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Encyclopedia > John Chivington

John Milton Chivington (January 27, 1821October 4, 1892) was a 19th century United States Army officer noted for his role in the New Mexico Campaign of the American Civil War and in the Colorado War. He was celebrated as the hero of the 1862 Battle of Glorieta Pass, and later became infamous for his role in the 1864 Sand Creek Massacre He was a butcher and a coward. Killing woman and children was fun for him. He must have smoked to much weed. (From user talk:MyRedDice), Yes, all my images are in public domain. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... The New Mexico Campaign was a military operation of the American Civil War in February-March 1862 in which the Confederate Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley invaded the northern New Mexico Territory in an attempt to gain control of the southwest, including the gold fields of Colorado and the ports... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Colorado War (1863–1865) was an armed conflict between the United States and a loose alliance among the Kiowa, Comanche, Arapaho, and Cheyenne tribes of Native Americans (the last two were particularly closely allied). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John P. Slough John M. Chivington Charles L. Pyron William R. Scurry Strength Northern Division, Army of New Mexico 4th, 5th, and 7th Texas Cavalry Regiment, artillery, and a company of independent volunteers Casualties 142 189 The Battle of Glorieta... Combatants United States of America Cheyenne, Arapaho Commanders John M. Chivington Black Kettle Strength 800 soldiers 500, mostly elderly, women and children Casualties 15 killed, 50 wounded 150-184 killed The Sand Creek massacre (also known as the Chivington massacre or the Battle of Sand Creek) was an incident in...

Contents

Early life

Chivington was born in Lebanon, Ohio. Drawn to Methodism, Chivington decided to become a minister and was ordained in 1844. During 1853, he worked in a Methodist missionary expedition to the Wyandot people in Kansas. Because of his outspoken hatred of slavery, Chivington received a threatening letter from pro-slavery members in his congregation in 1856. As a result the Methodist Church transferred Chivington to a parish in Omaha, Nebraska. In 1860 Chivington moved with his family to Denver, Colorado, having been made the presiding elder of the Rocky Mountain District of the Methodist Church. Lebanon is a city in Warren County, Ohio, United States. ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... The Wyandot, or Wendat, is an indigenous people of North America, originally from what is now Southern Ontario, Quebec, Canada and Southeast Michigan. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Slave redirects here. ... “Omaha” redirects here. ... Nickname: Location of Denver in Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country State Founded [1] November 22, 1858 Incorporated November 7, 1861 Government  - Type Strong Mayor/Weak Council  - Mayor John Hickenlooper (D) Area [1]  - City & County  154. ... Rocky Mountain National Park (photo courtesy of NPS) View of Colorado Rockies. ...


Civil War

When war broke out the following year, Colorado territorial governor William Gilpin offered him a commission as a chaplain, but Chivington refused it, saying he wanted to fight. Thus, he was made a Major in the 1st Colorado Volunteers under Colonel John P. Slough. During Henry Hopkins Sibley's Texan offensive on the New Mexico Territory, Chivington led a 418-strong detachment to Apache Canyon on 26 March 1862, where they surprised about 300 Texans under Major Charles L. Pyron. The startled Texans were routed with 4 killed, 20 wounded and 75 captured, whilst Chivington's men lost 5 killed and 14 wounded. This small victory raised morale in Slough's army. On 28 March, Slough sent Chivington and his 400 men on a circling movement, with orders to hit Sibley in the flank once Slough's main force had engaged his front at Glorieta Pass. Chivington got into position above the Pass, but waited in vain for either Slough or Sibley to arrive. While they were waiting, scouts reported that Sibley's entire supply train was nearby at Johnson's Ranch. Chivington's command descended the slope and crept up on the unsuspecting supply train. They waited for an hour in concealment, then attacked, driving off or capturing the small Confederate guard detail without anyone being killed or wounded. Chivington ordered the supply wagons burned and the horses and mules to be slaughtered. Meanwhile, the Battle of Glorietta Pass was raging at Pigeon's Ranch. Chivington returned to Slough's main force to find it falling back in a hurry. The Confederates had won the Battle of Glorieta Pass. Thanks to Chivington, however, they had no supplies to sustain their advance and were forced instead to retreat. Chivington had completely reversed the result of the battle and Sibley's men reluctantly retreated all the way to Texas, never again to threaten New Mexico. The Reverend William Gilpin (1724-1804) was an English clergyman, schoolmaster and author, best known as one of the originators of the idea of the picturesque. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... The 1st Colorado Volunteers (officially the 1st Regiment of Colorado Volunteers) was a volunteer infantry regiment of the United States Army formed in the Colorado Territory in 1861 and active in the American West in the late 19th century. ... John Potts Slough (1829-1867) was a politician, lawyer, Union general and Chief Justice of New Mexico. ... The New Mexico Territory became an organized territory of the United States on September 9, 1850, and it existed until New Mexico became the 47th state on January 6, 1912. ... Battle of Glorieta Pass Conflict American Civil War Date March 26-28, 1862 Place Santa Fe County and San Miguel County, New Mexico Result Union victory The Battle of Glorieta Pass, fought on March 26–28, 1862, in northern New Mexico Territory, was the decisive battle of the New...


