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Encyclopedia > John Calvin
John Calvin

Engraving from the original oil painting
in the University Library of Geneva
Born July 10, 1509(1509-07-10)
Noyon, Picardy, France
Died May 27, 1564 (aged 54)
Geneva, Switzerland
Occupation Pastor and theologian
Religious beliefs Reformed Protestant
Spouse Idelette de Bure
Parents Gérard Cauvin and Jeanne Lefranc

John Calvin (July 10, 1509May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. In Geneva, his ministry both attracted other Protestant refugees and over time made that city a major force in the spread of Reformed theology. He is renowned for his teachings and writings, in particular for his Institutes of the Christian Religion. Image File history File links From http://www. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Noyon is a small but historic French city in the Oise département, Picardie, on the Oise Canal, approximately 60 miles north of Paris. ... Coat of arms of Picardy Picardy (French: Picardie) is an historical province of France, in the north of France. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Idelette de Bure was the only wife of the reformer, John Calvin. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Reformation redirects here. ... Christian doctrine redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvins seminal work on Protestant theology. ...

Contents

Biography

A young John Calvin
A young John Calvin

Calvin was born Jean Cauvin (or Chauvin in standard French, in Latin Calvinus) in Noyon, Picardie, France, to Gérard Cauvin and Jeanne le Franc. A diligent student who excelled at his studies, Calvin was "remarkably religious" even as a young man.[1] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (955x1174, 375 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (955x1174, 375 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Noyon is a small but historic French city in the Oise département, Picardie, on the Oise Canal, approximately 60 miles north of Paris. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Amiens Regional President Claude Gewerc (PS) (since 2004) Departments Aisne Oise Somme Arrondissements 13 Cantons 129 Communes 2,292 Statistics Land area1 19,399 km² Population (Ranked 12th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Calvin's father was an attorney who also served as a Noyon Cathedral business administrator and lawyer. In 1523 Gerard sent his fourteen-year-old son to the University of Paris to pursue a Latin, theological education and to flee the plague in Noyon. But when Gerard was dismissed from the Roman Church after disagreements with his clerical employers, he urged Calvin to change his studies to law, and he did.[2] By 1532, he had attained a Doctor of Laws degree at Orléans. It is not clear when Calvin converted to Protestantism, though in the preface to his commentary on Psalms, Calvin said: An attorney is someone who represents someone else in the transaction of business: For attorney-at-law, see lawyer, solicitor, barrister or civil law notary. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ... Orléans (Latin, meaning golden) is a city and commune in north-central France, about 130 km (80 miles) southwest of Paris. ...

"God by a sudden conversion subdued and brought my mind to a teachable frame.... Having thus received some taste and knowledge of true godliness I was immediately inflamed with so intense a desire to make progress therein, that although I did not altogether leave off [legal] studies, I yet pursued them with less ardor."[3]

His Protestant friends included Nicholas Cop, Rector at the University of Paris. In 1533 Cop gave an address "replete with Protestant ideas," and "Calvin was probably involved as the writer of that address."[1] Cop soon found it necessary to flee Paris, as did Calvin himself a few days after. In Angoulême he sheltered with a friend, Louis du Tillet. Calvin settled for a time in Basel, where in 1536 he published the first edition of his Institutes. Angoulême is a town and commune in southwestern France, préfecture (capital city) of the Charente département. ... For other uses, see Basel (disambiguation). ...


After a brief and covert return to France in 1536, Calvin was forced to choose an alternate return route in the face of imperial and French forces, and in doing so he passed by Geneva. Guillaume Farel pleaded with Calvin to stay in Geneva and help the city. Despite a desire to continue his journey, he settled in Geneva. After being expelled from the city, he served as a pastor in Strasbourg from 1538 until 1541, before returning to Geneva, where he lived until his death in 1564. Categories: Stub | 1489 births | 1565 deaths | French theologians | Reformed theologians ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ...


After attaining his degree, John Calvin sought a wife in affirmation of his approval of marriage over clerical celibacy. In 1539, he married Idelette de Bure, a widow, who had a son and daughter from her previous marriage to an Anabaptist in Strasbourg. Calvin and Idelette had a son who died after only two weeks. Idelette Calvin died in 1549. Calvin wrote that she was a helper in ministry, never stood in his way, never troubled him about her children, and had a greatness of spirit. Clerical celibacy is the practice of various religious traditions in which clergy, monastics and those in religious orders (female or male) adopt a celibate life, refraining from marriage and sexual relationships, including masturbation and impure thoughts (such as sexual visualisation and fantasies). ... Idelette de Bure was the only wife of the reformer, John Calvin. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus re-baptizers[1]) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ...


Calvin's health began to fail when he suffered migraines, lung hemorrhages, gout and kidney stones, and at times he had to be carried to the pulpit to preach and sometimes gave lectures from his bed.[4] According to his successor, influential Calvinist theologian Theodore Beza, Calvin took only one meal a day for a decade, but on the advice of his physician, he ate an egg and drank a glass of wine at noon. His recreation and exercise consisted mainly of a walk after meals. Towards the end, Calvin said to those friends who were worried about his daily regimen of work amidst all his ailments, "What! Would you have the Lord find me idle when He comes?"[4] For the village in Tibet, see Lung, Tibet. ... For other uses, see Bleeding (disambiguation). ... Kidney stones are solid accretions (crystals) of dissolved minerals in urine found inside the kidneys or ureters. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... Chicken egg (left) and quail eggs (right), the types of egg commonly used as food An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ...


