and commune in northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Pas-de-Calais département. ... Bouchain is a former part of French Flanders, located halfway between Cambrai and Valenciennes. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


For Marlborough though, time had ran out. Throughout 1711 secret peace negotiations (to which Marlborough was not privy), had proceeded between London and Versailles. On 7 December 1711 (O.S), the Queen was able to announce, that – "notwithstanding those who delight in the arts of war" – a sneer towards Marlborough – "both time and place are appointed for opening the treaty of a general peace." The Duke of Marlborough's services as Captain-General would no longer be required.[100] Versailles (pronounced in French), formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1711 (MDCCXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Dismissal

The British representative, St John, had gained highly favourable terms but Marlborough, who was a close associate of George of Hanover, the heir to the throne, and still enjoyed the support of the King of Prussia and the Princes of the Grand Alliance, was wholeheartedly against a separate peace treaty between Britain and France. Harley and St John now determined once and for all to mastermind Marlborough's fall.[101]


On 20 January 1711 (O.S), the Commissioners of Public Accounts laid a report before the Commons accusing the Duke (and others), of turning public funds to his own profit. Marlborough was confronted with two irregularities: first, an assertion that over nine years he had illegally received more than £63,000 from the bread and transport contractors in the Netherlands; second, that the 2.5% he had received from the pay of foreign troops, totalling £280,000, was public money and 'ought to be accounted for'.[102] On 31 December (O.S), the Queen saw fit to dismiss Marlborough from all employments so – "that the matter might have impartial examination."[103] Marlborough however, was able to refute the charges of embezzlement. Concerning the first allegation he could claim ancient precedent: contractors had always paid a yearly sum as a perquisite to the commander-in-chief in the Low Countries. For the second charge he could produce a warrant signed by the Queen in 1702 authorising him to make the deduction – which had always been customary in the Grand Alliance since the days of King William – and that all the money received was used for providing him with the means of creating an intelligence network;[104] a Secret Service that had penetrated the court of King Louis. January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1711 (MDCCXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries (see Country) on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse (Maas) rivers. ... Because of both the secrecy of secret services and the controversial nature of the issues involved, there is some difficulty in separating the definitions of secret service, secret police, intelligence agency etc. ...


Able speeches in the House were made on the Duke's behalf, but the Tories (whose propaganda campaign of discrediting the Duke had included the talents of the great satirist Jonathan Swift) were in the majority. When the vote was taken it was carried by 270 against 165.[105] The Queen ordered the Attorney-General to prepare a prosecution against Marlborough, but St John, acknowledging the flimsiness of the government's case, was compelled to halt the impeachment proceedings – Marlborough's successor, the Duke of Ormonde, had himself already been authorized to take the same 2.5% commission on the pay of foreign troops.[106] Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... 1867 edition of the satirical magazine Punch, a British satirical magazine, ground-breaking on popular literature satire. ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General or Attorney-General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde (April 29, 1665 - November 16, 1745), Irish statesman and soldier, son of Thomas, Earl of Ossory, and grandson of James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde, was born in Dublin and was educated in France and afterwards at Christ Church, Oxford. ...


Return to favour

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough by Enoch Seeman. This late portrait shows Marlborough during his retirement possibly 1716/17 after his stroke.

Marlborough, later to be joined by Sarah, left faction-torn England for the Continent. Reasons for his exile remain speculative, but wherever they travelled they were welcomed and fêted by the people and courts of Europe, where he was not only respected as a great general, but also as a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire.[107] Marlborough bore the exile better than his wife who complained – "Tis much better to be dead than to live out of England;" but further tragedy struck the aging Duke when news arrived of the death of his beloved daughter Elizabeth, Countess of Bridgwater, from smallpox.[108] Image File history File linksMetadata John_Churchill,_1st_Duke_of_Marlborough_(1650-1722). ... Image File history File linksMetadata John_Churchill,_1st_Duke_of_Marlborough_(1650-1722). ... Enoch Seeman the Younger was born in Danzig, now Gdansk, Poland, around 1694. ... Stroke (or cerebrovascular accident or CVA) is the clinical designation for a rapidly developing loss of brain function due to an interruption in the blood supply to all or part of the brain. ... Mindelheim is a city in the German Bundesland of Bavaria. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ...


