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Encyclopedia > John Chrysostom
Saint John Chrysostom

A millennium-old Byzantine mosaic of Saint John Chrysostom, Hagia Sophia
East: Great Hierarch and Ecumenical Teacher
West: Bishop and Doctor of the Church
Born 349, Antioch
Died 14 September ca. 407[1], Comana in Pontus [2]
Venerated in Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Lutheranism, Oriental Orthodoxy
Feast Eastern Orthodoxy
November 13 (Repose—transferred from September 14)
January 27 (Translation of Relics)
January 30 (Three Holy Hierarchs)
Western Christianity
September 13 (Repose—transferred from September 14)
Attributes Vested as a Bishop, holding a Gospel Book or scroll, right hand raised in blessing. He is depicted as emaciated from fasting, a high forehead, balding with dark hair and small beard. Symbols: beehive, a white dove, a pan[3], chalice on a bible, pen and inkhorn
Patronage Constantinople, education, epilepsy, lecturers, orators, preachers [4]
Saints Portal
This article refers to the Christian saint. For other uses of the name, see Chrysostomos.

Saint John Chrysostom (c. 347–407, Greek: Ιωάννης ο Χρυσόστομος, Latin: Ioannes Chrysostomos), archbishop of Constantinople, was an important early father of the church. He is known for his eloquence in preaching and public speaking, his denunciation of abuse of authority by both ecclesiastical and political leaders, the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, and his ascetic sensibilities. After his death (or, according to some sources, during his life) he was given the Greek surname chrysostomos, meaning "golden mouthed", rendered in English as Chrysostom.[2][1] ImageMetadata File history File links Johnchrysostom. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... This article is about a decorative art. ... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... A hierarch is a very high-ranking bishop; see also primate (religion) and metropolitan bishop. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a saint from whose writings the whole Christian Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Comana (Κόμανα Ποντικά) was an ancient city of Pontus, said to have been colonized from Comana in Cappadocia. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Relic (disambiguation). ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Three Holy Hierarchs of the Eastern Church refers to Basil the Great (known as Basil of Caesarea), Gregory the Theologian (known as Gregory of Nazianzus) and John Chrysostom. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint symbology was important to people who couldnt read because they can figure out what symbols mean. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... A Gospel Book is a codex or bound volume, containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament. ... For other uses, see Scroll (disambiguation). ... Look up blessing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term Beehive can refer to several different things: Beehive (beekeeping) is a human-provided structure in which bees are induced to live and raise their young. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... // Look up pan, pan-, Pan, PAN in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Derrynaflan Chalice, an 8th or 9th Century chalice, found in County Tipperary, Ireland For other uses, see Chalice A chalice (from Latin calix, cup, borrowed from Greek kalyx, shell, husk) is a goblet intended to hold drink. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pen (disambiguation). ... An inkhorn is an inkwell made out of horn. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Lecturer is a term of academic rank. ... Look up orator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Preacher is a term the for someone who preaches sermons or gives homilies. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... Chrysostomos can refer to: John Chrysostom, a Christian bishop. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... A modern day speaker addressing an audience through microphones Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Divine Liturgy. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches honor him as a saint (feast days: November 13 and January 27) and count him among the Three Holy Hierarchs (feast day, January 30), together with Saints Basil the Great and Gregory the Theologian. He is recognized by the Roman Catholic Church as a saint and a Doctor of the Church. Churches of the Western tradition, including the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, and some parts of the Lutheran church, commemorate him on September 13, though the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod commemorates him on the traditional Western feast day of January 27. Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... Saints redirects here. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with a saint, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Three Holy Hierarchs of the Eastern Church refers to Basil the Great (known as Basil of Caesarea), Gregory the Theologian (known as Gregory of Nazianzus) and John Chrysostom. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Basil (ca. ... An icon of Saint Gregory Nazianzen the theologian holding a Gospel Book Saint Gregory Nazianzen (AD 329 - January 25, 389), also known as Saint Gregory the Theologian, was a 4th century Christian bishop of Constantinople. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a saint from whose writings the whole Christian Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official cross symbol of the Missouri Synod The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (LCMS) is the second-largest Lutheran body in the United States. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria recognises John Chrysostom as a saint (feast days: 16 Thout and 17 Hathor[3]). Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: , literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with a saint, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ... Thout also known as Tout is the first month of the Coptic calendar. ... Hathor also known as Hatour is the third month of the Coptic calendar. ...


Chrysostom is known within Christianity chiefly as a preacher, theologian and liturgist, particularly in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Among his sermons, eight directed against the Jews remain controversial for their impact on the development of Christian antisemitism.[4][5] Preacher is a term the for someone who preaches sermons or gives homilies. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... From the Greek word λειτουργια, which can be transliterated as leitourgia, meaning the work of the people, a liturgy comprises a prescribed religious ceremony, according to the traditions of a particular religion; it may be refer to, or include, an elaborate formal ritual (such as the Catholic Mass), a daily... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Competition...


He is sometimes referred to as John of Antioch, though that name more properly refers to the bishop of Antioch named John (429-441). John of Antioch was bishop of Antioch A.D. 429-441 and led a group of moderate Eastern bishops during the Nestorian controversy. ...

Contents

Biography

Byzantine 11th century soapstone relief of John Chrysostom, Louvre.
Byzantine 11th century soapstone relief of John Chrysostom, Louvre.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (837x1227, 712 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John Chrysostom Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (837x1227, 712 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John Chrysostom Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The lid of a pyrophyllite box. ... In the art of sculpture, a relief is an artwork where a modelled form projects out of a flat background. ... This article is about the museum. ...

Early life and education

John was born in Antioch in 349.[6] Different scholars describe his mother Anthusa as a pagan[7] or as a Christian, and his father was a high ranking military officer.[8] John's father died soon after his birth and he was raised by his mother. He was baptised in 368 or 373 and tonsured as a reader (one of the minor orders of the Church).[9] As a result of his mother's influential connections in the city, John began his education under the pagan teacher Libanius. From Libanius John acquired the skills for a career in rhetoric, as well as a love of the Greek language and literature.[10] As he grew older, however, he became more deeply committed to Christianity and went on to study theology under Diodore of Tarsus (founder of the re-constituted School of Antioch). According to the Christian historian Sozomen, Libanius was supposed to have said on his deathbed that John would have been his successor "if the Christians had not taken him from us".[11] He lived with extreme asceticism and became a hermit circa 375; he spent the next two years continually standing, scarcely sleeping, and committing the Bible to memory. As a consequence of these practices, his stomach and kidneys were permanently damaged and poor health forced him to return to Antioch.[12] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... Tonsure is the practice of some Christian churches of cutting the hair from the scalp of clerics as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. ... In some Christian churches, the Reader is responsible for reading aloud excerpts of the scripture at a liturgy. ... The minor orders are the lowest ranks in the Christian clergy. ... Libanius (Greek Libanios) (ca 314 AD - ca 394) was a Greek-speaking teacher of rhetoric of the later Roman Empire, an educated pagan of the Sophist school in an Empire that was turning aggressively Christian and publicly burned its own heritage and closed the academies. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... // Main article: Ancient Greek literature Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in Ancient Greek from the oldest surviving written works in the Greek language until the 4th century and the rise of the Byzantine Empire. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... After the early School of Antioch came into decline, the presbyter Diodore of Tarsus (Διόδωρος) re-founded it in the middle of the fourth century as a semi-monastic community. ... During the first Christian centuries the schools of Alexandria and Antioch were the main theological centers. ... Salminius Hermias Sozomen (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ...


