FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > John Cena
John Cena
An image of John Cena
Statistics
Ring name(s) The Prototype
Mr. P
John Cena
Billed height 6 ft 1 in (185 cm)
Billed weight 240 lb (109 kg)
Born April 23, 1977
West Newbury, Massachusetts
Resides Tampa, Florida
Billed from West Newbury, Massachusetts
Trained by UPW Staff
OVW Staff
Debut 2000

John Felix Anthony Cena, Jr. (born April 23, 1977), is an American professional wrestler, rap music artist and actor who wrestles on the RAW brand of World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE), where he is the reigning WWE Champion. Image File history File links John_cena. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... West Newbury is a town located in Essex County, Massachusetts. ... Nickname: Cigar City, The Big Guava, T-Town Location in Hillsborough County and the state of Florida. ... West Newbury is a town located in Essex County, Massachusetts. ... Ultimate Pro Wrestling (UPW) is a Professional wrestling promotion owned and operated by Rick Bassman. ... OVW logo Ohio Valley Wrestling (OVW) is an American independent circuit professional wrestling promotion based in Louisville, Kentucky. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... Professional wrestling is generally any form of performance art in which pro-wrestlers receive payment for participating. ... Hip hop music is a style of popular music. ... Look up artist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... WWE Raw (whose trademark is capitalized RAW) is the Monday night professional wrestling television program for World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) and is the primary broadcast of the Raw brand. ... The World Wrestling Entertainment Brand Extension was a device first used in 2002 by the professional wrestling organization as a means of providing separate brands of wrestling through its two top shows, RAW and SmackDown!, and, in 2006, with the revival of Extreme Championship Wrestling. ... World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. ... John Cena after winning the WWE Championship at WrestleMania 21 The World Wrestling Entertainment Championship or WWE Championship or WWE Heavyweight Championship, is the top prize in the WWE, though exclusive to its Smackdown! brand since August 26, 2002 while the World Heavyweight Championship is exclusive to WWE RAW. History...

Contents

Career

Early career

Cena first started training to become a wrestler in 2000 at the California-based Ultimate Pro Wrestling (UPW) where he created the character The Prototype. After UPW, he was signed to a World Wrestling Entertainment developmental contract and assigned to "farm territory" Ohio Valley Wrestling (OVW). Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Ultimate Pro Wrestling (UPW) is a Professional wrestling promotion owned and operated by Rick Bassman. ... World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. ... OVW logo Ohio Valley Wrestling (OVW) is an American independent circuit professional wrestling promotion based in Louisville, Kentucky. ...


During his time in OVW, he also appeared on the UPN reality show Manhunt under the pseudonym "Big Tim Kingman", the "lead hunter" in a team "hunting" contestant with paint ball guns. The show was produced in association with WWE. It was later revealed that many of the scenes in the show were re-shot or staged to enhance the drama, contests were rigged to eliminate contestants, and other contestants read from scripts. As a result of the controversy, WWE has never referenced the show or Cena's part in it. [1][2][3][4] UPN (which originally stood for the United Paramount Network) was a television network in over 200 markets in the United States. ... Reality television is a genre of television programming which presents unscripted dramatic or humorous situations, documents actual events, and features ordinary people over professional actors. ...


World Wrestling Entertainment

2002-2003

Cena's first televised WWE match was in answer to an open challenge by Kurt Angle on June 27, 2002. Inspired by Vince McMahon's speech to WWE's rising stars, exhorting them to show "ruthless aggression" to earn a place among the legends, Cena took advantage of the opportunity and almost beat Kurt Angle kicking out of the Angle Slam and enduring the ankle Lock submission hold, but ultimately lost to a hard, amateur-style pin. Kurt Steven Angle (born on December 9, 1968) is an American professional wrestler and former amateur wrestler, who is currently working for Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA). ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Vincent Kennedy McMahon (born August 24, 1945) is an American wrestling promoter, occasional professional wrestler, on-screen personality, and former play-by-play announcer. ... Much of the action in professional wrestling involves the application of techniques that involve lifting the opponent up and throwing or slamming him/her down. ... Professional wrestling holds include a number of set moves and pins used by competitors to immobilize their opponents. ... Christopher Daniels covers Jerrelle Clark with a lateral press while hooking the leg for a three count during an episode of TNA iMPACT! A pinfall, also known just as a fall, is a victory condition in professional wrestling that is met by holding an opponents shoulder blades to the...