John Calvin died in Geneva on May 27, 1564. He was buried in the Cimetière des Rois under a tombstone marked simply with the initials "J.C.",[5] partially honoring his request that he be buried in an unknown place, without witnesses or ceremony. He is commemorated in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America's liturgical calendar of saints as a Renewer of the Church on May 27. is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... The Cimetière des Rois (French for Cemetery of Kings) is a cemetery in Geneva, Switzerland, where people such as John Calvin, the great Reformer of the Swiss Reformation, Jorge Luis Borges, the famed Argentine fantasy writer, and Sergio Vieira De Mello, the former United Nations diplomat to Iraq, are... The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. ... The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in some Christian churches which determines when Feasts, Memorials, Commemorations, and Solemnities are to be observed and which portions of Scripture are to be read. ... Saints redirects here. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Thought

Part of a series on
Calvinism
(see also Portal)
John Calvin

Background
Christianity
St. Augustine
The Reformation
Five Solas
Synod of Dort
Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... From [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Reformation redirects here. ... The Five Solas are five Latin phrases (or slogans) that emerged during the Protestant Reformation and summarize the Reformers basic beliefs and emphasis in contradistinction to the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church of the day. ... xxx cciiiox The Synod of Dort was a National Synod held in Dordrecht in 1618/19, by the Dutch Reformed Church, in order to settle a serious controversy in the Dutch churches initiated by the rise of Arminianism. ...

Distinctives
Five Points (TULIP)
Covenant Theology
Regulative principle
The Five points of Calvinism, sometimes called the doctrines of grace and remembered in the English-speaking world with the mnemonic TULIP, are a summary of the judgments (or canons) rendered by the Synod of Dordt reflecting the Calvinist understanding of the nature of divine grace and predestination as it... Covenant Theology is not to be confused with the Covenanters For Covenantal Theology in the Roman Catholic perspective, see Covenantal Theology (Roman Catholic). ... The regulative principle of worship is a Christian theological doctrine teaching that the public worship of God should include those and only those elements that are instituted, commanded, or appointed by command or example in the Bible; that God institutes in Scripture everything he requires for worship in the Church...

Documents
Calvin's Institutes
Confessions of faith
Geneva Bible
Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvins seminal work on Protestant theology. ... The Reformed churches express their consensus of faith in various creeds. ... The Geneva Bible was a Protestant translation of the Bible into English. ...

Influences
Theodore Beza
John Knox
Huldrych Zwingli
Jonathan Edwards
Princeton theologians
To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli or Ulricus Zuinglius (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703- March 22, 1758) was a colonial American Congregational preacher and theologian. ... The Princeton theology is a tradition of conservative, Christian, Reformed and Presbyterian theology at Princeton Seminary, in Princeton, New Jersey. ...

Churches
Reformed
Presbyterian
Congregationalist
Reformed Baptist
-1... Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... The name Reformed Baptist does not refer to a distinct Christian denomination, but instead is a description of the churchs theological leaning. ...

Peoples
Afrikaner Calvinists
Huguenots
Pilgrims
Puritans
Scots
Afrikaner Calvinism is, according to theory, a unique cultural development that combined the Calvinist religion with the political aspirations of the white Afrikaans speaking people of South Africa. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... This article is about a particular group of seventeenth-century European colonists of North America. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... Scotland, in common with the rest of the United Kingdom, is traditionally a Christian nation with around 70% claiming to be Christian. ...

This box: view  talk  edit
See also: Calvin's view of Scripture

Calvin was trained to be a lawyer. He studied under some of the best legal minds of the Renaissance in France. Part of that training involved the newer humanistic methods of exegesis, which dealt with a text in the original language directly via historical and grammatical analysis, as opposed to indirectly via layers of commentators. His legal and exegetical training was important for Calvin because, once convinced of the growing Protestant faith, he applied these exegetical methods to the Scripture. He self-consciously tried to mold his thinking along biblical lines, and he labored to preach and teach what he believed the Bible taught. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into John Calvin. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Humanism is a system of thought that defines a socio-political doctrine (-ism) whose bounds exceed those of locally developed cultures, to include all of humanity and all issues common to human beings. ... Exegesis (from the Greek to lead out) involves an extensive and critical interpretation of an authoritative text, especially of a holy scripture, such as of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, the Talmud, the Midrash, the Quran, etc. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ...


While Reformers such as Jan Hus and Martin Luther may be seen as somewhat original thinkers that began a movement, Calvin was a great logician and systematizer of that movement, but not an innovator in doctrine. Unlike Luther and Melanchthon, who underwent many doctrinal changes and sometimes contradicted their previous views, Calvin held essentially the same theology from his youth to his death.[6] He was very familiar with the writings of the early Church Fathers and the great Medieval schoolmen, and he was also in debt to earlier Reformers. Calvin did not reject the Scholastics of the Middle Ages outright but rather made use of them and reformed their thoughts in accordance with his understanding of the Bible. For example, using Anselm of Canterbury's satisfaction view of the atonement, Calvin developed and formalized the doctrine of penal substitution where Christ receives the punishment earned by the elect in their stead. Jan Hus ( ) (IPA: , alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Portrait of Philipp Melanchthon, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For entities named after Saint Anselm, see Saint Anselms. ... The satisfaction view of the atonement (also known as the penal or punishment theory) is a doctrine in Christian theology related to the meaning and effect of the death of Jesus Christ and has been traditionally taught in Catholic, Lutheran, and Reformed circles. ... Penal substitution is a theory of the atonement within Christian theology, especially cherished by Evangelicals of the Reformed tradition. ...