Priesthood and service in Antioch

He was ordained as a deacon in 381 by Saint Meletius of Antioch, and was ordained as a presbyter (that is, a priest) in 386 by Bishop Flavian I of Antioch. Over the course of twelve years, he gained popularity because of the eloquence of his public speaking, especially his insightful expositions of Bible passages and moral teaching. The most valuable of his works from this period are his Homilies on various books of the Bible. He emphasised charitable giving and was concerned with the spiritual and temporal needs of the poor. He also spoke out against abuse of wealth and personal property: For other uses, see Deacon (disambiguation). ... Meletius Of Antioch (died 381) was a Patriarch of Antioch from 360 to his death, and saint. ... Presbyter in the New Testament refers to a leader in local Christian congregations, a synonym of episkopos, which has come to mean bishop. ... This article is about religious workers. ... Flavian I of Antioch (ca 320-February 404) was a bishop or patriarch of Antioch from 381 until his death. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ...

Do you wish to honour the body of Christ? Do not ignore him when he is naked. Do not pay him homage in the temple clad in silk, only then to neglect him outside where he is cold and ill-clad. He who said: "This is my body" is the same who said: "You saw me hungry and you gave me no food", and "Whatever you did to the least of my brothers you did also to me"... What good is it if the Eucharistic table is overloaded with golden chalices when your brother is dying of hunger? Start by satisfying his hunger and then with what is left you may adorn the altar as well.[13]

His straightforward understanding of the Scriptures (in contrast to the Alexandrian tendency towards allegorical interpretation) meant that the themes of his talks were practical, explaining the Bible's application to everyday life. Such straightforward preaching helped Chrysostom to garner popular support. He founded a series of hospitals in Constantinople to care for the poor.[14] For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Allegorical interpretation in Biblical studies is the approach which assigns a higher-than-literal interpretation to contents of the Bible. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ...


One incident that happened during his service in Antioch illustrates the influence of his sermons. When Chrysostom arrived in Antioch, the bishop of the city had to intervene with Emperor Theodosius I on behalf of citizens who had gone on a rampage mutilating statues of the Emperor and his family. During the weeks of Lent in 397, John preached twenty-one sermons in which he entreated the people to see the error of their ways. These made a lasting impression on the general population of the city: many pagans converted to Christianity as a result of the sermons. As a result, Theodosius' vengeance was not as severe as it might have been.[15] An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... For other uses, see Lent (disambiguation). ...


Archbishop of Constantinople

A sculpture of John Chrysostom in Saint Patrick's Cathedral, New York City.
A sculpture of John Chrysostom in Saint Patrick's Cathedral, New York City.

In 398, John was requested, against his will, to take the position of Archbishop of Constantinople. He deplored the fact that Imperial court protocol would now assign to him access to privileges greater than the highest state officials. During his time as Archbishop he adamantly refused to host lavish social gatherings, which made him popular with the common people, but unpopular with wealthy citizens and the clergy. His reforms of the clergy were also unpopular with these groups. He told visiting regional preachers to return to the churches they were meant to be serving — without any payout.[16] St. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


His time in Constantinople was more tumultuous than his time in Antioch. Theophilus, the Patriarch of Alexandria, wanted to bring Constantinople under his sway and opposed John's appointment to Constantinople. Being an opponent of Origen's teachings, he accused John of being too partial to the teachings of that theologian. Theophilus had disciplined four Egyptian monks (known as "the tall brothers") over their support of Origen's teachings. They fled to and were welcomed by John. He made another enemy in Aelia Eudoxia, the wife of the eastern Emperor Arcadius, who assumed (perhaps with justification) that his denunciations of extravagance in feminine dress were aimed at herself.[17] Theophilus and the Serapeum Theophilus of Alexandria, (died 412) was the Nicene patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt (385 - 412). ... It has been suggested that Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church be merged into this article or section. ... Origen Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... Eudocia Augusta (c. ... Idealising bust of Arcadius in the Theodosian style combines elements of classicism with the new hieratic style (Istanbul Archaeology Museum) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Arcadius For the Greek grammarian, see Arcadius of Antioch. ...


Depending on one's outlook, John was either tactless or fearless when denouncing offences in high places. An alliance was soon formed against him by Eudoxia, Theophilus and others of his enemies. They held a synod in 403 (the Synod of the Oak) to charge John, in which his connection to Origen was used against him. It resulted in his deposition and banishment. He was called back by Arcadius almost immediately, as the people became "tumultuous" over his departure.[18] There was also an earthquake the night of his arrest, which Eudoxia took for a sign of God's anger, prompting her to ask Arcadius for John's reinstatement.[19] Peace was short-lived. A silver statue of Eudoxia was erected near his cathedral. John denounced the dedication ceremonies. He spoke against her in harsh terms: "Again Herodias raves; again she is troubled; she dances again; and again desires to receive John’s head in a charger,"[20] an allusion to the events surrounding the death of John the Baptist. Once again he was banished, this time to the Caucasus in Armenia.[21] A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... Held in Constantinople in 403, the Synod of the Oak deposed John Chrysostom. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...


Pope Innocent I protested at this banishment, but to no avail. Innocent sent a delegation to intercede on behalf of John in 405. It was led by Gaudentius of Brescia; Gaudentius and his companions, two bishops, encountered many difficulties and never reached their goal of entering Constantinople.[22] Saint Innocent I, pope (402 - 417), was, according to his biographer in the Liber Pontificalis, the son of a man called Innocent of Albano; but according to his contemporary Jerome, his father was Pope Anastasius I, whom he was called by the unanimous voice of the clergy and laity to... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


John wrote letters which still held great influence in Constantinople. As a result of this, he was further exiled to Pitiunt (Abkhazia region of Georgia) where his tomb is the shrine for pilgrims. He never reached this destination, as he died during the journey. His last words are said to have been, "δόξα τῷ θεῷ πάντων ἕνεκεν" (Glory be to God for all things).[19] Pitsunda (Georgian: Bichvinta) is a resort town in Abkhazia, situated on the shore of the Black Sea 25 km south from Gagra. ... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ...