Cena then played the role of a typical underdog face in each match. After losing alongside Billy Kidman in a tournament match for the WWE Tag Team Championships, Cena turned heel, blaming Kidman for the loss. Shortly after his heel turn, on a Halloween episode of SmackDown!, he performed a freestyle rap for Stephanie McMahon while wearing a Vanilla Ice costume prompting a gimmick change to a white rapper. At first, this gimmick got Cena heel heat from the fans, but his frequent comical "freestyles" about other wrestlers helped to gain him a following. During this time Cena adopted the classic WWF logo (without the "F") along with the slogan "Word Life" as his "signature symbol". He was joined by an enforcer, first B-2 (also written as B², pronounced "B-Squared"), who was later replaced by Rodney Mack under the moniker "Red Dogg". In professional wrestling, a face is a character who is portrayed as being moral or approving (that is, faces are good guys or crowd favorites). The vast majority of wrestling storylines (though not all) place a heel (or bad guy) against a face. ... Peter Jacob Gruner (May 11, 1974 in Allentown, Pennsylvania) is an American professional wrestler known by his ring name Billy Kidman. ... WWE Tag Team Championship belt. ... In professional wrestling, a turn occurs most frequently when a wrestler develops a new gimmick (persona) and changes, frequently from face to heel or sometimes vice versa. ... In professional wrestling, a heel is a villain character who is portrayed as behaving in an immoral manner; sometimes they are humorously referred to as evil. In non-wrestling jargon, heels are often bad guys in pro wrestling storylines. ... WWE Friday Night SmackDown! is a professional wrestling television program for World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) and is the flagship broadcast of the SmackDown! brand. ... Freestyle rap is an improvisational form of rapping, that is performed with no previously composed lyrics, and reflecting a direct mapping of the mental state and performing situation of the artist. ... Stephanie Marie McMahon-Levesque (born September 24, 1976) is the daughter of World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) Chairman Vince McMahon and WWE CEO Linda McMahon. ... Robert Matthew Vanilla Ice Van Winkle (born October 31, 1968 in Miami Lakes, Florida) is an American rapper, known for the single Ice Ice Baby, which topped the charts in the early-1990s (see 1990s in music). ... In professional wrestling, a gimmick is slang that refers to a wrestlers on-screen personality. ... Popular West Coast rapper Snoop Dogg performing for the US Navy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Enforcer is a professional wrestling term for one of two situations. ... Barry Buchanan (born January 5, 1968 in Eddyville, Kentucky) is an American professional wrestler, best known for his appearances as Bull Buchanan in the World Wrestling Federation (WWF). ... Rodney Mack (born Rodney Begnaud on October 12, 1970 in New Orleans, Louisiana) is a professional wrestler. ...


Cena eventually feuded with Brock Lesnar over the WWE Championship. During the feud he unveiled a new signature finishing maneuver, the F-U, as a counterpart to Lesnar's similar F-5 (the name being derived from a combination of "F-5" and the shorthand for "Fuck You"). The two eventually joined forces when Lesnar also turned heel and together feuded with Kurt Angle and Eddie Guerrero before Cena turned face by betraying Lesnar and feuding with him again, establishing his signature "you can't see me" catch phrase and hand gesture in the process. A professional wrestling feud is a staged disagreement between two wrestlers or factions of wrestlers over a purported slight or insult. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The WWE Championship belt, April 11 2005 – August 20, 2006; September 18, 2006 – present The World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) Championship is a professional wrestling title. ... A finishing maneuver or finisher is a wrestlers trademark move; one that he/she relies on most of the time to end a match. ... Konnan performs his Facejam (sitout facebuster) during an episode of TNA iMPACT! A.J. Styles performs his Styles Clash (belly-to-back inverted mat slam) on Christopher Daniels. ... Kurt Steven Angle (born on December 9, 1968) is an American professional wrestler and former amateur wrestler, who is currently working for Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA). ... Eduardo Gory Guerrero Llanes (October 9, 1967 – November 13, 2005), better known by his ring name Eddie Guerrero, was an American born professional wrestler of Mexican heritage. ... A catch phrase is a phrase or expression that is popularized, usually through repeated use, by a real person or fictional character. ...


2004

During 2004 Cena's popularity began to increase. At the start of the year, he participated in the annual January Royal Rumble, lasting up to the final 6 before being eliminated by Big Show. After the elimination Cena and Big Show began a feud, leading to Cena winning the United States Championship from Big Show in a match at March's WrestleMania XX. Cena claimed the title, his first in WWE, by distracting the ref and using his signature brass knuckles on Big Show before hitting him with the F-U. In July he was stripped of the title by SmackDown! General Manager Kurt Angle, whom he had a contentious relationship with, after "attacking" him. 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Royal Rumble is an annual professional wrestling pay-per-view event, produced every January by World Wrestling Entertainment. ... Paul Wight (born February 8, 1972), better known by the ring names (The) Big Show and (The) Giant, is an American professional wrestler. ... WWE United States Championship belt. ... WrestleMania XX was the twentieth WrestleMania professional wrestling pay-per-view produced by World Wrestling Entertainment. ... Categories: Weapon stubs | M e weapons ... This is a list of authority figures in professional wrestling, people who have (kayfabe) power over a particular promotion or brand. ... Kurt Steven Angle (born on December 9, 1968) is an American professional wrestler and former amateur wrestler, who is currently working for Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA). ...


He won the title back at October's No Mercy after winning the final match of a Best-of-5 series with Booker T. This second reign was short-lived, however, as he lost the title to the debuting Carlito in the very next weeks SmackDown!. WWE No Mercy is an annual World Wrestling Entertainment pay-per-view event. ... Booker Tio Huffman (born May 1, 1965), better known by his wrestling persona Booker T, is an American professional wrestler. ... Carlos (Carly) Colón, Jr. ...


This started a feud with Carlito. The storyline said Cena was attacked in a Boston nightclub by Carlito's bodyguard, Jesús, who stabbed him in the kidney, keeping him out of action for a month. In truth, this event was set up to allow Cena time off to film The Marine. Upon his return, Cena exacted revenge on Carlito in a SmackDown! match, winning back the U.S. title. During this reign he debuted a "custom made" spinner style title belt.
Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe) (The State House, according to Oliver Wendell Holmes, is the hub of the Solar System), Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino... Clubbing, also known as a disco A nightclub (often shortened to club) is an entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ... Enforcer is a professional wrestling term for one of two situations. ... Aaron Aguilera (born on February 29 in Orange, California), is a Professional wrestler who who is best known for competing for World Wrestling Entertainment, as Jesús and Uno. ... -1... The Marine is a 2006 film directed by John Bonito, written by Michelle Gallagher and Alan B. McElroy, produced by Joel Simon, and starring WWE professional wrestler John Cena. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


2005

At the 2005 Royal Rumble, Cena and Batista went over the top rope at the same time to end the match, prompting Vince McMahon to demand the match be restarted and go into "sudden death". The 2005 Royal Rumble, held on January 30, 2005, was the eighteenth edition of the annual World Wrestling Entertainment Royal Rumble pay-per-view event. ... David Michael Bautista, Jr. ... Sudden death (or a sudden death round) is a way of providing a winner for a contest or game (typically a sport) which would otherwise end in a tie. ...