Calvin had a great commitment to the absolute sovereignty and holiness of God. Because of this, he is often associated with the doctrines of predestination and election, but it should be noted that he differed very little with the other magisterial Reformers regarding these difficult doctrines. Additionally, while the five points of Calvinism bear his name and are a reflection of his thinking, they were not articulated by him, and were actually a product of the Synod of Dort, which issued its judgments in response to five specific objections that arose after Calvin's time. Predestination (also linked with foreknowledge) is a religious concept, which involves the relationship between the beginning of things and their destinies. ... This article is about the political process. ... The Five points of Calvinism, sometimes called the doctrines of grace and remembered in the English-speaking world with the mnemonic TULIP, are a summary of the judgments (or canons) rendered by the Synod of Dordt reflecting the Calvinist understanding of the nature of divine grace and predestination as it... xxx cciiiox The Synod of Dort was a National Synod held in Dordrecht in 1618/19, by the Dutch Reformed Church, in order to settle a serious controversy in the Dutch churches initiated by the rise of Arminianism. ...


While Calvin's theological contributions have had a wide influence, his legacy can also be seen in other areas. For example, he placed a high premium on education of the youth of Geneva, and in 1559 he founded the Academy of Geneva, which was a model for other academies around the world and which would eventually become the University of Geneva. Calvin's thought in the area of church polity was seminal as well, giving rise to various Reformed and Presbyterian systems of church government. The Consistory of Geneva, with Calvin at its helm, was influential in sending out scores of missionaries, not only to France, but also to countries as far off as Brazil. Finally, Calvin, knowing the benefits of business, was instrumental in founding and developing the silk industry in Geneva, by which many Genevans reaped monetary benefits. Rousseau Institute (Also known as Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute or Academy of Geneva - in French Académie De Genève or Institut Jean-Jacques Rousseau) is a private school in Geneva, Switzerland. ... The University of Geneva (Université de Genève) is a university in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Ecclesiastical polity is the operational and governance structure of a church or Christian denomination. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ...


Writings

The title page from the 1834 edition of John Calvin's Institutio Christiane Religionis
The title page from the 1834 edition of John Calvin's Institutio Christiane Religionis

Although nearly all of Calvin's adult life was spent in Geneva (1536-38 and 1541-64), his publications spread his ideas of a properly reformed church to many parts of Europe and from there to the rest of the world. It is especially on account of his voluminous publications that he exerts such a lasting influence over Christianity and Western history. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 345 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,157 × 2,009 pixels, file size: 324 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 345 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,157 × 2,009 pixels, file size: 324 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Calvin's first published work was an edition of the Roman philosopher Seneca's De Clementia, accompanied by a commentary demonstrating a thorough knowledge of antiquity. His first theological work, the Psychopannychia, attempted to refute the doctrine of soul sleep as promulgated by Christians whom Calvin called "Anabaptists." He finished it in 1534 but, on the advice of friends, didn't publish it until 1542. The work demonstrates that since his conversion, Calvin had undertaken serious study and now showed a mastery of the Bible, and he had become, using Barth's words, a "theological Humanist" and a "biblicist" — that is, "[n]o matter how true a teaching might be, he was not ready to lend an ear to it apart from the Word of God."[7] In printmaking, an edition is a set of prints off one plate, composing a limited run of prints. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Soul sleep is a belief held by some Christians claiming that between death and the resurrection of the dead, the body and soul rest together in unconsciousness. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Karl Barth Karl Barth (May 10, 1886 – December 10, 1968) (pronounced bart) a Swiss Reformed theologian, was one of the most important Christian thinkers of the 20th century; Pope Pius XII described him as the most important theologian since Thomas Aquinas. ...


At the age of twenty-six, Calvin published the first edition of his Institutes of the Christian Religion (Latin title Institutio Christianae Religionis), a seminal work in Christian theology that altered the course of Western history as much as any other book[4] and that is still read by theological students today. It was published in Latin in 1536 and in his native French in 1541, with the definitive editions appearing in 1559 (Latin) and in 1560 (French). The book was written as an introductory textbook on the Protestant faith for those with some learning already and covered a broad range of theological topics from the doctrines of church and sacraments to justification by faith alone and Christian liberty, and it vigorously attacked the teachings of those Calvin considered unorthodox, particularly Roman Catholicism to which Calvin says he had been "strongly devoted" before his conversion to Protestantism. The over-arching theme of the book – and Calvin's greatest theological legacy – is the idea of God's total sovereignty, particularly in salvation and election.[4] Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvins seminal work on Protestant theology. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace. ... The Harrowing of Hell as depicted by Fra Angelico In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of declaring or making a sinner righteous before God. ... Adiaphoron, pl. ... “Orthodox” redirects here. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ...


Calvin's magnum opus, penned so early in his life, "came like Minerva in full panoply out of the head of Jupiter," and even through its enlargements and revisions, it remained basically the same in its content.[6] It overshadowed the earlier Protestant theologies such as Melanchthon's Loci and Zwingli's Commentary on the True and False Religion, and according to historian Philip Schaff, it is a classic of theology at the level of Origen's On First Principles, Augustine's The City of God, Thomas Aquinas's Summa Theologica, and Schleiermacher's The Christian Faith.[6] Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli or Ulricus Zuinglius (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... Philip Schaff (January 1, 1819-1893), was a Swiss-born, German-educated theologian and a historian of the Christian church, who, after his education, lived and taught in the United States. ... Origen Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... The City of God, opening text, created c. ... Aquinas redirects here. ... Summa theologiae, Pars secunda, prima pars. ... Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (IPA [ˈʃlaɪəmaxə]) (November 21, 1768 – February 12, 1834) was a German theologian and philosopher known for his impressive attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant orthodoxy. ...