On their return to Dover on 2 August 1714 (O.S) (21 months after departure), they learnt that Queen Anne had died only the day before. They left immediately for London, escorted by a 'train of coaches and a troop of militia with drums and trumpets'. With equal warmth the Elector of Hanover, now King George I, received Marlborough with the welcoming words – "My Lord Duke, I hope your troubles are now all over."[109] , Dover is a major channel port in the English county of Kent. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... Hanover (German Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... George I King of Great Britain and Ireland George I (George Ludwig von Guelph-dEste) (28 May 1660–11 June 1727) was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) from 23 January 1698, and King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 1 August 1714, until his death. ...

Blenheim Column of Victory on the grounds of the Blenheim estate, Oxfordshire. Over 130 ft (40 m) high, it is surmounted by a larger than life-size Duke by Robert Pit.

Reappointed as Master-General of Ordnance as well as Captain-General, Marlborough became once more a person of great influence and respect at court. Together with the Hanoverian minister Count Bernsdorf, the Hanoverian diplomatist Baron von Bothmar, and Lord Townshend, Marlborough returned to the heart of government; but the Duke's health was fading fast. His central position was increasingly taken over by Robert Walpole and James Stanhope, so much so that during the 1715 Jacobite rising, he was only nominally in command, leaving it to the younger men to deal decisively with the crisis.[110] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x1333, 178 KB) Summary The Column of Victory in the grounds of Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x1333, 178 KB) Summary The Column of Victory in the grounds of Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire, England. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in the South East of England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ... Charles Townshend Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend (April 18, 1674–June 21, 1738), was an English statesman. ... Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, KG, KB, PC (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745) was a British statesman who is generally regarded as having been the first Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope (c. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ...


On 28 May 1716, shortly after the death of his favourite daughter Anne, Countess of Sunderland, the Duke suffered a paralytic stroke at Holywell House. This was followed by another stroke in November, this time at a house on the Blenheim estate. The Duke recovered somewhat, but while his speech had become impaired, his mind remained clear, recovering enough to ride out to watch the builders at work on Blenheim Palace and its landscaped grounds. May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events August 5 - In the Battle of Peterwardein 40. ... Stroke (or cerebrovascular accident or CVA) is the clinical designation for a rapidly developing loss of brain function due to an interruption in the blood supply to all or part of the brain. ...


In 1719 the Duke and Duchess were able to move into the east wing of the unfinished palace, but Marlborough had only three years to enjoy it. While living at the Great Lodge in Windsor Great Park, he suffered another stroke in June 1722, not long after his 72nd birthday. His two surviving daughters, Henrietta Godolphin and Mary Montagu, called on their dying father; but to Sarah, who had always felt the children an intrusion between herself and her husband, this was an unwelcome visitation. Only when the Duchess had made her third request for her daughters to leave the room did they go reluctantly and in ill-grace.[111] In the night hours the Duke began to slip away, and on the morning of 16 June 1722 (O.S), John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, died. Built 1650 in Windsor Great Park, south of Royal Lodge, Cumberland Lodge was called Byfield House till 1670. ... Deer crossing the Long Walk to Windsor Castle Windsor Great Park (locally referred to simply as the Great Park) is a large deer park and Crown Estate of 5,000 acres, to the south of the town of Windsor on the border of Berkshire and Surrey in England. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ...


Assessment

Marlborough is considered by military historians to be one of the great commanders in history. According to Chandler, he was "the greatest soldier produced by the British Isles in modern history."[112] The Duke of Wellington once remarked that "I can conceive nothing greater than Marlborough at the head of an English army."[113] His descendant, Sir Winston Churchill in his biography of Marlborough, declared: Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. ...

He commanded the armies of Europe against France for ten campaigns. He fought four great battles and many important actions. . . He never fought a battle that he did not win, nor besieged a fortress that he did not take. . . He quitted war invincible: and no sooner was his guiding hand withdrawn than disaster overtook the armies he had led. Successive generations have not ceased to name him with Hannibal and Caesar. . . Every taunt, however bitter; every tale, however petty; every charge, however shameful, for which the incidents of a long career could afford a pretext, has been leveled against him." [114]