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For other uses, see Sign of the cross (disambiguation). ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the Orthodox liturgical tradition, the omophorion is one of the bishops vestments and the symbol of his spiritual and ecclesiastical authority. ...

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Essence-Energies distinction
Metousiosis
Hesychasm (Greek hesychasmos, from hesychia, stillness, rest, quiet, silence) is an eremitic tradition of prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church, and some other Eastern Churches of the Byzantine Rite, practised (Gk: hesychazo: to keep stillness) by the Hesychast (Gr. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Negative theology - also known as the Via Negativa (Latin for Negative Way) and Apophatic theology - is a theology that attempts to describe God by negation, to speak of God only in terms of what may not be said about God. ... In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the son in Latin) is a heavily disputed addition to the Nicene Creed, that forms a divisive difference in particular between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ... Miaphysitism (sometimes called henophysitism) is the christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Eastern Orthodox and... Theoria is contemplation or perception of beauty, esp. ... Phronema is a Greek term that is used in Eastern Orthodox theology to refer to mindset or outlook; it is the Orthodox mind. ... The Philokalia (Gk. ... Praxis is the customary use of knowledge or skills, distinct from theoretical knowledge. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... In Christianity, the Greek word hypostasis [1] is usually translated into Latin as natura and then into English as nature, although the specific Greek word for nature and substance is physis. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The Energies of God are a central principle of theology in the Eastern Orthodox Church, understood by the orthodox Fathers of the Church, and most famously formulated by Gregory Palamas, against charges of heresy brought by Barlaam of Calabria. ... Metousiosis is a Greek mystical term that literally means a great change of essence. ...

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Homilies

The Byzantine emperor Nicephorus III receives a book of sermons from John Chrysostom, the Archangel Michael stands on his left (11th cent. illuminated manuscript).
The Byzantine emperor Nicephorus III receives a book of sermons from John Chrysostom, the Archangel Michael stands on his left (11th cent. illuminated manuscript).

Known as "the greatest preacher in the early church," John's sermons have been one of his greatest lasting legacies.[23] Chrysostom's extant homiletical works are vast, including many hundreds of exegetical sermons on both the New Testament (especially the works of Saint Paul) and the Old Testament (particularly on Genesis). Among his extant exegetical works are sixty-seven homilies on Genesis, fifty-nine on the Psalms, ninety on the Gospel of Matthew, eighty-eight on the Gospel of John, and fifty-five on the Acts of the Apostles.[24] Nicephorus III Botaniates, Byzantine emperor from 1078 to 1081, belonged to a family which claimed descent from the Roman Fabii; he rose to be commander of the troops in Asia. ... Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Sta. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Psalms (Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible included in the collected works known as the Writings or Ketuvim. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ...


The sermons were written down by the audience and subsequently circulated, revealing a style that tended to be direct and greatly personal, but was also formed by the rhetorical conventions of his time and place.[25] In general, his homiletical theology displays much characteristic of the Antiochian school (i.e., somewhat more literal in interpreting Biblical events), but he also uses a good deal of the allegorical interpretation more associated with the Alexandrian school.[26] During the first Christian centuries the schools of Alexandria and Antioch were the main theological centers. ... The Alexandrian school is a collective designation for certain tendencies in literature, philosophy, medicine, and the sciences that developed in the Hellenistic cultural center of Alexandria, Egypt around the 1st century. ...


John's social and religious world was formed by the continuing and pervasive presence of paganism in the life of the city. One of his regular topics was the paganism in the culture of Constantinople, and in his sermons he thunders against popular pagan amusements: the theatre, horseraces, and the revelry surrounding holidays.[27] In particular, he criticized Christians for taking part in such activities: For other uses of Greek Theatre, see Greek theatre (disambiguation). ... A modern recreation of chariot racing in Romano-Gaul Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Roman sports. ...

"If you ask [Christians] who is Amos or Obadiah, how many apostles there were or prophets, they stand mute; but if you ask them about the horses or drivers, they answer with more solemnity than sophists or rhetors".[28]

John's sermons on Paul's Epistle to the Romans featured extensive speaking about certain verses. He would go through the chapters, speaking about each verse one by one. This was to break down the writing and make it easier for lay people to whom he as speaking to understand. He would often speak at length about just one verse, so these sermons tended to be quite long. John's homilies were characterized by examining each verse in detail, looking at the language of it, and discussing both the explicit and the implied meaning of each word, and the passage as a whole, and these sermons were no different. In these sermons, John goes through all of Paul's epistle, verse by verse, explaining each one to his audience. Amos (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Burden) is one of the twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and putative author of the speeches reported in the Book of Amos. ... This article is about people named Obadiah in the Old Testament. ... Sophist redirects here. ...


One of the recurring features of John's sermons is his emphasis on care for the needy.[29] Echoing themes found in the Gospel of Matthew, he calls upon the rich to lay aside materialism in favor of helping the poor, often employing all of his rhetorical skills to shame wealthy people to abandon conspicuous consumption:

"It is not possible for one to be wealthy and just at the same time."
"Do you pay such honor to your excrements as to receive them into a silver chamber-pot when another man made in the image of God is perishing in the cold?"[30]

Treatises

Outside of his sermons, a number of John's other treatises have had a lasting influence. One such work is John's early treatise Against Those Who Oppose the Monastic Life, written while he was a deacon (sometime before 386), which was directed to parents, pagan as well as Christian, whose sons were contemplating a monastic vocation. The book is a sharp attack on the values of Antiochene upper-class urban society written by someone who was a member of that class.[31] Chrysostom also writes that, already in his day, it was customary for Antiochenes to send their sons to be educated by monks.[32] Other important treatises written by John include On the Priesthood (one of his earlier works), Instructions to Catechumens, and On the Incomprehensibility of the Divine Nature.[33] In addition, he wrote a series of well-known letters to the deaconess Olympias. Deaconess (and also deacon) comes from a Greek word diakonos (διακονος). This Greek word means a servant or helper and occurs frequently in the Christian New Testament of the Bible and is sometimes applied to Christ himself. ... This article is about the Macedonian princess. ...