With Batista winning, and choosing to vie for the (RAW exclusive) World Heavyweight Championship at WrestleMania 21, SmackDown! held a tournament to determine #1 contendership for the their top title, the WWE Championship. In the tournament finals Cena pinned Kurt Angle to win the WrestleMania title shot. WWE Raw (whose trademark is capitalized RAW) is the Monday night professional wrestling television program for World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) and is the primary broadcast of the Raw brand. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... WrestleMania 21 was the twenty-first annual WrestleMania professional wrestling pay-per-view produced by World Wrestling Entertainment. ... The WWE Championship belt, April 11 2005 – August 20, 2006; September 18, 2006 – present The World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) Championship is a professional wrestling title. ... Kurt Steven Angle (born on December 9, 1968) is an American professional wrestler and former amateur wrestler, who is currently working for Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA). ...


In the following weeks, Cena feuded with champion John Bradshaw Layfield (JBL) and his Cabinet, including losing his United States Championship to Cabinet member Orlando Jordan, who (with JBL) proceeded to "blow up" the custom spinner belt. It was during this feud that Cena first began referring to his fans as "Chain Gang Soldiers" (often shorted to just "Chain Gang"). A professional wrestling feud is a staged disagreement between two wrestlers or factions of wrestlers over a purported slight or insult. ... John Bradshaw Layfield, or JBL (born John Charles Layfield on November 29, 1967) is an American former professional wrestler. ... John Bradshaw Layfield, or JBL (born John Charles Layfield on November 29, 1967) is an American former professional wrestler. ... Orlando Mason Jordan (born July 10, 1971 in Salem, New Jersey) is a professional wrestler who is currently working for TNT Pro Wrestling but is best known for working for World Wrestling Entertainment on its SmackDown! brand. ...


On April 3, at WrestleMania 21, Cena defeated JBL to win the WWE Championship. As part of the storyline, he then had a custom WWE Championship belt made similar to his custom U.S. title belt, featuring a spinner-type WWE logo plate. This belt also featured a 'winged eagle' at the top, which is a staple of the WWE Championship belts. Meanwhile, JBL took the original belt and claimed he was still the WWE Champion until Cena reclaimed that belt following an "I Quit" match at Judgment Day in May. April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... In professional wrestling, an angle is a fictional storyline (the wrestler Kurt Angles name is a coincidence; Angle is his given surname). ... An I Quit match is a type of professional wrestling match . ... WWE Judgment Day is a WWE Pay-Per-View event. ...


On the June 6th episode of RAW, John Cena became the first wrestler selected in the annual draft lottery, when Eric Bischoff drafted him from SmackDown! over to RAW. Upon arriving on RAW, Cena immediately entered a program with Chris Jericho and Christian, two wrestlers with strong cult followings. Taking on these two began a trend of "fan backlash" against Cena. The WWE Draft Lottery (also known as the WWE Draft) is an annual event held by World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE), in which a few members of its brands, RAW, SmackDown! and ECW, are moved to another brand. ... Eric Bischoff (born May 27, 1955[1] in Detroit, Michigan), is a former professional wrestling promoter and on-screen personality, most known for serving as President of World Championship Wrestling (WCW) and later on-air General Manager of World Wrestling Entertainments RAW brand. ... In professional wrestling, an angle is a fictional storyline (the wrestler Kurt Angles name is a coincidence; Angle is his given surname). ... Christopher Keith Irvine (born on November 9, 1970), better known by the ring name Chris Jericho, is a Canadian actor, radio host, rock musician and inactive professional wrestler. ... William Jason Reso (born November 30, 1973), better known by his ring name Christian, is a Canadian professional wrestler. ...


During this feud Cena made (kayfabe) enemies with RAW General Manager Eric Bischoff, because he didn't wish to play Bischoff's political games. Bischoff vowed to make Cena's stint on RAW difficult and chose Chris Jericho to take Cena's title from him. This is a list of authority figures in professional wrestling, people who have (kayfabe) power over a particular promotion or brand. ... Eric Bischoff (born May 27, 1955[1] in Detroit, Michigan), is a former professional wrestling promoter and on-screen personality, most known for serving as President of World Championship Wrestling (WCW) and later on-air General Manager of World Wrestling Entertainments RAW brand. ...


On August 22, Cena beat Jericho in a "You're Fired" match for the WWE Championship - despite interference from Bischoff which included giving Cena a low-blow and handing Jericho a pair of brass knuckles. After the match, with Jericho now off of RAW due to his loss, Kurt Angle came to the ring and attacked Cena, with Bischoff revealing that Angle was his new "hand picked" number one contender for Cena's world title. Despite Angle's best attempts to attain heel heat through their feud, the fans continued to cheer him and boo Cena. Many types of matches can be found in professional wrestling. ... Categories: Weapon stubs | M e weapons ... In professional wrestling, a heel is a villain character who is portrayed as behaving in an immoral manner; sometimes they are humorously referred to as evil. In non-wrestling jargon, heels are often bad guys in pro wrestling storylines. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


After several weeks, Angle and Cena main evented September's Unforgiven, where Cena hit Angle with the WWE title belt, losing by disqualification but remaining champion (titles don't change hands on a disqualification). They met again at November's Survivor Series, with Cena picking up a clean win this time. WWE Unforgiven is a professional wrestling pay-per-view event produced by World Wrestling Entertainment, which usually takes place every September. ... The theme song is Lights Out, by P.O.D.. This was the first edition of Survivor Series to feature SmackDown! vs RAW matches. ...