Chivington earned great praise for his decisive stroke at Johnson's Ranch, even though his discovery of the Confederate supply train was a pure accident. It has also been suggested that had Chivington had hurried back to reinforce Slough's army as soon as he heard the gunfire coming from Pigeon's Ranch, his 400 extra men might have allowed the Federals to win the Battle. Chivington was unusual in becoming a (minor) military hero of the Civil War for an incident in which no one was actually killed or injured. He was appointed colonel of the 1st Colorado Volunteer Regiment of Cavalry in April 1862. However, a darker side of Chivington is revealed in the complaints of a captured Confederate chaplain, who wrote that Chivington had threatened to kill the prisoners that he took at Johnson's Ranch. In November 1862 he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers, but the appointment was withdrawn in February 1863. A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ...


Sand Creek

Main article: Sand Creek massacre

Black Kettle, chief of a group of around 800 mostly Southern Cheyennes, reported to Fort Lyon in an effort to declare peace. After having done so, he and his band, along with some Arapahos under the chief Left Hand, camped out at nearby Sand Creek, less than 40 miles north. The Cheyenne Dog Soldiers, who had been responsible for much of the conflict with whites, were not part of this encampment. Assured by the U.S. Government's promises of peace, Black Kettle sent most of his warriors to hunt, leaving only around 60 men in the village, most of them too old or too young to participate in the hunt. An American flag was flown over Black Kettle's lodge as he had been instructed in the past that "as long as he flew the American flag, he and his people would be safe from U.S. soldiers."[1] Combatants United States of America Cheyenne, Arapaho Commanders John M. Chivington Black Kettle Strength 800 soldiers 500, mostly elderly, women and children Casualties 15 killed, 50 wounded 150-184 killed The Sand Creek massacre (also known as the Chivington massacre or the Battle of Sand Creek) was an incident in... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Fort Lyon aka Fort Wise existed on the Colorado eastern plains until 1867, when a new fort was erected near the present-day town of Las Animas. ... This article is about Cheyenne warrior society. ... Flag ratio: 7:12; nicknames: Stars and Stripes, Old Glory The flag of the United States of America consists of thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars...


In November, setting out from Fort Lyon, Colonel Chivington and his 800 troops of the First Colorado Cavalry, Third Colorado Cavalry and a company of First New Mexico Volunteers marched to their campsite. On the night of November 28, after positioning themselves around the camp, soldiers and militia drank heavily and celebrated the perceived victory.[1] On the morning of November 29, 1864, Chivington orderes his troops to attack. One officer, Captain Silas Soule, believing the Indians to be peaceful, refused to follow Chivington's order and told his men to hold fire. Other soldiers in Chivington's force, however, immediately attacked the village. Disregarding the American flag, and a white flag that was run up shortly after the soldiers commenced firing, Chivington's soldiers massacred the majority of its mostly-unarmed inhabitants in an attack that became known as the Sand Creek Massacre. The 1st Colorado Cavalry was formed in 1962 by Territorial Governor John Evans, comprised mostly of members of the Colorado First Volunteers (Infantry) and of C and D Companies of the Colorado Second Infantry. ... In response to numerous depredations by the Cheyenne and Arapaho, especially the Hungate massacre and the public display in Denver of the mutilated vitims, Governor John Evans received authorization from the War Department in Washington for the establishment of the Third Colorado Cavalry. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ... Silas Stillman Soule (1838-1865) was a Massachusetts abolitionist, Kansas Jayhawker, and a Volunteer in the Colorado Infantry and Cavalry in the American Civil War. ... German troops after surrendering to the U.S. Third Army carry the white flag (WW2 photo). ... Combatants United States of America Cheyenne, Arapaho Commanders John M. Chivington Black Kettle Strength 800 soldiers 500, mostly elderly, women and children Casualties 15 killed, 50 wounded 150-184 killed The Sand Creek massacre (also known as the Chivington massacre or the Battle of Sand Creek) was an incident in...


The U.S. forces lost 15 killed and more than 50 wounded.[2] Between the effects of the heavy drinking and the chaos of the assault, the majority of the American forces casualties were due to friendly fire.[1] Between 150 and 200 Indians were estimated dead, nearly all women and children (in testimony before a Congressional committee, Chivington estimated 500-600 Indians killed, few of them women or children [3]). One source from the Cheyenne said that about 53 men and 110 women and children were killed.[4] Many of the dead were mutilated, and most were women, children, and elderly men. Chivington and his men dressed their weapons, hats and gear with scalps and other body parts, including human fetuses and male and female genitalia. They also publicly displayed these battle trophies in the Apollo Theater and saloons in Denver. Mutilation or maiming is an act or physical injury that degrades the appearance or function of the (human) body, usually causing death. ... The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the face anteriorly and the neck to the sides and posteriorly. ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... Apollo Theater marquee, c. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article refers to the state capital of Colorado. ...