Notes

  1. ^ All dates in the article are relating to Britain are Old Style. Events on the Continent are given as New Style. Old Style dates were 10 days behind in the 17th century; from 1700 the difference became 11 days. Thus, the Battle of Blenheim is 13 August N.S or 2 August O.S.
  2. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.59
  3. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.3
  4. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.60
  5. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.5. Arabella later became one of the Duke of York's mistresses.
  6. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.6
  7. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.5. Although details of this period are sketchy, it is surmised that in 1670 he also served aboard ship in the naval blockade of the Barbary pirate-den of Algiers.
  8. ^ Hibbert The Marlboroughs, p.7. Churchill was 20, she was 29 when they became lovers.
  9. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs p.8. The story may be apocryphal (another version has Churchill jumping out of the window), but it is widely accepted that Churchill was the father of Cleveland's third daughter.
  10. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.40
  11. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs p.9. Chandler names the ship simply as The Prince
  12. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.7
  13. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.8
  14. ^ Gregg: Queen Anne
  15. ^ a b Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.13
  16. ^ Field: The Favourite: Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, p.8
  17. ^ Field: The Favourite: Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, p.23
  18. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.14
  19. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.15
  20. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.18. Godolphin was the Tory MP for Helston.
  21. ^ a b Barnett: Marlborough, p.43
  22. ^ a b Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.10
  23. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.24. During his time in Scotland, Churchill was dispatched on various important diplomatic missions. His personal successes led to talk of him becoming British minister at The Hague.
  24. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.27
  25. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.28
  26. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.135. As a trusted envoy, Churchill was assigned to bring Prince George back to England.
  27. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p46
  28. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.22. Churchill played no part in the aftermath of slaughter.
  29. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.21
  30. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.36
  31. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.37. Had he abandoned his faith he would also have alienated Princess Anne.
  32. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.40
  33. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.41
  34. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.24
  35. ^ Barnet: Marlborough, p.22
  36. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.46
  37. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.25
  38. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.48
  39. ^ a b Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.35
  40. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.137: Anne wished to have her own Civil List income granted by Parliament, rather than a grant from the Privy Purse, which meant reliance on William. In this, and other matters, Anne was supported by Sarah.
  41. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.50
  42. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.22
  43. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.46: William's Dutch friend, Godert de Ginkell, remained in command of his forces in Ireland while Waldeck, who had been severely beaten by the duc de Luxembourg at Fleurus in July 1690, continued in charge of the Allied army on the Continent.
  44. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.57
  45. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.54
  46. ^ Churchill: A History of the English-Speaking Peoples: Age of Revolution, p.11
  47. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.137: Queen Mary also demanded Anne should dismiss Sarah, which she refused to do.
  48. ^ Churchill: A History of the English-Speaking Peoples: Age of Revolution, p.12: John Childs in his British Army of William III, p.63, states that the most serious misdemeanour in the eyes of William was his "role in alienating the British army officer corps from the Dutch and German generals."
  49. ^ a b Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.47
  50. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.67
  51. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.47: Thomas Macaulay (who lost no opportunity in denigrating Marlborough) in his History of England, suggests that Marlborough betrayed the Allied plans to rid himself of a talented rival, – "If Tollemache were defeated and disgraced, William would scarcely have a choice [to reinstate Marlborough in the army]."
  52. ^ a b c Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.48
  53. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.80. Marlborough's son John, was appointed Master of the Horse at a salary of £500 a year.
  54. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.49
  55. ^ Gregg: Queen Anne, p.126: Marlborough was also to settle the number of soldiers and sailors each coalition partner was to contribute and to supervise the organisation and supply of these troops. In these matters he was ably assisted by Adam Cardonnel and William Cadogan.
  56. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.24
  57. ^ Gregg: Queen Anne, p.153: £4m in today's money.
  58. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.31
  59. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.104. The Dutch generals and deputies were naturally concerned by the threat of an invasion from a powerful enemy.
  60. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.107. The Queen also granted him £5,000 annually for life, but Parliament refused. Sarah, indignant at this ingratitude, suggested he refuse the title.
  61. ^ Gregg: Queen Anne, p.118. Marlborough himself was not keen on the marriage but Sarah, enchanted by his Whig ideology and intellectual prowess, was decidedly more enthusiastic.
  62. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.115
  63. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.116. Boufflers redeemed himself with a crushing victory over the Dutch at the Battle of Eckeren.
  64. ^ Gregg: Queen Anne, p.172. A commemorative medal of these gains was cast with Queen Anne on one side and Marlborough on the other together with the inscription – 'Victory without slaughter.'
  65. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.119
  66. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.121
  67. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.121
  68. ^ Lynn: The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667–1714, p.286
  69. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.128
  70. ^ Lynn: The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667–1714, p.294
  71. ^ Churchill: A History of the English-Speaking Peoples: Age of Revolution, p.44
  72. ^ Barnett: Marlborough p.192.
  73. ^ Hibbert, The Marlboroughs p.207. Anne was a Tory; Sarah was a committed Whig who considered most Tories little better than Jacobites.
  74. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.157
  75. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.154
  76. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander p.164. Marlborough, for once making no attempt to hide his feelings, complained to the States-General, resulting in General Slangenberg's dismissal.
  77. ^ Lynn: The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667–1714, p.308
  78. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.186. Sunderland was Marlborough's son-in-law; he had married his daughter Anne.
  79. ^ Barnet: Marlborough, p.195. Abigail was Sarah's cousin and had been recommended by her for a minor court position.
  80. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.199
  81. ^ Barnet: Marlborough, p.197
  82. ^ Churchill: A History of the English-Speaking Peoples: Age of Revolution, p.59
  83. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.222. One French commentator said the battle – "reduced us. . . to a timid and difficult defensive. . . we were effectively under the orders of M. de Marlborough."
  84. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.212
  85. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.232
  86. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.214
  87. ^ Gregg: Queen Anne, p.279
  88. ^ a b Barnett: Marlborough, p.235
  89. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.266
  90. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.229
  91. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.281
  92. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.256
  93. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.267. The loss of his wife's offices would also be a severe blow to his own prestige.
  94. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.268
  95. ^ Lynn: The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667–1714, p.79. The Non Plus Ultra lines were the last and most imposing entrenched fortifications designed to halt enemy raids and hinder the movements of enemy armies. The Non Plus Ultra lines ran from the coast at Montreuil to the River Sambre.
  96. ^ Churchill: A History of the English-Speaking Peoples: Age of Revolution, p.73
  97. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.259
  98. ^ Lynn: The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667–1714, p.343
  99. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.299
  100. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.278
  101. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.302
  102. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.302. The Tory Examiner, for which the poet Matthew Prior and author Jonathon Swift wrote, also accused the Duke of diverting money from the medical services to line his own pockets.
  103. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.286
  104. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.302. Marlborough employed an extensive network of spies, informers and reporters who kept him supplied with intelligence.
  105. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.285
  106. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.267
  107. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.290. Marlborough lost the principality of Mindelheim at the Treaty of Rastadt, but retained the title which was passed on to future Dukes of Marlborough.
  108. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.295. It is said on hearing the news, his head dropped with such force on the marble mantelpiece that he fell unconscious to the floor.
  109. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.298
  110. ^ Hibbert: The Marlboroughs, p.300
  111. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.273
  112. ^ Chandler, Introduction to Marlborough as Military Commander.
  113. ^ Longford, Elizabeth. Wellington: Pillar of State. Harper and Row, 1972. p.412
  114. ^ Churchill. Marlborough: His Life and Times