The night after, Bischoff put Cena in the ring against Kurt Angle and Chris Masters in a triple threat submission match for the title, which Cena won by making Masters tap out for the first time to his new submission maneuver, the STFU (name derived from a combination of the STF name [although Cena's submission is actually an STS], his other move - the F-U - and the shorthand for "Shut The Fuck Up"). Christopher William (Chris) Mordetsky (born January 8, 1983) is an American professional wrestler, better known by his ring name The Masterpiece Chris Masters who performs for World Wrestling Entertainment on its RAW brand. ... Professional wrestling holds include a number of set moves and pins used by competitors to immobilize their opponents. ... Professional wrestling holds include a number of set moves and pins used by competitors to immobilize their opponents. ...


When Vince McMahon returned to RAW to put Bischoff "on trial" in December, Cena made his opinion of Bischoff known and eventually helped Vince McMahon remove Bischoff from the show by delivering the F-U to the former RAW GM, effectively ending the hostilities he had with Bischoff. Vincent Kennedy McMahon (born August 24, 1945) is an American wrestling promoter, occasional professional wrestler, on-screen personality, and former play-by-play announcer. ...


2006

Cena successfully defended his WWE Championship in an Elimination Chamber at the January New Years Revolution to kick off 2006. After the match, however, Vince McMahon appeared on the stage and announced that Cena was going to have to defend the title again, this time against Edge, who was cashing in his previously earned Money in the Bank title shot. Edge delivered two spears to a battered, bloody, and exausted Cena, pinning him in short order to win the WWE Championship. Cena's championship reign ended at 280 days, matching that of previous champion JBL. The Elimination Chamber match at Survivor Series 2002. ... WWE New Years Revolution is a pay-per-view event produced by World Wrestling Entertainment for the RAW brand. ... Adam Joseph Copeland (born on October 30, 1973), is a Canadian professional wrestler better known by his ring name Edge. ... The Money in the Bank Ladder Match is a standard six man ladder match exclusive to World Wrestling Entertainment with the premise of the winner receiving a contract for a match for the World Heavyweight or WWE Championship at a time and place of their choosing within one year of... As of November 19, 2006. ... John Bradshaw Layfield, or JBL (born John Charles Layfield on November 29, 1967) is an American former professional wrestler. ...


Three weeks, to the day, after losing the title Cena defeated Edge at the Royal Rumble to regain the WWE Championship. During this time WWE announcers, most notably Jim Ross, were forced to acknowledge the negative reactions Cena was getting and began to refer to him as a "controversial champion" saying that he was alienating some fans with his "unorthodox style". The 2006 Royal Rumble is the scheduled ninteenth edition of the annual World Wrestling Entertainment Royal Rumble pay-per-view event. ... James William (Jim) Ross, also known as J.R., or Good Ol J.R. (born January 3, 1954), is a professional wrestling executive and a play-by-play announcer working for World Wrestling Entertainment on WWE RAW. To many peers, Ross is considered to be one of the best wrestling... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Jerry Lawler would often suggest that Cena was too young, "edgy" and original for the older audience to appreciate. Cena continued to polarize crowds leading up to WrestleMania 22, during which he was soundly jeered during his main event win over Triple H. Despite Triple H's best attempts to get heat, the crowd continued to favor him over Cena. Vince McMahon was reportedly upset by fans' negativity, though Cena stated that the fans "obviously had a choice in deciding whom they wanted to root for". Jerry ONeil Lawler (born November 29, 1949) is a professional wrestler and wrestling commentator, known throughout the wrestling world as The King. He currently works for World Wrestling Entertainment as a color commentator for its RAW brand. ... WrestleMania 22 was the twenty-second annual WrestleMania professional wrestling pay-per-view produced by World Wrestling Entertainment. ... Paul Michael Levesque (born July 27, 1969) is an American professional wrestler, better known by his ring name, Triple H, an abbreviation of his former ring name Hunter Hearst Helmsley. ... Vincent Kennedy McMahon (born August 24, 1945) is an American wrestling promoter, occasional professional wrestler, on-screen personality, and former play-by-play announcer. ...


The crowd began to cheer Cena once again after April's Backlash, most notably when he began to side with the popular Shawn Michaels in matches against the Spirit Squad. After Cena stopped taking part in this angle and moved on to working against Rob Van Dam there was once again a notable mixture of cheers and boos in most arena's he visited, with some being more pro-Cena and some more against him. WWE Backlash is an annual World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) event, which started in 1999. ... Michael Shawn Hickenbottom (born on July 22, 1965) is an American professional wrestler, better known by his ring name, The Heartbreak Kid Shawn Michaels. ... Spirit Squad is a heel tag team (with five members) currently wrestling for World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) on the RAW brand. ... In professional wrestling, an angle is a fictional storyline (the wrestler Kurt Angles name is a coincidence; Angle is his given surname). ...