Sermons on Jews and Judaizing Christians

During his first two years as a presbyter in Antioch (386-387), Chrysostom denounced Jews and Judaizing Christians in a series of eight sermons delivered to Christians in his congregation who were taking part in Jewish festivals and other Jewish observances.[34] It is disputed whether the main target were specifically Judaizers or Jews in general. His homilies were expressed in the conventional manner, utilizing the uncompromising rhetorical form known as the psogos (Greek: blame). Judaizers is a pejorative term used by Pauline Christianity, particularly after the third century, to describe Jewish Christian groups like the Ebionites and Nazarenes who believed that followers of Jesus needed to keep the Law of Moses. ... Jewish holiday, (or Yom Tom or chag or taanit in Hebrew) is a day that is holy to the Jewish people according to Judaism and is usually derived from the Hebrew Bible, specifically the Torah, and in some cases established by the rabbis in later eras. ...


One of the purposes of these homilies was to prevent Christians from participating in Jewish customs, and thus prevent the erosion of Chrysostom's flock. In his sermons, Chrysostom criticized those "Judaizing Christians", who were participating in Jewish festivals and taking part in other Jewish observances, such as the shabbat, submitted to circumcision and made pilgrimage to Jewish holy places.[35] Chrysostom claimed that on the shabbats and Jewish festivals synagogues were full of Christians, especially women, who loved the solemnity of the Jewish liturgy, enjoyed listening to the shofar on Rosh Hashanah, and applauded famous preachers in accordance with the contemporary custom.[36] A more recent apologetic theory is that he instead tried to persuade Jewish Christians, who for centuries had kept connections with Jews and Judaism, to choose between Judaism and Christianity.[37] For other uses, see Sabbath. ... This article is about Circumcision in the Bible. ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ... A shofar made from the horn of a kudu, in the Yemenite Jewish style. ... Look up Rosh Hashanah in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Chrysostom held Jews responsible for the crucifixion of Jesus and deicide (killing God, see "Jewish deicide" for the subject) and added that they continued to rejoice in Jesus's death.[38] He compared the synagogue to a pagan temple, representing it as the source of all vices and heresies.[39] He described it as a place worse than a brothel and a drinking shop; it was a den of scoundrels, the repair of wild beasts, a temple of demons, the refuge of brigands and debauchees, and the cavern of devils, a criminal assembly of the assassins of Christ.[40] Palladius, Chrysostom's contemporary biographer, also recorded his claim that among the Jews the priesthood may be purchased and sold for money.[41] Finally, he declared that he hated the synagogue and the Jews.[42] The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Vice is a practice or habit that is considered immoral, depraved, and/or degrading in the associated society. ... A brothel, also known as a bordello or whorehouse, is an establishment specifically dedicated to prostitution, providing the prostitutes a place to meet and to have sex with the clients. ... Look up saloon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In Greek the sermons are called Kata Ioudaiōn (Κατά Ιουδαίων), which is translated as Adversus Judaeos in Latin and Against the Jews in English.[43] The most recent scholarly translations, claiming that Chrysostom's primary targets were members of his own congregation who continued to observe the Jewish feasts and fasts, give the sermons the more sympathetic title Against Judaizing Christians.[44] The original Benedictine editor of the homilies, Bernard de Montfaucon, gives the following footnote to the title: "A discourse against the Jews; but it was delivered against those who were Judaizing and keeping the fasts with them [the Jews]."[45] As such, some have claimed that the original title misrepresents the contents of the discourses, which show that Chrysostom's primary targets were members of his own congregation who continued to observe the Jewish feasts and fasts. Sir Henry Savile, in his 1612 edition of Homilies 27 of Volume 6 (which is Discourse I in Patrologia Graeca's Adversus Iudaeos), gives the title: "Chrysostom's Discourse Against Those Who Are Judaizing and Observing Their Fasts."[46] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Bernard de Montfaucon (1655 - 1741) was a French Benedictine monk and scholar. ... Sir Henry Savile (1549 – February 19, 1622), Warden of Merton College, Oxford, and Provost of Eton, was the son of Henry Savile of Bradley, near Halifax, in Yorkshire, a member of an old county family, the Saviles of Methley, and of his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Ramsden. ... The Patrologia Graeca is an edited collection of writings by the Christian Church Fathers in the Greek language in 161 volumes, produced in 1857–1866 by J.P. Migne It includes both the Eastern Fathers and those Western authors who wrote before Latin became predominant the West in the 3rd...


Liturgy

Beyond his preaching, the other lasting legacy of John is his influence on Christian liturgy. Two of his writings are particularly notable. He harmonized the liturgical life of the Church by revising the prayers and rubrics of the Divine Liturgy, or celebration of the Holy Eucharist. To this day, Eastern Orthodox and most Eastern Catholic Churches typically celebrate the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom. These same churches also read his Catechetical Homily (Hieratikon) at every Easter, the greatest feast of the church year. The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Divine Liturgy. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ...


Legacy and influence

During a time when city clergy were subject to criticism for their high lifestyle, John was determined to reform his clergy in Constantinople. These efforts were met with resistance and limited success. He was an excellent preacher. As a theologian, he has been and continues to be very important in Eastern Christianity, and is generally considered the most prominent doctor of the Greek Church, but has been less important to Western Christianity. His writings have survived to the present day more so than any of the other Greek Fathers.[1] He rejected the contemporary trend for allegory, instead speaking plainly and applying Bible passages and lessons to everyday life. Image File history File linksMetadata Zlatoust. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Zlatoust. ... General view of the Chrysostom Monastery in 1882. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ...


His exile demonstrated the rivalry between Constantinople and Alexandria for recognition as the preeminent Eastern See, while in the west, the Pope's primacy remained unquestioned. For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ...


Influence on the catechism and clergy

Chrysostom's influence on church teachings is interwoven throughout the current Catechism of the Catholic Church (revised 1992). The Catechism cites him in eighteen sections, particularly his reflections on the purpose of prayer and the meaning of the Lord's Prayer: The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ...

Consider how [Jesus Christ] teaches us to be humble, by making us see that our virtue does not depend on our work alone but on grace from on high. He commands each of the faithful who prays to do so universally, for the whole world. For he did not say "thy will be done in me or in us," but "on earth," the whole earth, so that error may be banished from it, truth take root in it, all vice be destroyed on it, virtue flourish on it, and earth no longer differ from heaven.[47]

Christian clerics, such as R.S. Storr, refer to him as "one of the most eloquent preachers who ever since apostolic times have brought to men the divine tidings of truth and love", and the 19th century John Henry Cardinal Newman described Chrysostom as a "bright, cheerful, gentle soul; a sensitive heart."[48] J H Newman age 23 when he preached his first sermon. ...