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... Combatants England,[1] Austria, Dutch Republic, Prussia, Denmark, Hesse, Hanover France, Bavaria Commanders Duke of Marlborough, Eugene of Savoy Duc de Tallard, Maximilian II Emanuel, Ferdinand de Marsin Strength 52,000, 60 guns[2] 56,000, 90 guns Casualties 4,542 killed, 7,942 wounded 20,000 killed, drowned, or... For other meanings, see Barbary Coast (disambiguation). ... “Alger” redirects here. ... Helston (Cornish: Hellys or Henlys) is a small town and civil parish in the Kerrier district of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom, at the northern end of the Lizard Peninsula. ... A civil list is a list of individuals to whom money is paid by the government. ... In the past, the UKs Civil Government day-to-day costs were paid for by the Sovereign under normal circumstances, the monies in this Public Purse being raised by from the income of the Crown Estate lands and holdings. ... Godert de Ginkell, 1st Earl of Athlone or Godart van Ginkel (Utrecht, 1630 – February 11, 1703, Utrecht) was a Dutch general in the service of England. ... Marshal Luxembourg. ... There have been three battles fought near the town of Fleurus in Belgium: The Battle of Fleurus (1622) in the Thirty Years War. ... Quotes His imagination resembled the wings of an ostrich. ... The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, is) a historical position of varying importance in several European nations. ... William Cadogan, 1st Earl Cadogan (1672 - 1726) was a noted military officer in the army of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough during the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Combatants Dutch Republic Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain+ Commanders General Obdam General Slangenburg Duc de Boufflers Duc de Villeroi Strength 10,000 40,000 Casualties 3,400 1,750 The Battle of Ekeren, June 30, 1703 was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Montreuil is the name of several communes of France: Montreuil, in the Eure-et-Loir département Montreuil, or Montreuil-sur-Mer, in the Pas-de-Calais département Montreuil, or Montreuil-sous-Bois, in the Seine-Saint-Denis département Montreuil, in the Vendée département It is... Matthew Prior (July 21, 1664 – September 18, 1721) was an English poet and diplomat. ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish priest, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer, and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and A Tale of a Tub. ... Mindelheim is a city in the German Bundesland of Bavaria. ... The Treaty of Rastadt, in 1714, was basically an extension of the Treaty of Utrecht, in 1713. ...