On the May 22nd edition of RAW, Rob Van Dam informed Cena that he intended to cash in the Money in the Bank title match contract he won at WrestleMania at the upcoming Extreme Championship Wrestling One Night Stand pay-per-view event. The event saw Cena get his most negative reaction yet from the very pro-ECW crowd, including profanity-laced chants and anti-Cena signs (most memorably one reading, "If Cena wins, we riot," which has been used since then, with different names in place of Cena's). Although Cena was affected, it also motivated him to use moves outside of his usual moveset in order to play to the crowd. Cena lost the title at the event when Edge appeared from under the ring and speared Cena through a table, setting him up for Van Dam's Five Star Frog Splash. With two referees "knocked out" (the first by Cena, the second by Edge) Paul Heyman ran down the entrance aisle and counted the three count, giving Van Dam the win and his first World Title. On the next nights RAW Paul Heyman announced that the title change was official, as the match was under "Extreme rules". Coincidently, both of his WWE Championship losses in 2006 were as a result of the Money in the Bank title contract. Robert Alexander Szatkowski (born December 18, 1970), is a Polish American professional wrestler, better known by his ring name, Rob Van Dam (abbreviated to RVD). ... The Money in the Bank Ladder Match is a standard six man ladder match exclusive to World Wrestling Entertainment with the premise of the winner receiving a contract for a match for the World Heavyweight or WWE Championship at a time and place of their choosing within one year of... Extreme Championship Wrestling (ECW) is a professional wrestling brand for World Wrestling Entertainment, based on the independent promotion that lasted from 1993 to 2001, Extreme Championship Wrestling. ... ECW One Night Stand is an annual professional wrestling pay-per-view event promoted by World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE). ... Adam Joseph Copeland (born on October 30, 1973), is a Canadian professional wrestler better known by his ring name Edge. ... Attacking maneuvers in professional wrestling are mainly used to wear down an opponent for a submission hold, or set up for a throw. ... Rey Mysterio performing a springboard seated senton on D-Von Dudley Aerial techniques are used in professional wrestling to show off the speed and agility of a wrestler. ... Paul Buster Heyman (born September 11, 1965) is a professional wrestling manager, on-air talent, and former promoter. ... Christopher Daniels covers Jerrelle Clark with a lateral press while hooking the leg for a three count during an episode of TNA iMPACT! A pinfall, also known just as a fall, is a victory condition in professional wrestling that is met by holding an opponents shoulder blades to the... The Money in the Bank Ladder Match is a standard six man ladder match exclusive to World Wrestling Entertainment with the premise of the winner receiving a contract for a match for the World Heavyweight or WWE Championship at a time and place of their choosing within one year of...


When Edge won the title from Van Dam in a Triple Threat match (also involving Cena) it re-ignited the feud between Edge and Cena. The opening stages of the feud saw Edge taking constant shortcuts in order to keep his title (losing by disqualification) while still seemingly getting positive reactions from most crowds. This lead to a Cena and Edge match at SummerSlam in a match where, if Edge was disqualified, he would not only lose the match but his title. Edge ultimately defeated Cena by pinfall after hitting him with a pair of brass knuckles while the referee was distracted to retain the title. SummerSlam 2006 is the ninteenth annual SummerSlam professional wrestling pay-per-view event from World Wrestling Entertainment. ... Categories: Weapon stubs | M e weapons ...


Having beaten Cena, Edge debuted a new "Rated R" version of the spinner belt, having Lita toss Cena's version into the Long Island Sound and declaring "the end of the era of Cena in [his] life". The "Rated R" belt looked almost exactly like the "Spinner" belt that came before it, only with a spinning 'Rated R Superstar' logo in the center. Cena would not go quietly however, convincing Edge to give him one more match for the title with an added stipulation -- if Cena lost, he would leave RAW for SmackDown!. Edge accepted, on the grounds that the match also be a Tables, Ladders, and Chairs match at Unforgiven in his hometown of Toronto. In their match Cena defeated Edge, retrieving the title after hitting an F-U on Edge from the top of a ladder and through two stacked tables. He brought back the original spinner belt on the following night's RAW. Amy Christine Dumas (born April 14, 1975) is an American professional wrestler, professional wrestling valet, charity founder and punk rock singer, better known by her ring name, Lita. ... New York City waterways: 1. ... WWE Friday Night SmackDown! is a professional wrestling television program for World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) and is the flagship broadcast of the SmackDown! brand. ... TLC 2. ... WWE Unforgiven is a professional wrestling pay-per-view event produced by World Wrestling Entertainment, which usually takes place every September. ...


Following the Edge feud Cena was placed in an interbrand program to determine the "Champion of Champions". Cena, along with King Booker (SmackDown!'s World Heavyweight Champion) and The Big Show (ECW's World Heavyweight Championship), were engaged in a mini-feud leading to a match at Cyber Sunday where one of the three championships would be placed on the line. In professional wrestling, an angle is a fictional storyline (the wrestler Kurt Angles name is a coincidence; Angle is his given surname). ... Booker Tio Huffman (born May 1, 1965), better known by his wrestling persona Booker T, is an American professional wrestler. ... WWE Friday Night SmackDown! is a professional wrestling television program for World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) and is the flagship broadcast of the SmackDown! brand. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Paul Wight (born February 8, 1972), better known by the ring names (The) Big Show and (The) Giant, is an American professional wrestler. ... Extreme Championship Wrestling (ECW) is a professional wrestling brand for World Wrestling Entertainment, based on the independent promotion that lasted from 1993 to 2001, Extreme Championship Wrestling. ... The ECW World Heavyweight Championship belt The ECW World Heavyweight Championship is a professional wrestling championship title. ... WWE Cyber Sunday is a professional wrestling pay-per-view event promoted by World Wrestling Entertainments RAW brand. ...


At the same time Cena became involved with Kevin Federline (K-Fed) when he began appearing on RAW with Johnny Nitro and Melina. After getting into a (worked) physical altercation with Federline on RAW Federline appeared at Cyber Sunday, hitting Cena with the World Heavyweight Title during the Triple Threat match and allowing King Booker to retain his title. Kevin Earl Federline, (also known as K-Fed, and Mr. ... John Randall Hennigan [1] (born October 3, 1979) is an American professional wrestler, better known by his ring name Johnny Nitro. ... Melina Perez (born March 9, 1979) better known simply as Melina, is an American professional wrestler and manager, currently working for World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) on its RAW brand. ... In professional wrestling, a work is slang for a staged event (that is, one that enforces kayfabe). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Many types of matches can be found in professional wrestling. ...