Antisemitism

Chrysostom's Adversus Judaeos homilies have been circulated by many groups to foster anti-Semitism.[49] James Parkes called the writing on Jews "the most horrible and violent denunciations of Judaism to be found in the writings of a Christian theologian".[50] His sermons against Jews gave momentum to the idea that Jews are collectively responsible for the death of Jesus.[51] British historian Paul Johnson claimed that Chrysostom's homilies "became the pattern for anti-Jewish tirades, making the fullest possible use (and misuse) of key passages in the gospels of Saints Matthew and John. Thus a specifically Christian anti-Semitism, presenting the Jews as murderers of Christ, was grafted on to the seething mass of pagan smears and rumours, and Jewish communities were now at risk in every Christian city."[52] During World War II, the Nazi Party in Germany abused his work in an attempt to legitimize the Holocaust in the eyes of German and Austrian Christians. His works were frequently quoted and reprinted as a witness for the prosecution.[53] The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Paul Johnson (born Paul Bede Johnson on 2 November 1928 in Manchester, England) is a British Roman Catholic journalist, historian, speechwriter and author. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...


After World War II, the Christian churches denounced Nazi use of Chrysostom's works, explaining his words with reference to the historical context. According to Laqueur, it was argued that in the 4th century, the general discourse was brutal and aggressive and that at the time when the Christian church was fighting for survival and recognition, mercy and forgiveness were not in demand.[54] According to Patristics scholars, opposition to any particular view during the late fourth century was conventionally expressed in a manner, utilizing the rhetorical form known as the psogos, whose literary conventions were to vilify opponents in an uncompromising manner; thus, it has been argued that to call Chrysostom an "anti-Semite" is to employ anachronistic terminology in a way incongruous with historical context and record.[55] Patristics is the study of early Christian writers, known as the Church Fathers. ...


Music and literature

Chrysostom's liturgical legacy has inspired several musical compositions. Noteworthy among these are: Sergei Rachmaninoff's Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, Op.31, composed in 1910, one of his two major unaccompanied choral works; Pyotr Tchaikovsky's Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, Op.41; and Arvo Part's Litany, which sets seven sentence prayers of Chrysostom's Divine Liturgy for chorus and orchestra. Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Russian: , Sergej Vasilevič Rakhmaninov, 1 April 1873 (N.S.) or 20 March 1873 (O.S.) – 28 March 1943) was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor, one of the last great champions of the Romantic style of European classical music. ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский, sometimes transliterated as Piotr, Anglicised as Peter Ilich), (May 7, 1840 – November 6, 1893 (N.S.); April 25, 1840 – October 25, 1893 (O.S.)) was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ... Arvo Pärt (born 11 September Estonian composer, often identified with the school of minimalism. ...


James Joyce's novel Ulysses includes a character named Mulligan who brings 'Chrysostomos' into another character's mind because Mulligan's gold-stopped teeth and his gift of the gab earn him the title which St. John Chrysostom's preaching earned him, 'golden-mouthed':[56] Chrysostomos also refers to Stephen, the independent and exiled genius: This article is about the writer and poet. ... Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, and then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. ...

He peered sideways up and gave a long low whistle of call, then paused awhile in rapt attention, his even white teeth glistening here and there with gold points. Chrysostomos.[57]

Relics

John Chrysostom died in the city of Comana in the year 407 on his way to his place of exile. There his relics remained until 438 when, thirty years after his death, they were transferred to Constantinople during the reign of the Empress Eudoxia's son, the Emperor Theodosius II (408-450), under the guidance of John's disciple, St. Proclus, who by that time had become Archbishop of Constantinople (434-447). For other uses, see Relic (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Theodosius II Flavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East. ... Saint Proclus (d. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ...