Calvin also produced many volumes of commentary on most of the books of the Bible. For the Old Testament, he published commentaries for all books except the histories after Joshua (though he did publish his sermons on First Samuel) and the Wisdom literature other than the Book of Psalms. For the New Testament, he omitted only the brief second and third epistles of John and the Book of Revelation. (Some have suggested that Calvin questioned the canonicity of the Book of Revelation, but his citation of it as authoritative in his other writings casts doubt on that theory.) These commentaries, too, have proved to be of lasting value to students of the Bible, and they are still in print after over 400 years. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Second Epistle of John (normally just called 2nd John or 2 John) is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The New Testament Third Epistle of John (often referred to as 3 John), written in the form of an Epistle, is the 64th book of the Bible. ... St John the Evangelist, imagined by Jacopo Pontormo, ca 1525 (Santa Felicita, Florence) John the Evangelist (d. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ...


In the controversial matter of interpreting prophecy such as that in the Book of Daniel, Calvin was a preterist, which is to say that he believed most prophecies had already been fulfilled in history. In this view he was essentially in line with the early church and the Reformers who came before him, but he is in distinction to many of his immediate successors who took a historicist view and to many today who look a future fulfillment.[8] For other uses, see Prophecy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... Preterism is a variant of Christian eschatology which holds that some or all of the biblical prophecies concerning the Last Days (or End Times) refer to events which actually happened in the first century after Christs birth. ... The Early Christians is a term used to refer to the early followers of Jesus of Nazareth, before the emergence of established Christian orthodoxy. ... Historicism in Christian eschatology is a school of interpretation of the eschatological prophecies of Daniel, Revelation and other passages are seen as finding literal earthly fulfillment through the history of the church age, and especially in relation to the Protestant- Catholic conflicts of the Reformation. ... Futurism is an interpretation of the Bible in Christian eschatology placing the fulfillment of the prophecies of the Book of Revelation and the Book of Daniel in the future as literal, physical, apocalyptic and global rather in the past as literal, physical and localised (i. ...


Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius, after whom the anti-Calvinistic movement Arminianism was named, says with regard to the value of Calvin's writings:[9] Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Jacobus Arminius Jacobus Arminius (aka Jacob Arminius, James Arminius, and his Dutch name Jacob Harmenszoon or Jakob Hermann) (1560–1609) was a Dutch heretical theologian and (until 1603) professor in theology at the University of Leiden. ... Arminianism is a school of soteriological thought in Protestant Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacob Hermann, who was best known by the Latin form of his name, Jacobus Arminius. ...

Next to the study of the Scriptures which I earnestly inculcate, I exhort my pupils to peruse Calvin’s Commentaries, which I extol in loftier terms than Helmich himself (a Dutch divine, 1551–1608); for I affirm that he excels beyond comparison in the interpretation of Scripture, and that his commentaries ought to be more highly valued than all that is handed down to us by the library of the fathers; so that I acknowledge him to have possessed above most others, or rather above all other men, what may be called an eminent spirit of prophecy. His Institutes ought to be studied after the (Heidelberg) Catechism, as containing a fuller explanation, but with discrimination, like the writings of all men.

The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... For other uses, see Prophecy (disambiguation). ... Codex Manesse, fol. ...

Letters

Letter of Calvin to king Edward VI of England, July 4, 1552 - British Museum
Letter of Calvin to king Edward VI of England, July 4, 1552 - British Museum

Calvin's body of letters has not received the wide readership of the Institutes and bible commentaries since his correspondence obviously addressed the particular needs and occasions of his day. Even so, the scale of his letter writing was just as prodigious as his better-known works: his letters number some 4,000, and fill eleven of Calvin's fifty-nine volumes in the Corpus Reformatorum. B. B. Warfield even calls Calvin "the great letter-writer of the Reformation age."[10] Edward Tudor redirects here. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... Benjamin Breckinridge (B.B.) Warfield (1851 - 1921) was the principal of Princeton Seminary from 1887 to 1921. ...


His letters, often written under the pseudonym Charles Despeville,[11] concern issues ranging from disputes about local theater[12] to raising support for fledgling churches[13] to choosing sides in a political alliance.[14] They also reveal personal qualities that are not evident in his exegetical prose. One example came after the massacre of the Waldensians of Provence in 1545 where 3,600 were slaughtered. Calvin was so dismayed that in a space of twenty-one days he visited Berne, Aurich, Schaffhausen, Basle, and Strasbourg, before addressing the deputies of the Cantons at the Diet of Arau, pleading everywhere for an intercession on behalf of those who survived.[14] He wrote of his grief to William Farel: For other uses, see Alias. ... The Waldensians, Waldenses or Vaudois are a Christian denomination believing in poverty and austerity, promoting true poverty, public preaching and the literal interpretation of the scriptures. ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... William Farel William Farel (Guillaume Farel, 1489-1565) was a French evangelist, and a founder of the Reformed Church in the cantons of Neuchâtel, Berne and Geneva, and the Canton of Vaud Switzerland. ...