In wrestling

Cena delivering the FU to Kurt Angle .
Enlarge
Cena delivering the FU to Kurt Angle .
  • Finishing and signature moves
  • Signature taunts
  • Waving his hand in front of his face, horizontally, to symbolize that "You can't see me!" (2002-present)
  • Pumping up his Reebok Pump sneakers. (2004-2005)
  • Putting his hands up while spreading them and putting his thumb sideways and his pinky up, meaning "Word Life". (2002-2005)
  • Originally with hands together and just the pinkies up (Corna).
  • Occasionally "freestyling" on his opponents before his matches. (2002-2004)
  • Military salute to the audience. (2006-present)
  • Manager(s)
  • Five Questions
Cena hosts a segment on WWE.com entitled "Five Questions with John Cena" -- "Five Questions with the Champ" when he is a champion -- every week. Five questions sent in by fans via e-mail are picked at random and answered by Cena on camera. During the segment, whenever Cena curses, an image of The Brooklyn Brawler appears and the word is "replaced" with him saying "Brawler" or "Brooklyn Brawler".

Image File history File links F-U.jpg Summary John Cena performing the F-U Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links F-U.jpg Summary John Cena performing the F-U Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Kurt Steven Angle (born on December 9, 1968) is an American professional wrestler and former amateur wrestler, who is currently working for Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA). ... Much of the action in professional wrestling involves the application of techniques that involve lifting the opponent up and throwing or slamming him/her down. ... John Cena hits an F-U (Firemans carry powerslam). ... Much of the action in professional wrestling involves the application of techniques that involve lifting the opponent up and throwing or slamming him/her down. ... Professional wrestling holds include a number of set moves and pins used by competitors to immobilize their opponents. ... Attacking maneuvers in professional wrestling are mainly used to wear down an opponent for a submission hold, or set up for a throw. ... A Powerbomb is a professional wrestling move in which an opponent is lifted up (usually so that they are sitting on the wrestlers shoulders) and then slammed back-first down to the mat. ... Chris Candido holds A.J. Styles up in a delayed vertical suplex during an episode of TNA iMPACT! A suplex is an offensive move used in wrestling, both in competitive sport wrestling, including Olympic and collegiate wrestling, and professional wrestling. ... Sonny Siaki performs a front flip neckbreaker on Chris Candido during an episode of TNA iMPACT! In professional wrestling a neckbreaker is any throw or slam that focuses its attack on the opponent’s neck. ... Attacking maneuvers in professional wrestling are mainly used to wear down an opponent for a submission hold, or set up for a throw. ... Much of the action in professional wrestling involves the application of techniques that involve lifting the opponent up and throwing or slamming him/her down. ... Chris Candido holds A.J. Styles up in a delayed vertical suplex during an episode of TNA iMPACT! A suplex is an offensive move used in wrestling, both in competitive sport wrestling, including Olympic and collegiate wrestling, and professional wrestling. ... Attacking maneuvers in professional wrestling are mainly used to wear down an opponent for a submission hold, or set up for a throw. ... Much of the action in professional wrestling involves the application of techniques that involve lifting the opponent up and throwing or slamming him/her down. ... Much of the action in professional wrestling involves the application of techniques that involve lifting the opponent up and throwing or slamming him/her down. ... In professional wrestling a DDT is any move in which the wrestler falls down or backwards to drive a held opponents head into the mat. ... The old Steel cable of a colliery winding tower Steel is sometimes described as a sea of electrons. ... Look up chain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Categories: Weapon stubs | M e weapons ... The Reebok Pump is a line of athletic shoes that was extremely popular. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Freestyle rap is an improvisational form of rapping, that is performed with no previously composed lyrics, and reflecting a direct mapping of the mental state and performing situation of the artist. ... Kenny Bolin, born March 16, 1960 in St. ... Steve Lombardi (born April 18, 1961 in Detroit, Michigan) is a professional wrestler/road agent working for WWE who is better known as the Brooklyn Brawler. ...

Championships and accomplishments

  • UPW Heavyweight Championship (1 time)

OVW logo Ohio Valley Wrestling (OVW) is an American independent circuit professional wrestling promotion based in Louisville, Kentucky. ... The OVW Heavyweight Championship is the major championship in World Wrestling Entertainments developmental territory, Ohio Valley Wrestling. ... The OVW Heavyweight Championship is the major championship in World Wrestling Entertainments developmental territory, Ohio Valley Wrestling. ... The OVW Southern Tag Team Championship is the tag team titles of Ohio Valley Wrestling. ... The OVW Southern Tag Team Championship is the tag team titles of Ohio Valley Wrestling. ... Rico Thomas Constantino (born October 1, 1961 in Las Vegas, Nevada) is a former professional wrestler who competed for World Wrestling Entertainment. ... Hulk Hogan on the cover of the November 1994 issue of Pro Wrestling Illustrated. ... The PWI Most Improved Wrestler of the Year Award, given yearly since 1978 by professional wrestling magazine Pro Wrestling Illustrated, recognizes the most improved professional wrestler of the year as voted by readers of the magazine. ... Ultimate Pro Wrestling (UPW) is a Professional wrestling promotion owned and operated by Rick Bassman. ... World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. ... The WWE Championship belt, April 11 2005 – August 20, 2006; September 18, 2006 – present The World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) Championship is a professional wrestling title. ... The WWE Championship is a professional wrestling title. ... WWE United States Championship belt. ... The WWE United States Championship is a professional wrestling title. ...

Outside of wrestling

Music

John Cena's first album You Can't See Me.
John Cena's first album You Can't See Me.