John's relics were looted from Constantinople by Crusaders in 1204 and brought to Rome, but were returned to the Orthodox on 27 November 2004 by Pope John Paul II.[58] His silver and jewel-encrusted skull is now kept in the Vatopedi Monastery on Mount Athos in northern Greece, and is credited by Eastern Orthodox Christians with miraclulous healings. His right hand is also preserved on Mount Athos, and numerous smaller relics are scattered throughout the world.[59] Belligerents Crusaders Holy Roman Empire Republic of Venice Montferret Champagne Blois Amiens ÃŽle-de-France Saint-Pol Burgundy Flanders Balkans Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Hungary Croatia Dalmatia Commanders Otto IV Boniface I Theobald I Lois I Alexios V Doukas Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Emeric I The Fourth Crusade... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... The holy monastery of Vatopedi was built during the second half of the 10th century, by three monks, Athanasius, Nicholas and Antonius from Adrinople, who were the pupils of St. ... This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. ... Capital Karyes Official languages Koine Greek, Church Slavonic, Modern Greek, Russian, Serbian, Georgian, Bulgarian, Romanian (both liturgical and civil use), Modern Greek (civil use) Government  -  Head of State2 Dora Bakoyannis  -  Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I Area  -  Total 390 km²  150 sq mi  Population  -   estimate 2,250  Demonyms: Athonite, Hagiorite (English); Αθωνίτης, Αγιορίτης (Greek). ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... For other uses, see Miracle (disambiguation). ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b c "St John Chrysostom" in the Catholic Encyclopedia, available online; retrieved March 20, 2007.
  2. ^ Pope Vigilius, Constitution of Pope Vigilius, 553
  3. ^ Coptic synaxarium
  4. ^ Walter Laqueur, The Changing Face of Antisemitism: From Ancient Times To The Present Day, (Oxford University Press: 2006), p. 48. ISBN 0-19-530429-2. 48
  5. ^ Yohanan (Hans) Lewy, "John Chrysostom" in Encyclopedia Judaica (CD-ROM Edition Version 1.0), Ed. Cecil Roth (Keter Publishing House: 1997). ISBN 965-07-0665-8.
  6. ^ The date of John's birth is disputed. For a discussion see Robert Carter, "The Chronology of St. John Chrysostom's Early Life," in Traditio 18:357–64 (1962) Jean Dumortier, "La valeur historique du dialogue de Palladius et la chronologie de saint Jean Chrysostome," in Mélanges de science religieuse, 8:51–56 (1951). Carter dates his birth to the year 349. See also Robert Louis Wilken, John Chrysostom and the Jews: Rhetoric and Reality in the Late Fourth Century, (Berkeley: University of California Press:1983), p.5.
  7. ^ "John Chrysostom", Encyclopedia Judaica
  8. ^ The Encyclopedia Judaica describes Chrysostom's mother as a pagan. In Pauline Allen and Wendy Mayer, John Chrysostom, (Routledge:2000), p.5 ISBN 0-415-18252-2, she is described as a Christian.
  9. ^ Wilken (p. 7) prefers 368 for the date of Chrysostom's baptism, the Encyclopedia Judaica prefers the later date of 373.
  10. ^ Wilken, p. 5.
  11. ^ Sozomen [1890] (1995). "Ecclesiastical History of Sozomen, Book VIII, Chapter II: Education, Training, Conduct, and Wisdom of the Great John Chrysostom", in Schaff, Philip and Wace, Henry (trs., eds.): Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Volume II: Socrates and Sozomenus Ecclesiastical Histories, Zenos, A. C. (rev., notes), reprint, Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, p. 399. Retrieved on 2007-03-29. 
  12. ^ Pauline Allen and Wendy Mayer, John Chrysostom, (Routledge:2000), p.6 ISBN 0-415-18252-2,
  13. ^ John Chrysostom, In Evangelium S. Matthaei, hom. 50:3-4: PG 58, 508-509
  14. ^ See Cajetan Baluffi, The Charity of the Church, trans. Denis Gargan (Dublin: M H Gill and Son, 1885), p. 39 and Alvin J. Schmidt, Under the Influence: How Christianity Transformed Civilization (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2001), p. 152; cited in Thomas Woods, How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization, (Washington, DC: Regenery, 2005), p.174.
  15. ^ Robert Wilken, "John Chrysostom" in Encyclopedia of Early Christianity, ed. Everett Ferguson (New York:Garland Publishing, 1997).
  16. ^ David H. Farmer, The Oxford Dictionary of the Saints, second ed. (New York:Oxford University Press, 1987) p.232.
  17. ^ Robert Wilken, "John Chrysostom" in Encyclopedia of Early Christianity, ed. Everett Ferguson (New York:Garland Publishing, 1997).
  18. ^ Socrates Scholasticus [1890] (1995). "Book VI, Chapter XVI: Sedition on Account of John Chrysostom’s Banishment", in Schaff, Philip and Wace, Henry (trs., eds.): Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Volume II: Socrates and Sozomenus Ecclesiastical Histories, Zenos, A. C. (rev., notes), reprint, Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, p. 149. Retrieved on 2007-03-29. 
  19. ^ a b St John Chrysostom the Archbishop of Constantinople. Orthodox Church in America. Retrieved on 2007-03-29.
  20. ^ Socrates Scholasticus, op cit "Chapter XVIII: Of Eudoxia's Silver Statue", p. 150.
  21. ^ "John Chrysostom" in The Oxford Dictionary of Church History, ed. Jerald C. Brauer (Philadelphia:Westminster Press, 1971).
  22. ^ http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06393c.htm
  23. ^ "John Chrysostom" in Encyclopedia of Early Christianity.
  24. ^ "John Chrysostom" in the Catholic Encyclopedia, online, retrieved March 20, 2007.
  25. ^ Yohanan (Hans) Lewy, "John Chrysostom" in Encyclopedia Judaica (CD-ROM Edition Version 1.0), Ed. Cecil Roth (Keter Publishing House: 1997). ISBN 965-07-0665-8.
  26. ^ "John Chrysostom" in the Catholic Encyclopedia, online, retrieved March 20, 2007.
  27. ^ Wilken, p.30.
  28. ^ John Chrysostom, quoted in Wilken, p.30
  29. ^ Liebeschuetz, J.H.W.G. Barbarians and Bishops: Army, Church, and State in the age of Arcadius and Chrysostom, (Oxford: Clarendon Rress, 1990) pp.175-176
  30. ^ John Chrysostom, quoted in Liebeschuetz, p.176
  31. ^ Wilken, p.26.
  32. ^ Thomas Woods, How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization, (Washington, DC: Regenery, 2005), ISBN 0-89526-038-7, p.44
  33. ^ On the Priesthood was well-known already during Chrysostom's lifetime, and is cited by Jerome in 392 in his De Viris Illustribus, chapter 129
  34. ^ See Wilken, p.xv, and also "John Chrysostom" in Encyclopedia Judaica
  35. ^ Wilken, p.xv.
  36. ^ "John Chrysostom" in Encyclopedia Judaica.
  37. ^ Rodney Stark, The Rise of Christianity. How the Obscure, Marginal Jesus Movement Became the Dominant Religious Force in the Western World in a Few Centuries, (Princeton University Press:1997)p.66-67.
  38. ^ William I. Brustein, Roots of Hate: Anti-Semitism in Europe before the Holocaust, (Cambridge University Press:2003) ISBN 0-521-77308-3, p.52.
  39. ^ "John Chrysostom" in Encyclopedia Judaica.
  40. ^ Laqueur 47–48
  41. ^ "John Chrysostom" in Encyclopedia Judaica.
  42. ^ Walter Laqueur, The Changing Face of Antisemitism: From Ancient Times To The Present Day,(Oxford University Press:2006) ISBN 0-19-530429-2, p.47-48
  43. ^ John Chrysostom, Discourses Against Judaizing Christians (vol. 68 of Fathers of the Church), trans. Paul W. Harkins (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1979) p.x
  44. ^ For example John Chrysostom, Discourses Against Judaizing Christians (vol. 68 of Fathers of the Church), trans. Paul W. Harkins (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1979); and also [1]
  45. ^ Chrysostom, Discourses Against Judaizing Christians, p.xxxi)
  46. ^ Chrysostom, Discourses Against Judaizing Christians, p.xxxi).
  47. ^ John Chrysostom, Hom. in Mt. 19,5: PG 57, 280.
  48. ^ John Henry Newman, "St. Chrysostom" in The Newman Reader (Rambler:1859) available online(see esp. chapter 2). Retrieved March 20, 2007
  49. ^ Laqueur, p. 48.
  50. ^ James Parkes, Prelude to Dialogue (London: 1969) p. 153; cited in Wilken, p. xv.
  51. ^ Brustein, p. 52.
  52. ^ Johnson, Paul, A History of the Jews, (HarperPerennial: 1988), p. 165.
  53. ^ Laqueur, p. 48.
  54. ^ Laqueur, p. 48.
  55. ^ Wilken, p. 124-126.
  56. ^ Blaimes (1996, 3).
  57. ^ Joyce (1961, 3).
  58. ^ Pope John Paul II. Letter to the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, His Holiness Bartholomew I. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  59. ^ "Thousands queue outside Cyprus church after reports of miracle-working relic", International Herald Tribune, November 13, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-11-13. 