Such was the savage cruelty of the persecutors, that neither young girls, nor pregnant women, nor infants were spared. So great is the atrocious cruelty of this proceeding, that I grow bewildered when I reflect upon it. How, then, shall I express it in words?  ... I write, worn out with sadness, and not without tears, which so burst forth, that every now and then they interrupt my words.[14]

One of Calvin's better known letters was his reply to Jacopo Sadoleto's "Letter to the Genevans,"[15] and this "Reformation Debate" remains in print today. Jacopo Sadoleto (1477-1547), Italian humanist and churchman, was born at Modena in 1477, and, being the son of a noted jurist, was designed for the same profession. ...


Reformed Geneva

John Calvin had been exiled from Geneva because he and his colleagues, namely William Farel and Antoine Froment, were accused of wanting to create a "new papacy." Thus, he went to Strasbourg during the time of the Ottoman wars and passed through the Cantons of Switzerland. While in Geneva, William Farel asked Calvin to help him with the cause of the Church. Calvin wrote of Farel's request, "I felt as if God from heaven had laid his mighty hand upon me to stop me in my course." Together with Farel, Calvin attempted to institute a number of changes to the city's governance and religious life. They drew up a catechism and a confession of faith, which they insisted all citizens must affirm. The city council refused to adopt Calvin and Farel's creed, and in January 1538 denied them the power to excommunicate, a power they saw as critical to their work. The pair responded with a blanket denial of the Lord's Supper to all Genevans at Easter services. For this the city council expelled them from the city. Farel travelled to Neuchâtel, Calvin to Strasbourg. Antoine Froment (1508-1581) was a Protestant reformer in Geneva. ... Valais Ticino Graubünden (Grisons) Geneva Vaud Neuchâtel Jura Berne Thurgau Zurich Aargau Lucerne Solothurn Basel-Land Schaffhausen Uri Schwyz Glarus St. ... Excommunication is religious censure which is used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian festival. ...

The Reformation Wall in Geneva. From left: William Farel, Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox
The Reformation Wall in Geneva. From left: William Farel, Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox

For three years Calvin served as a lecturer and pastor to a church of French Huguenots in Strasbourg. It was during his exile that Calvin married Idelette de Bure. He also came under the influence of Martin Bucer, who advocated a system of political and ecclesiastical structure along New Testament lines. He continued to follow developments in Geneva, and when Jacopo Sadoleto, a Catholic cardinal, penned an open letter to the city council inviting Geneva to return to the mother church, Calvin's response on behalf of embattled Genevan Protestants helped him to regain the respect he had lost. After a number of Calvin's supporters won election to the Geneva city council, he was invited back to the city in 1540, and having negotiated concessions such as the formation of the Consistory, he returned in 1541. Image File history File links ReformationsdenkmalGenf1. ... Image File history File links ReformationsdenkmalGenf1. ... The Reformation Wall stretches for 100 m, depicting numerous Protestant figures from across Europe. ... William Farel William Farel (Guillaume Farel, 1489-1565) was a French evangelist, and a founder of the Reformed Church in the cantons of Neuchâtel, Berne and Geneva, and the Canton of Vaud Switzerland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... Martin Bucer Martin Bucer (or Butzer, Latin Martinus Buccer, Martinus Bucerus ) (November 11, 1491 – February 28, 1551) was a German Protestant reformer. ... Jacopo Sadoleto (1477-1547), Italian humanist and churchman, was born at Modena in 1477, and, being the son of a noted jurist, was designed for the same profession. ... // Antiquity Originally, the Latin word consistorium meant simply sitting together, just as the Greek syn(h)edrion (from which the Biblical sanhedrin was a corruption). ...


Upon his return, armed with the authority to craft the institutional form of the church, Calvin began his program of reform. He established four categories of offices based on biblical injunctions:

  • Ministers of the Word were to preach, to administer the sacraments, and to exercise pastoral discipline, teaching and admonishing the people.
  • Doctors held an office of theological scholarship and teaching for the edification of the people and the training of other ministers.
  • Elders were 12 laymen whose task was to serve as a kind of moral police force, mostly issuing warnings, but referring offenders to the Consistory when necessary.
  • Deacons oversaw institutional charity, including hospitals and anti-poverty programs.

In 1546, a faction headed by Ami Perrin, who had been behind Calvin's return to Geneva, were worried by the influx of refugees and ministers into the city, fretted that Emperor Charles V might attempt to take Geneva by force, and disliked the Consistory's strictures. Perrin was tried and acquitted of treason for allegedly planning to bring a French garrison into Geneva, and being then restored to his post as head of the Genevan militia, he played a part in the so-called Libertine opposition to Calvin a few years later.[16] Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516-1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ...


Critics often look to the Consistory as the emblem of Calvin's theocratic rule.[citation needed] The Consistory was an ecclesiastical court consisting of the elders and pastors, charged with maintaining strict order among the church's officers and members. Offenses ranged from propounding false doctrine to moral infractions, such as wild dancing and bawdy singing. Typical punishments were being required to attend public sermons or catechism classes. Whereas the city council had the power to wield the sword, the church courts held the authority of the keys of heaven. Therefore, the maximum punishment that the consistory could decree was excommunication, which was reversible upon the repentance of the offender. However, the officers of the church were considered to be the state's spiritual advisors in moral or doctrinal matters. Protestants in the 16th century were often subjected to the Catholic charge that they were innovators in doctrine, and that such innovation did lead inevitably to moral decay and, ultimately, the dissolution of society itself. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Theocracy (disambiguation). ...