In addition to his time in the ring, Cena is a rap music artist. He performed his fifth WWE entrance song, "Basic Thugonomics," which was featured on the WWE soundtrack album WWE Originals. His track "Untouchables" was featured on Theme Addict, another WWE soundtrack album. His debut album, which he recorded alongside his cousin Tha Trademarc, You Can't See Me features his current entrance theme "The Time is Now". The first single from the You Can't See Me album was "Bad, Bad Man", a music video of which featured a parody of 1980s culture and the television show The A-Team. A second video was later made for the second single, "Right Now", and premiered on the August 8 edition of RAW. Image File history File links Cenayoucantseeme. ... Image File history File links Cenayoucantseeme. ... You Cant See Me is the debut album of World Wrestling Entertainment wrestler John Cena, and his cousin Tha Trademarc. ... Marc Predka (born April 21), better known by his stage name Tha Trademarc, is a rap music artist, best known as the cousin of WWE wrestler John Cena, where he was featured on Cenas hit album You Cant See Me. ... You Cant See Me is the debut album of World Wrestling Entertainment wrestler John Cena, and his cousin Tha Trademarc. ... A music video is a short film or video that accompanies a complete piece of music, most commonly a song. ... The A-Team is an American action adventure television series about a fictional group of ex-United States Army Special Forces who are on the run from the military while working as soldiers of fortune. ...


John Cena has worked with several personalities in the Hip-Hop industry, such as Bumpy Knuckles, 7L & Esoteric, MURS (including a music video), E-40 and Chingo Bling. He and Method Man were also featured in SmackDown! magazine and MTV.com. Cena and Tha Trademarc are also featured on a track by The Perceptionists named "Champion Scratch." Cena was also the only professional wrestler to ever perform on BBC Two's long running Top of the Pops. Freddie Foxxx, also known as Bumpy Knuckles, (born James Campbell in 1969) is an American rapper from New York. ... 7L & Esoteric (7LES) formed in 1992 when Esoteric DJ’d a hip-hop show at a college radio station north of Boston. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Earl Stevens (born November 15, 1967 in Vallejo, California), best known by his stage name Earl Stevens is a Bay Area rapper. ... Chingo Bling is a Mexican rapper from Houston, Texas. ... Method Man (born Clifford Smith, April 1, 1971 in Hempstead, New York) is an American rapper and member of the hip hop collective, Wu-Tang Clan. ... The Perceptionists are an American hip hop music group on the Definitive Jux label headed by rapper/producer El-P. The trio consists of Fakts One as the DJ, Akrobatik and Mr. ... BBC Two (or BBC2 as it was formerly styled) was the second UK television station to be aired by the BBC and Europes first television channel to broadcast regularly in colour (from 1967), envisaged as a home for less mainstream and more ambitious programming. ... Top of the Pops was a long-running British music chart television programme and indeed the longest-running music show in the world shown each week on BBC and now licensed for national versions around the world. ...


Film

WWE Films, a division of World Wrestling Entertainment which produces and finances motion pictures, produced Cena's first movie — The Marine, which was distributed theatrically by 20th Century Fox America beginning on October 13, 2006. He is also set to star in another film which is to begin production after WrestleMania 23. [1] WWE Films WWE Films is a company within World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. ... The Marine is a 2006 film directed by John Bonito, written by Michelle Gallagher and Alan B. McElroy, produced by Joel Simon, and starring WWE professional wrestler John Cena. ... Fox Plaza, the company headquarters. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... WrestleMania 23 is the forthcoming twenty-third annual WrestleMania professional wrestling pay-per-view produced by World Wrestling Entertainment. ...


Fashion

Cena's attire in and out of the ring reflects the old school hip-hop culture that his character represents. He previously wore throwback jerseys, though now he generally wears WWE produced "Chain Gang" related merchandise. He has also worn a chain with a lock on it to the ring which was at times utilized as a weapon. This chain was replaced by a chromed and diamond studded "Chain Gang" spinner medallion after his WrestleMania 21 WWE Title win that was very reminiscent of the ones worn by members of G-Unit. Hip hop is a cultural movement that began among urban African Americans in New York City in the early 1970s, and has since spread around the world. ... Mitchell & Ness Nostalgia Co. ... Padlock A lock is a mechanical fastening device which may be used on a door, vehicle, or container, restricting access to the area or property enclosed. ... A bling bling-heavy album cover from The B.G. For the Marvel Comics character, see Bling (comics). ... G-Unit is a rap group which consists of 50 Cent, Lloyd Banks, Tony Yayo, Young Buck, (The) Game, R & B singer Olivia and, most recently, Spider Loc. ...


When Cena was part of the SmackDown! brand, his apparel bearing the suggestive spoonerism "Ruck Fules" was censored when he wore it on camera. They were not censored by UPN, but by WWE to sell more shirts under the premise that it was "too hot for TV". A spoonerism is a play on words in which corresponding consonants, vowels, or morphemes are switched (see metathesis), named after the Reverend William Archibald Spooner (1844–1930), Warden of New College, Oxford, who was notoriously prone to this tendency. ... UPN (which originally stood for the United Paramount Network) was a television network in over 200 markets in the United States. ...


Around the time Cena's film, The Marine, was released he began wearing attire more military related, including camouflage shorts, dog tags and a T-Shirt with the words "Chain Gang Assault Battalion", reflecting his new Marine soldier gimmick. The Marine is a 2006 film directed by John Bonito, written by Michelle Gallagher and Alan B. McElroy, produced by Joel Simon, and starring WWE professional wrestler John Cena. ... Anolis caroliensis showing blending camouflage and counter-shading. ... A dog might wear several different identifying dog tags. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


Guest appearances

Prior to his WWE debut, Cena made a guest appearance on the Internet stream show Go Sick in 2001 as Bruebaker, an angry, cursing wrestler. The word webcast is derived from web and broadcast. Its use has varied since the early-mid 1990s as the nature of the medium came into public use. ...