Vigilius was Pope from 537 to 555. ... The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 26-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and their faith, Judaism. ... Salminius Hermias Sozomen (c. ... Philip Schaff (January 1, 1819-1893), was a Swiss-born, German-educated theologian and a historian of the Christian church, who, after his education, lived and taught in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Socrates of Constantinople[1] was a Greek Christian church historian, a contemporary of Sozomen and Theodoret, who used his work; he was born at Constantinople c. ... Philip Schaff (January 1, 1819-1893), was a Swiss-born, German-educated theologian and a historian of the Christian church, who, after his education, lived and taught in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jerome De viris illustribus (On Illustrious Men) is a collection of short biographies of 135 authors, written in Latin, by the 4th century Illyrian author Jerome. ... Paul Johnson (born Paul Bede Johnson on 2 November 1928 in Manchester, England) is a British Roman Catholic journalist, historian, speechwriter and author. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Allen, Pauline and Mayer, Wendy (2000). John Chrysostom. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-18252-2
  • Attwater, Donald (1960). St. John Chrysostom: Pastor and Preacher. London: Catholic Book Club.
  • Blamires, Harry (1996). The New Bloomsday Book: A Guide Through Ulysses. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-15-3858-.
  • Brändle, R., V. Jegher-Bucher, and Johannes Chrysostomus (1995). Acht Reden gegen Juden (Bibliothek der griechischen Literatur 41), Stuttgart: Hiersemann.
  • Brustein, William I. (2003). Roots of Hate: Anti-Semitism in Europe before the Holocaust. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77308-3
  • Carter, Robert (1962). "The Chronology of St. John Chrysostom's Early Life." Traditio 18:357–64.
  • Chrysostom, John (1979). Discourses Against Judaizing Christians, trans. Paul W. Harkins. The Fathers of the Church; v. 68. Washington: Catholic University of America Press.
  • Dumortier, Jean (1951). "La valeur historique du dialogue de Palladius et la chronologie de saint Jean Chrysostome." Mélanges de science religieuse, 8, 51–56.
  • Hartney, Aideen (2004). John Chrysostom and the Transformation of the City. London: Duckworth. ISBN 0520047575.
  • Joyce, James (1961). Ulysses. New York: The Modern Library.
  • Kelly, John Norman Davidson (1995). Golden Mouth: The Story of John Chrysostom-Ascetic, Preacher, Bishop. Ithica, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801431891.
  • Laqueur, Walter (2006). The Changing Face of Antisemitism: From Ancient Times To The Present Day. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-530429-2.
  • Liebeschuetz, J.H.W.G. (1990) Barbarians and Bishops: Army, Church and State in the Age of Arcadius and Chrysostom. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0198148860.
  • Lewy, Yohanan [Hans] (1997). "John Chrysostom". Encyclopedia Judaica (CD-ROM Edition Version 1.0). Ed. Cecil Roth. Keter Publishing House. ISBN 965-07-0665-8.
  • Meeks, Wayne A., and Robert L. Wilken (1978). Jews and Christians in Antioch in the First Four Centuries of the Common Era (The Society of Biblical Literature, Number 13). Missoula: Scholars Press. ISBN 0-89130-229-8.
  • Palladius, Bishop of Aspuna. Palladius on the Life And Times of St. John Chrysostom, transl. and edited by Robert T. Meyer. New York: Newman Press, 1985. ISBN 0809103583.
  • Parks, James (1969). Prelude to Dialogue. London.
  • Pradels, W. (2002). "Lesbos Cod. Gr. 27 : The Tale of a Discovery", Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum 6, pp. 81-89.
  • Pradels, W., R. Brändle, and M. Heimgartner (2001). "Das bisher vermisste Textstück in Johannes Chrysostomus, Adversus Judaeos, Oratio 2", Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum 5, pp. 23-49.
  • Pradels, W., R. Brändle, and M. Heimgartner (2002). "The sequence and dating of the series of John Chrysostom’s eight discourses Adversus Judaeos", Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum 6, 90-116.
  • Schaff, Philip, and Henry Wace (eds.) (1890). Socrates, Sozomenus: Church Histories (A Select Library of Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, second series, vol. II). New York: The Christian Literature Company.
  • Stark, Rodney (1997). The Rise of Christianity. How the Obscure, Marginal Jesus Movement Became the Dominant Religious Force in the Western World in a Few Centuries. Princeton University Press.
  • Stephens, W.R.W. (1883). Saint John Chrysostom, His Life and Times. London: John Murray.
  • Stow, Kenneth (2006). Jewish Dogs, An Imagine and Its Interpreters: Continiuity in the Catholic-Jewish Encounter. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-5281-8.
  • Wilken, Robert Louis (1983). John Chrysostom and the Jews: Rhetoric and Reality in the Late Fourth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Willey, John H. (1906). Chrysostom: The Orator. Cincinnati: Jennings and Graham.
  • Woods, Thomas (2005). How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization. Washington, DC: Regenery. ISBN 0-89526-038-7

Walter Laqueur (born 1921) is an American historian and political commentator. ... The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 26-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and their faith, Judaism. ... Cecil Roth, (London, 1899–1970) was a Jewish historian and educator. ... Thomas Woods Thomas E. Woods, Jr. ...

Collected works

Widely used editions of Chrysostom's works are available in Greek, Latin, English, and French. The Greek edition is edited by Sir Henry Savile (eight volumes, Eton, 1613); the most complete Greek and Latin edition is edited by Bernard de Montfaucon (thirteen volumes, Paris, 1718-38) republished in 1834-40). There is an English translation in the first series of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers (London and New York, 1889-90). A selection of his writings has been published more recently in the original with facing French translation in Sources Chrétiennes. Sources Chrétiennes (French Christian sources) is a bilingual collection of patristic texts founded in Lyon in 1943 by the Jesuits Jean Daniélou, Claude Mondésert, and Henri de Lubac. ...