Calvin claimed his wish was to establish the moral legitimacy of the church reformed according to his program, but also to promote the health and well-being of individuals, families, and communities. Recently discovered documentation[citation needed] of Consistory proceedings shows at least some concern for domestic life, and women in particular. For the first time men's infidelity was punished as harshly as that of women, and the Consistory showed absolutely no tolerance for spousal abuse. The Consistory helped to transform Geneva into the city described by Scottish reformer John Knox as "the most perfect school of Christ that ever was on the earth since the days of the Apostles." In 1559 Calvin founded the Collège de Genève as well as a hospital for the indigent. For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... Collège Calvin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Civil punishments

Some allege that Calvin was not above using the Consistory to further his own political aims and maintain his sway over civil and religious life in Geneva, and, it is argued, he responded harshly to any challenge to his actions.[citation needed] Calvin was reluctant to ordain Genevans, preferring to choose more qualified pastors from the stream of French immigrants pouring into the city for the express purpose of supporting his own program of reform.[citation needed] When Pierre Ameaux complained about this practice, some contend that Calvin took it as an attack on divinely ordained authority and persuaded the city council to require Ameaux to walk through the town dressed in a hair shirt and beg for mercy in the public squares.[citation needed]


Jacques Gruet sided with some of the old Genevan families, who resented the power and methods of the Consistory. He was implicated in an incident in which someone had placed a placard in one of the city's churches, reading: Libertine and atheist, anti-Calvin, sentenced to death in Geneva. ...

Gross hypocrite, thou and thy companions will gain little by your pains. If you do not save yourselves by flight, nobody shall prevent your overthrow, and you will curse the hour when you left your monkery. Warning has been already given that the devil and his renegade priests were come hither to ruin every thing. But after people have suffered long they avenge themselves. Take care that you are not served like Mons. Verle of Fribourg [who was killed in a fight with the Protestants, while endeavoring to save himself by flight]. We will not have so many masters. Mark well what I say.

Gruet's views on religion were well known in Geneva, and he wrote verses about Calvin and the French immigrants that were "more malignant than poetic" (Audin). As Gruet had been heard threatening Calvin a few days earlier, he was arrested in connection with the anonymous placard and was tortured. He confessed to the placard and to writing various other heretical documents that were found in his house, and he was beheaded.[17] Jean-M.-Vincent Audin was a French Roman Catholic author, journalist and historian. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ...


Calvin's acceptance of torture was in accord with the prevailing attitude of that age, and few persons of any position or religious denomination were critical of the practice, though there were exceptions such as Anton Praetorius and Calvin's former friend Sebastian Castellio. Such practices, however, have been rejected by followers of Calvin since at least the 1800s.[18] Lippstadt Anton Praetorius (Lippstadt 1560 – 6 December 1613 near Heidelberg in Laudenbach (Rhein-Neckar)/Bergstrasse in Germany), Protestant pastor and fighter against the persecution of witches (witchhunts, witchcraft trials) and against torture. ... Sebastian Castellio Sebastian Castellio (also spelled Châtaillon, Castellión and Castello) (1515–December 29, 1563) was a French preacher and theologian; and one of the first Reformed Christian proponents of freedom of the conscience or freedom of thought. ...


Calvin and the other reformers (as well as Catholics in middle Europe) also believed that they should not permit the practice of witchcraft, in accord with their understanding of passages such as Exodus 22:18 and Leviticus 20:27,[19] and in 1545 twenty-three people were burned to death in Geneva under charges of practicing witchcraft and attempting to spread the plague over a three–year period.[20] Witch redirects here. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ...


Servetus controversy

Michael Servetus
Michael Servetus

The most lasting controversy of Calvin's life involves his role in the execution of Michael Servetus, the Spanish physician and theologian. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Michael Servetus. ...


Servetus first published his views in 1531 to a wide yet unreceptive audience. He denounced the Trinity, one of the cardinal doctrines that Catholics and Protestants agreed upon.[1] Calvin knew of these views in 1534, when he accepted Servetus' invitation to a small gathering in Paris to discuss their differences in person. For unknown reasons Servetus failed to appear.[21] This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Around 1546, Servetus initiated a correspondence with Calvin that lasted until 1548, when the exchange grew so rancorous that Calvin ended it. Each man wrote under a pen name and each tried to win the other to his own theology. Servetus even offered to come to Geneva if invited and given a guarantee of safe passage. Calvin declined to offer either. In 1546 Calvin told Farel, "[Servetus] takes it upon him to come hither, if it be agreeable to me. But I am unwilling to pledge my word for his safety, for if he shall come, I shall never permit him to depart alive, provided my authority be of any avail."[1]


Calvin's zeal was very much the rule among civil and church authorities in 16th century Europe, above all toward Servetus' effort to spread what they deemed heresy. As early as 1533 the Spanish Inquisition had sentenced Servetus to death in absentia.[22] Years later, in 1553, he was charged with heresy while living under an assumed name in Vienne, France. After Servetus escaped from the French prison in April 1553, the authorities there convicted and burned him in effigy.[23] This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... This article is about the French département. ...


Servetus came to Geneva in August 1553 and attended a Sunday church service with Calvin in the pulpit. He was recognized and arrested on Calvin's initiative.[citation needed] While Calvin also wrote the heresy charges, Geneva's city council did far more to steer Servetus' trial, sentence, and burning at the stake.[24][21] Calvin asked the council for a more humane execution — beheading for civil disobedience rather than the stake for heresy — but his appeal was denied. The sentence was carried out on 27 October 1553. Servetus was burned along with every available copy of his final work, Christianismi Restitutio, only three known copies of which survived — two in Calvin's own possession. For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey...