During his WWE career, Cena has appeared on Jimmy Kimmel Live numerous times. Jimmy Kimmel Live is a late-night talk show in the United States created and hosted by Jimmy Kimmel, broadcast from the El Capitan Theatre in Hollywood, California. ...

He has also appeared on popular morning radio shows July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... SummerSlam 2005 was the eighteenth annual SummerSlam professional wrestling pay-per-view event from World Wrestling Entertainment. ... March 14 is the 73rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (74th in leap years) with 292 days remaining in the year. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The classic logo, 1985-1991. ... WrestleMania 22 was the twenty-second annual WrestleMania professional wrestling pay-per-view produced by World Wrestling Entertainment. ...

Other appearances have included Late Night with Conan O'Brien, Fuse's Daily Download, Fox Sports Net's Best Damn Sports Show Period, MADtv, G4's Training Camp (with Shelton Benjamin) and an August 2006 appearance on MTV's Punk'd, where he was the victim of a practical joke. He's also served as a co-presenter, with Hulk Hogan, at the 2005 Teen Choice Awards, and as a guest judge on Nashville Star. October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in Leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Late Night with Conan OBrien is an American late night talk show on NBC that is syndicated world-wide. ... Fuse is a music video-oriented television channel. ... Fox Sports Net headquarters in Los Angeles. ... The Best Damn Sports Show, Period is a sports talk show on Fox Sports Net. ... MADtv is an American sketch comedy television series based on the popular humor magazine, Mad. ... G4 is an American cable and satellite television channel originally geared toward male viewers aged 12–34 and devoted to the world of video games and the video game lifestyle. ... Punkd is an American hidden camera practical joke television series on MTV, produced and hosted by Ashton Kutcher, which first aired in 2003. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and to make a clear distinction between fact and fiction, this article may require cleanup. ... The Teen Choice Awards is an award show that has been held annually since the summer of 1999. ... Nashville Star is a television program broadcast on the USA Network in the United States and CMT in Canada. ...


Personal information

Cena's father, John Cena Sr., works in the professional wrestling business as "Johnny Fabulous", an announcer for New England based Chaotic Wrestling, as well as acting as "commissioner" for East Coast Championship Wrestling. John Cena Sr. ... Chaotic Wrestling is a small professional wrestling promotion based in Massachusetts. ...


Cena graduated Springfield College in Springfield, Massachusetts with a degree in exercise physiology.[5]. Springfield College is a college located in Springfield, Massachusetts. ...   Nickname: City of Homes Settled: 1636 â€“ Incorporated: 1636 Zip Code(s): 01103 01108 01119 01129 â€“ Area Code(s): 413 Official website: http://www. ... Exercise physiology is the identification of physiological mechanisms underlying physical activity, the comprehensive delivery of treatment services concerned with the analysis, improvement, and maintenance of health and fitness, rehabilitation of heart disease and other chronic diseases and/or disabilities, and the professional guidance and counsel of athletes and others interested...


After playing college football, where he achieved All-American status as a center[6]. Cena also pursued a career as a bodybuilder[7]. A college football game between Colorado State University and the Air Force Academy. ... All-American, a Broadway musical with book by Mel Brooks, music by Charles Strouse, and lyrics by Lee Adams, opened in New York on March 19, 1962, and played 80 performances. ... Center (C) is a position in American football. ... Swedish bodybuilder Anders Graneheim. ...


He is second eldest of five brothers - Dan, Matt, Steve and Sean. [8]


Cena is known to be a fan of cartoons and has mentioned on "5 Questions" that his favorite animated movie is Fist of the North Star. Fist of the North Star (Japanese: 北斗の拳; Hokuto no Ken, literally Fist of the Big Dipper) was a manga series that was originally serialized between 1983 and 1988 in the weekly Japanese version of Weekly Shonen Jump, created by Tetsuo Hara and Buronson. ...


References

  1. ^ Article on Manhunt. Retrieved on June 13, 2006.
  2. ^ Manhunt overview. Retrieved on June 13, 2006.
  3. ^ Article on Manhunt scandal. Retrieved on June 13, 2006.
  4. ^ Whatever Happened to Manhunt's "Big Tim"?. Retrieved on June 13, 2006.
  5. ^ http://www.tribute.ca/bio.asp?id=17152
  6. ^ http://shopping.yahoo.com/p:John%20Cena:1927836016:page=biography
  7. ^ http://www.lordsofpain.net/news/2002_/articles/1031537094.php
  8. ^ http://sports.ign.com/articles/607/607819p2.html

January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
John Cena

  Results from FactBites:
 
John Cena (Raw) (2016 words)
Cena came up short, but it was clear that he was starting to make a name for himself.
Cena was certainly the underdog, but with the capacity Madison Square Garden crowd behind him, he was able to hoist Big Show up for an improbably FU and his first taste of gold in WWE.
Cena took on all challengers as the U.S. Champion, and one of his toughest challengers was the five-time WCW Champion, Booker T. Cena and Booker T's rivalry became so heated, it could not be decided in just one match.
John Cena biography, information, news, links, pictures (pics) and products (WWE Wrestling) (2289 words)
Cena later won the title back after winning a best-of-5 match series with Booker T. His second title reign was short-lived as he lost the title to newcomer Carlito Caribbean Cool in Cena's first televised match since regaining the title.
Cena is currently involved in a feud with Chris Jericho and is scheduled to face him for the WWE Title at Summerslam.
John Cena's first major movie role will be in the 2006 film The Marine, to be produced by WWE Films.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m