External links

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John Chrysostom
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John Chrysostom
  • The Saint John Chrysostom Webpage
  • On St. John Chrysostom's Antioch Years by Pope Benedict XVI
  • Symposium Commemorating the 1600th Anniversary of St. John's Repose
  • St. John Chrysostom article from The Catholic Encyclopedia (Newadvent Website)
  • Jewish Encyclopedia: CHRYSOSTOMUS, JOANNES
  • Was St. John Chrysostom Anti-Semitic?
  • St John Chrysostom and the Anglican Communion
  • St John Chrysostom the Archbishop of Constantinople Orthodox icon and synaxarion (November 13 feast day)
  • Translation of the relics of St John Chrysostom the Archbishop of Constantinople (January 27 feast day)
  • Synaxis of the Ecumenical Teachers and Hierarchs: Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian, and John Chrysostom (January 30 feast day)

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Works

  • The Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom
  • Writings of Chrysostom in the Christian Classics Ethereal Library edition of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers:
    • On the Priesthood, Ascetic Treatises, Select Homilies and Letters, Homilies on the Statutes
    • Homilies on the Gospel of St. Matthew '
    • Homilies on the Acts of the Apostles and the Epistle to the Romans
    • Homilies on First and Second Corinthians
    • Homilies on the Epistles to the Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Thessalonians, Timothy, Titus, and Philemon
    • Homilies on the Gospel of St. John and the Epistle to the Hebrews
  • The Hieratikon Easter Sermon of St. John Chrysostom
  • Eight Homilies Against the Jews
  • Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Graeca with analytical indexes
Preceded by
Nectarius
Patriarch of Constantinople
398–404
Succeeded by
Arsacius of Tarsus
Persondata
NAME John Chrysostom, Saint
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Chrysostom, John, Saint; Йоан Златоуст (Bulgarian); Juan Crisóstomo (Spanish); Jean Chrysostome (French); Yohanes Krisostomus (Indonesian); San Giovanni Crisostomo (Italian); יוחנן כריסוסטומוס (Hebrew); Iohannes Chrysostomus (Dutch); Aranyszájú Szent János (Hungarian); イオアンネース・クリュゾストモス (Japanese); Johannes Chrysostomos (Norwegian); Jan Chryzostom (Polish); São João Crisóstomo (Portuguese); Ioan Chrysostom (Romanian); Иоанн Златоуст (Russian); Janez Zlatousti; Јован Златоусти; Johannes Krysostomos (Finnish); 约翰一世 (君士坦丁堡牧首) (Chinese);
SHORT DESCRIPTION Christian bishop and preacher
DATE OF BIRTH 349
PLACE OF BIRTH Antioch
DATE OF DEATH 407
PLACE OF DEATH
The Patrologia Graeca is an edited collection of writings by the Christian Church Fathers in the Greek language in 161 volumes, produced in 1857–1866 by J.P. Migne It includes both the Eastern Fathers and those Western authors who wrote before Latin became predominant the West in the 3rd... Nectarius (died 397 or 398) was the archbishop of Constantinople from AD 381 until his death, the successor to Saint Gregory Nazianzus. ... Bishops of Byzantium (until 325) St. ... Arsacius (before 324 - November 11, 405) was the intruding archbishop of Constantinople from 404 up to 405, after the violent expulsion of John Chrysostom. ... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a saint from whose writings the whole Christian Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope... “Saint Gregory” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ambrose (disambiguation). ... Augustinus redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... Basil (ca. ... Saint Gregory of Nazianzus (329 - January 25, 389), also known as Saint Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen was a 4th century Christian bishop of Constantinople. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (Greek: Αθανάσιος, Athanásios; c 293 – May 2, 373) was a Christian bishop, the Bishop of Alexandria, in the fourth century. ... St. ... Cyril of Jerusalem was a distinguished theologian of the early Church ( 315 - 386). ... Saint John of Damascus (Arabic: يحيى ابن منصور Yaḥyā ibn Manṣūr; Greek: Ιωάννης Δαμασκήνος/Ioannês Damaskinos; Latin: Iohannes Damascenus or Johannes Damascenus also known as John Damascene, Χρυσορρόας/Chrysorrhoas, streaming with gold—i. ... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... Ephrem the Syrian (Syriac: , ;Greek: ; Latin: Ephraem Syrus; 306–373) was a deacon, prolific Syriac language hymn writer and theologian of the 4th century. ... Aquinas redirects here. ... Saint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (Italian: San Bonaventura) (1221 – 15 July 1274), born John of Fidanza (Italian: Giovanni di Fidanza), was the eighth Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called the Franciscans. ... For entities named after Saint Anselm, see Saint Anselms. ... Saint Isidore of Seville (Spanish: or , Latin: ) (c. ... Saint Peter Chrysologus (Latin for golden word) (406–450) was the Archbishop of Ravenna from 433 to his death. ... Pope Saint Leo I or Pope Saint Leo the Great was Pope from September 29, 440 to November 10, 461) He was a Roman aristocrat and the first Pope to receive the title the Great. He is perhaps best known for having met Attila the Hun outside Rome near Governolo... Petrus Damiani (Saint Peter Damian, also Pietro Damiani or Pier Damiani -- c. ... Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–August 21, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order. ... Hilarius or Hilary (c. ... Saint Alphonsus Liguori (27 September 1696 – 1 August 1787) founded the Roman Catholic order, the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer popularly known as the Redemptorists. ... Saint Francis de Sales (in French, St François de Sales) (21 August 1567 - 28 December 1622) was bishop of Geneva and Roman Catholic saint. ... Saint Petrus Canisius (May 8, 1521 – December 21, 1597) was an important Jesuit who fought against the spread of Protestantism in Germany, Austria, Bohemia, and Switzerland. ... For the personification of the average Filipino, see Juan de la Cruz, and for another Saint who lived around the same time and area, see John of Avila Saint John of the Cross (San Juan de la Cruz) (June 24, 1542 – December 14, 1591) was a major figure in the... This article is about Robert Bellarmine, the Catholic Saint. ... Albertus Magnus (b. ... Saint Anthony of Padua, also venerated as Saint Anthony of Lisbon, is a Catholic saint who was born in Lisbon, Portugal, as Fernando de Bulhões to a wealthy family and who died in Padua, Italy. ... Saint Lawrence of Brindisi (July 22, 1559 – July 22, 1619), born Julio Cesare Rossi, was a Roman Catholic monk, a member of the Order of Friars Minor, Capuchin. ... For other saints with similar names, please see Saint Teresa. ... Saint Catherine of Siena, O.P. (March 25, 1347 - April 29, 1380) was a Tertiary (a lay affiliate) of the Dominican Order, and a scholastic philosopher and theologian. ... For other women with similar names, see Saint Teresa Saint Thérèse de Lisieux (January 2, 1873 – September 30, 1897), or more properly Sainte Thérèse de lEnfant-Jésus et de la Sainte Face (Saint Thérèse of the Child Jesus and of the Holy... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
John Chrysostom, Saint. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (431 words)
John, already ill, died from the rigors of the journey.
In 438, St. John’s body was returned to Constantinople, and Emperor Theodosius II did penance for his parents’ offenses.
John Chrysostom was not the author of the liturgy that bears his name.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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