Servetus was the only person "put to death for his religious opinions in Geneva during Calvin's lifetime, at a time when executions of this nature were a commonplace elsewhere," but an angry debate over this incident has continued to the present day.[24] History has certainly judged Calvin to be in the wrong on this issue, and later Calvinists have criticised his actions against Servetus.[25][26] Although many of Calvin's detractors portray him as a man who craved power, could not abide any dissent, and is unworthy of the respect that is commonly given to him,[27][28] his admirers see him as a man who sinned and failed to transcend the ethics of his time, but who is still deserving of honor because of his contributions elsewhere.[9][26]


References

  1. ^ a b c d Hans J. Hillerbrand, editor, The Reformation, A Narrative History Related by Contemporary Observers and Participants. Baker Book House, Ann Arbor, MI, 1985. pp. 174 (quoting Beza’s Life of Calvin), 169, 274, 203.
  2. ^ Henry Beveridge, translator, "Institutes of Christian Religion". Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, MA, 2008. pp. XI
  3. ^ John Calvin, Commentary on Psalms – Volume 1, Author’s Preface. Christian Classics Ethereal Library, retrieved November 19, 2007.
  4. ^ a b c d "John Calvin" from "131 Christians everyone should know" in Christian History & Biography
  5. ^ Find-a-grave
  6. ^ a b c Philip Schaff. "Calvin's Place in History", History of the Christian Church, Volume VIII: Modern Christianity. The Swiss Reformation.. Retrieved on 2007-09-18. 
  7. ^ Karl Barth (1995). The Theology of John Calvin. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. ISBN 9780802806963. 
  8. ^ John Calvin [1561] (1852). "Translator's Preface: The Praeterist, Anti-Papal, and Futurist Views", Commentary on Daniel, Volume 1, Thomas Meyers (trans.). Retrieved on 2007-09-18. 
  9. ^ a b Philip Schaff. "Tributes to the Memory of Calvin", History of the Christian Church, Volume VIII: Modern Christianity. The Swiss Reformation.. Retrieved on 2007-09-18. 
  10. ^ B.B. Warfield, Calvin and Augustine. The Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, Philadelphia, PA, 1956. p. 14. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 56-7349.
  11. ^ Philip Schaff. "Servetus: His Life, Opinions, Trial, and Execution", History of the Christian Church, Vol. VIII. Retrieved on 2007-05-18. 
  12. ^ "06.56 Theatre in Geneva"
  13. ^ "06.42 Calvin to Guillaume Farel, 30 December 1553"
  14. ^ a b c Jules Bonnet, Letters of John Calvin. Translated by David Constable, 4 volumes. Thomas Constable and Co., Edinburgh, U.K. vol. II, p. 212; vol. I, p. 436n; vol. I, pp. 434-435.
  15. ^ Both letters can be found in Calvin's Tracts Relating to the Reformation, translated by H. Beveridge, 1844. Digitized by Google Books
  16. ^ Mark Greengrass (1997). Case-study 6: The Genevan Reformation. Retrieved on 2008-04-21.
  17. ^ Philip Schaff. "Constitution and discipline of the Church of Geneva", History of the Christian Church, Vol. VIII. Retrieved on 2007-09-18. 
  18. ^ See for instance Philip Schaff. "The Exercise of Discipline in Geneva", History of the Christian Church, Vol. VIII. Retrieved on 2007-09-18. 
  19. ^ Commenting on Exodus 22:18, Calvin says, "God would condemn to capital punishment all augurs, and magicians, and consulters with familiar spirits, and necromancers and followers of magic arts, as well as enchanters. And... God declares that He 'will set His face against all, that shall turn after such as have familiar spirits, and after wizards,' so as to cut them off from His people; and then commands that they should be destroyed by stoning."
  20. ^ Schaff, "The Exercise of Discipline in Geneva."
  21. ^ a b Hugh Young Reyburn, John Calvin: His Life, Letters, and Work. Hodder and Stoughton, London, New York, 1914. pp. 168, 173, 175.
  22. ^ John Carey, "A Burning Issue of Belief." The Sunday Times, 9 February 2003.
  23. ^ William Wileman. Calvin and Servetus. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  24. ^ a b Alister E. MacGrath, A Life of John Calvin. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, U.K, 2003. p. 116, 198. ISBN 0-631-18947-5
  25. ^ Philip Schaff. "Calvin and Servetus", History of the Christian Church, Vol. VIII. Retrieved on 2007-09-18. “The judgment of historians on these remarkable men [Calvin and Servetus] has undergone a great change. Calvin’s course in the tragedy of Servetus was fully approved by the best men in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.... It is as fully condemned in the nineteenth century.” 
  26. ^ a b Wileman records that in 1903 "dutiful and grateful followers of Calvin" erected near Geneva an "expiatory monument" that condemns the treatment of Servetus as a sympton of "an error which was that of [Calvin's] age" and affirms that they themselves are, unlike the Reformer and most of his contemporaries, "strongly attached to liberty of conscience."
  27. ^ William Barry (1908). "John Calvin". Catholic Encyclopedia III. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved on 2007-09-18. 
  28. ^ Nancy and Lawrence Goldstone (2002). Out of the Flames. New York: Broadway Books. 

Philip Schaff (January 1, 1819-1893), was a Swiss-born, German-educated theologian and a historian of the Christian church, who, after his education, lived and taught in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Karl Barth Karl Barth (May 10, 1886 – December 10, 1968) (pronounced bart) a Swiss Reformed theologian, was one of the most important Christian thinkers of the 20th century; Pope Pius XII described him as the most important theologian since Thomas Aquinas. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Google offers a variety of services and tools besides its basic web search. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

General collections

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... The Christian Classics Ethereal Library is a volunteer-based project to provide free electronic copies of Christian scripture and literature texts. ...