References

  • Barnett, Correlli. Marlborough. Wordsworth Editions Limited, (1999). ISBN 1-84022-200-X
  • Chandler, David G. Marlborough as Military Commander. Spellmount Ltd, (2003). ISBN 1-86227-195-X
  • Churchill, Winston. A History of the English-Speaking Peoples: Age of Revolution. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, (2002). ISBN 0-304-36393-6
  • Churchill, Winston. Marlborough: His Life and Times. Charles Scribner's Sons, (1968). ISBN 0-684-12405-X
  • Field, Ophelia. The Favourite: Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough. Hodder and Stoughton, (2002). ISBN 0-340-76807-X
  • Gregg, Edward. Queen Anne. Yale University Press, (2001). ISBN 0-300-09024-2
  • Hibbert, Christopher. The Marlboroughs. Penguin Books Ltd, (2001). ISBN 0-670-88677-7
  • Lynn, John A. The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667–1714. Longman, (1999). ISBN 0-582-05629-2
  • Miller, John. James II. Yale University Press, (2000). ISBN 0-300-08728-4
Legal offices
Preceded by
Sir Harbottle Grimston
Master of the Rolls
1685
Succeeded by
Sir John Trevor
Military offices
Preceded by
Vacant
Commander-in-Chief of the Forces
1690–1691
Succeeded by
The Duke of Leinster
Preceded by
Vacant
Captain-General
1702–1711
Succeeded by
The Duke of Ormonde
Preceded by
The Earl of Romney
Master-General of the Ordnance
1702–1712
Succeeded by
The Earl Rivers
Preceded by
The Duke of Ormonde
Captain-General
1714–1717
Succeeded by
Vacant
Preceded by
Vacant
Master-General of the Ordnance
1714–1722
Succeeded by
The Earl Cadogan
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Earl of Abingdon
Lord Lieutenant of Oxfordshire
1706–1712
Succeeded by
The Earl of Abingdon
Peerage of England
Preceded by
(new creation)
Duke of Marlborough
1702–1722
Succeeded by
Henrietta Godolphin
Preceded by
(new creation)
Earl of Marlborough
1689–1722
Preceded by
(new creation)
Baron Churchill of Sandridge
1685–1722
Peerage of Scotland
Preceded by
(new creation)
Lord Churchill of Eyemouth
1682–1722
Succeeded by
(extinct)
Persondata
NAME Churchill, John
ALTERNATIVE NAMES 1st Duke of Marlborough
SHORT DESCRIPTION
DATE OF BIRTH 26 May, 1650
PLACE OF BIRTH Ashe House, Devon
DATE OF DEATH 27 June, 1722
PLACE OF DEATH Windsor Lodge

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Duke of Marlborough (389 words)
However, George Spencer, the 5th Duke of Marlborough, obtained a Royal Licence[?] to assume and bear the additional surname and arms of his famous ancestor, the 1st Duke of Marlborough, and thus became George Spencer-Churchill.
The 7th Duke of Marlborough was the paternal grandfather of the British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill.
The present Duke of Marlborough is John George Vanderbilt Spencer-Churchill, 11th Duke of Marlborough[?] (born April 13, 1926).
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