Chivington declared that his forces had fought a battle with hostile Indians and the action was initially celebrated as a victory, with some soldiers callously displaying Indian body parts as trophies. However, the testimony of Soule and his men forced an investigation into the incident, which concluded that Chivington had acted wrongly.


Soule and some of the men that he commanded testified against Chivington at his Army court martial. Chivington denounced Soule as a liar, and Soule was later murdered by a soldier who had been under Chivington's command at Sand Creek. Some believed Chivington may have been involved. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Chivington was condemned for his part in the massacre, but he had already left the Army and the general post-Civil War amnesty meant that criminal charges could not be filed against him. However, an Army judge publicly stated that Sand Creek was "a cowardly and cold-blooded slaughter, sufficient to cover its perpetrators with indelible infamy, and the face of every American with shame and indignation." Public outrage at the brutality of the massacre, which included the mutilation of corpses, was intense and it may have convinced the U.S. Congress to later reject the idea of a general war against the Indians of the midwest. The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy... Congress in Joint Session. ...


Late life

Although never punished, Chivington was forced to resign from the Colorado Militia. Public outrage also forced him to withdraw from politics and kept him out of Colorado's campaign for statehood. In 1865 he moved back to Nebraska and became an unsuccessful freight hauler. 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...


After living briefly in California, Chivington returned to Ohio to farm, later becoming editor of a local newspaper. In 1883 he campaigned for a seat in the Ohio legislature, but when his opponents drew attention to the Sand Creek massacre he was forced to withdraw. He then returned to Denver where he worked as a deputy sheriff until shortly before his death from cancer in 1892. To the end of his life, Chivington maintained that Sand Creek had been a successful operation. He correctly pointed out that his expedition had been in response to a series of murderous raids on white people; but he conveniently ignored the fact that Sand Creek had provoked the Cheyenne, Arapaho and elements of the Sioux to actually increase their raids on white settlers and kill even more people. Look up Sheriff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


In 1887, the town of Chivington, Colorado was established and named after John Chivington, as a railroad town on the Missouri Pacific Railroad line, fairly close to the massacre site. It was deserted during the dust bowl days of the 1920s & 1930s, though some buildings still remain. This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... A railway town is a settlement that originated or was greatly developed because of a railway station or junction at its site. ... Missouri Pacific (MoPac; AAR reporting mark MP) was one of the first railroads in the United States west of the Mississippi River. ... Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas in 1935 Buried machinery in barn lot. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b c Brown 1970.
  2. ^ Michno 2003, p. 159.
  3. ^ "Testimony of Colonel J.M. Chivington, April 26, 1865"to the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War. New Persptectives on the West: Documents on the Sand Creek Massacre. PBS.
  4. ^ George Bent, the son of the American William Bent and a Cheyenne mother, was at Black Kettle’s village when Chivington’s men struck. Sand Creek Massacre National Historical Site has the following information: "On April 30, 1913, Bent wrote: "About 53 men were killed and 110 women and children killed, 163 in all killed. Lots of men, women and children were wounded."

Born in St. ...

References

  • Brown, Dee. (1970). Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West, Owl Books. ISBN 0-8050-6669-1.
  • Frazer, Donald S. (1995). Blood and Treasure: The Confederate Empire in the Southwest. Texas A & M University Press. ISBN: 978-0-89096-639-6.
  • Michno, Gregory F. (2003). Encyclopedia of Indian Wars: Western Battles and Skirmishes 1850-1890. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. ISBN 0-87842-468-7.
  • West Film Project and WETA. (2001). "John M. Chivington (1821-1894)." New Perspectives on the West: Documents on the Sand Creek Massacre. PBS.Greatest Cowards of History

Biggest Criminals of History Dee Brown (February 29, 1908---December 12, 2002) was an American novelist and historian. ... Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (1970). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
PBS - THE WEST - John M. Chivington (1162 words)
Chivington was something of a frontier minister, usually establishing congregations, supervising the erection of churches, and often serving as a de facto law enforcement officer.
In 1862, Chivington, by that point a Major in the first Colorado Volunteer Regiment, played a critical role in defeating confederate forces at Glorietta Pass in eastern New Mexico, where his troops rapelled down the canyon walls in a surprise attack on the enemy's supply train.
Chivington was at first widely praised for the "battle" at Sand Creek, and honored with a widely-attended parade through the streets of Denver just two weeks after the massacre.
John Chivington - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (797 words)
John Milton Chivington (January 27, 1821 – October 4, 1892) was a 19th century United States Army officer noted for his role in the New Mexico Campaign of the American Civil War and in the Colorado War.
Chivington declared that his forces had fought a battle with hostile Indians and the action was initially celebrated as a victory, with some soldiers callously displaying Indian body parts as trophies.
Chivington was condemned for his part in the massacre, but he had already left the Army and the general post-Civil War amnesty meant that criminal charges could not be filed against him.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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