Theological works

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Commentaries

Edward Tudor redirects here. ...

Letters

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Secondary sources

  • Bernard Cottret, Calvin, a Biography, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Eerdmans, 2001. ISBN 0-567-08757-3
  • Roland Bainton (1974). Women of the Reformation in England and France. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-5649-9.
  • John Farrell, "The Terrors of Reform," chapter five of Paranoia and Modernity: Cervantes to Rousseau. Cornell University Press, 2006.
  • John Foxe. An Account of the Life of John Calvin
  • Nancy and Lawrence Goldstone, Out of the Flames: The Remarkable Story of a Fearless Scholar, a Fatal Heresy, and One of the Rarest Books in the World. Broadway Books: New York, 2002. ISBN 0-7679-0837-6
  • David W. Hall. A Heart Promptly Offered: The Revolutionary Leadership of John Calvin. Nashville, TN: Cumberland House, 2006. ISBN 1-58182-505-6
  • R. Ward Holder "John Calvin". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved on 2007-09-18. 
  • Robert M. Kingdon, Registers of the Consistory of Geneva in the Time of Calvin: Volume 1, 1542-1544, Grand Rapids, Mich., Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2000. ISBN 0-8028-4618-1 Reviewed by the PROTESTANT REFORMED THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL
  • Robert M. Kingdon, Calvinism in Europe 1540-1620, Andrew Pettegree et al., eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-521-43269-3 (Chap.2, "The Geneva Consistory in the Time of Calvin,")
  • John Piper, "John Calvin: The Man and His Preaching", lecture from the 1997 Bethlehem Conference for Pastors.
  • Hugh Young Reyburn, John Calvin: His Life, Letters, and Work, London, New York, Hodder and Stoughton, 1914.
  • Philip Schaff. History of the Christian Church, Volume VIII: Modern Christianity. The Swiss Reformation.
  • Emanuel Stickelberger, trans. by David Georg Gelzer, Calvin: A Life, John Knox Press, Atlanta: 1954.
  • Virgil Vaduva (2005-04-05). "The Right to Heresy: A Critical look at Calvin's Geneva". Retrieved on 2006-10-30.
  • Stefan Zweig The Right to Heresy: Castellio against Calvin translated by Eden and Cedar Pal. The Viking Press, 1936
  • Prohibition of Swearing - Corpus Reformatorum, (Opera Calvini, 59 vols.), (Braunschweig: 1863-90) vol. 48, cols. 59-62.

John Foxe, line engraving by George Glover, first published in the 1641 edition of Actes and Monuments John Foxe (1516–April 8, 1587) is remembered as the author of the famous Foxes Book of Martyrs. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Piper John Stephen Piper (born January 11, 1946, Chattanooga, Tennessee) is a Reformed Baptist minister, author, and theologian, currently serving as senior pastor of Bethlehem Baptist Church in Minneapolis, Minnesota. ... Philip Schaff (January 1, 1819-1893), was a Swiss-born, German-educated theologian and a historian of the Christian church, who, after his education, lived and taught in the United States. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stefan Zweig Stefan Zweig (November 28, 1881, Vienna, Austria – February 23, 1942, Petrópolis, Brazil) was an Austrian novelist, playwright, journalist and biographer. ... The Corpus Reformatorum ( Halle (Saale), 1834 sqq. ... Coordinates: Time zone: CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country: Germany State: Lower Saxony District: Urban district City subdivisions: 20 Boroughs Lord Mayor: Gert Hoffmann (CDU) Governing parties: CDU / FDP Basic Statistics Area: 192. ...

See also

  • John Calvin's views on Mary

External links

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John Calvin
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Persondata
NAME Calvin, John
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Calvin, Jean; Cauvin, Jean; Chauvin, Jean
SHORT DESCRIPTION French theologian, founder of Calvinism
DATE OF BIRTH July 10, 1509
PLACE OF BIRTH Noyon, Picardie, Kingdom of France
DATE OF DEATH May 27, 1564
PLACE OF DEATH Geneva

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Calvin, John. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07 (746 words)
In the Institutes Calvin diverged from Catholic doctrine in the rejection of papal authority and in acceptance of justification by faith alone, but many of his other positions, including the fundamental doctrine of predestination, had been foreshadowed by Catholic reformers and by the Protestant thought of Martin Luther and Martin Bucer.
In 1536, Calvin was persuaded by Guillaume Farel to devote himself to the work of the Reformation at Geneva, and there Calvin instituted the most thoroughgoing development of his doctrine.
The influence of Calvinism spread throughout the entire Western world, realizing its purest forms through the work of John Knox in Scotland and through the clergymen and laymen of the civil war period in England and the Puritan moralists in New England.
John Calvin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2531 words)
Calvin was a prominent advocate of the five solas of the Reformation, which teach that the Bible alone (not the church leadership) is the final authority for matters of faith and morals and that salvation is attained purely through grace without any contribution from the good works of the person in question.
John Calvin had been exiled from Geneva because he and his followers, namely William Farel and Antoine Froment, were accused of wanting to create a "new papacy." Thus, he went to Strasbourg during the time of the Ottoman wars and passed through the Cantons of Switzerland.
John Calvin and the other Reformers (as well as Catholics in Middle Europe) believed that they should not permit the practice of witchcraft, in accord with their understanding of passages such as Exodus 22:18 and Leviticus 20:27.
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