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Encyclopedia > John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun

In office
March 4, 1825 – December 28, 1832
President John Quincy Adams
Andrew Jackson
Preceded by Daniel D. Tompkins
Succeeded by Martin Van Buren

In office
April 1, 1844 – March 10, 1845
President John Tyler
Preceded by Abel P. Upshur
Succeeded by James Buchanan

In office
October 8, 1817 – March 4, 1825
President James Monroe
Preceded by William H. Crawford
Succeeded by James Barbour

Born March 18, 1782(1782-03-18)
Abbeville, South Carolina
Died March 31, 1850 (aged 68)
Washington, D.C.
Nationality American
Political party Democratic-Republican, Democratic, Nullifier
Spouse Floride Colhoun Calhoun
Religion Unitarian[1]

John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782March 31, 1850) was a leading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. He was best known as being an advocate of states' rights, limited government, and nullification. Image File history File links JCCalhoun. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Daniel D. Tompkins (June 21, 1774 – June 11, 1825) was an entrepreneur, jurist, Congressman, Governor of New York, and the sixth Vice President of the United States. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... John Tyler, Jr. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Abel P. Upshur Abel Parker Upshur (June 17, 1790–February 28, 1844) was an American lawyer and statesman. ... For other persons named James Buchanan, see James Buchanan (disambiguation). ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... William Harris Crawfordlalalalalalala (February 24, 1772 – September 15, 1834) was an important American politician, as well as a judge, during the early 19th century. ... James Barbour (June 10, 1775-June 7, 1842) was an American lawyer, a member and speaker of the Virginia house of delegates, the 19th Governor of Virginia, and United States Secretary of War from 1825-1828. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Abbeville Opera House Abbeville is a city in Abbeville County, South Carolina, 86 miles (138 km) west of Columbia. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The Nullifier Party was a short-lived political party based in South Carolina in the 1830s. ... Floride Calhoun (February 15, 1792-July 25, 1866, was the wife of prominent U.S. politician John C. Calhoun. ... Historic Unitarianism believed in the oneness of God as opposed to traditional Christian belief in the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit). ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ... Limited government is a government structure where any more than minimal governmental intervention in personal liberties and the economy is prohibited by law, usually in a written constitution. ...


After a short stint in the South Carolina legislature, where he wrote legislation making South Carolina the first state to adopt white male suffrage, Calhoun began his federal career as a staunch nationalist, favoring war with Britain in 1812 and a federal program of internal improvements afterwards. He reversed course in the 1820s, when the "Corrupt Bargain" of 1824 led him to renounce nationalism in favor of states' rights of the sort Thomas Jefferson and James Madison had propounded in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798. Although he died a decade before the American Civil War broke out, Calhoun was a major inspiration to the secessionists who created the short-lived Confederate States of America. Nicknamed the "cast-iron man" for his staunch determination to defend the causes in which he believed, Calhoun pushed nullification, states' rights, under which states could declare null and void federal laws they deemed to be unconstitutional. He was an outspoken proponent of the institution of slavery, which he defended as a "positive good" rather than as a necessary evil. His rhetorical defense of slavery was partially responsible for escalating Southern threats of secession in the face of mounting abolitionist sentiment in the North. He was part of the "Great Triumvirate", or the "Immortal Trio", along with his colleagues Daniel Webster and Henry Clay. States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, also known as the Virginia and Kentucky Resolves, were passed in opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts. ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... The process of nullification may refer to: The Hartford Convention, in which New England Federalists considered secession from the United States of America. ... States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ... Slave redirects here. ... The Great Triumvirate is a term that refers to the three statesmen who dominated the United States Senate in the 1830s and 1840s, namely: Henry Clay of Kentucky, Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina. ... Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852), was a leading American statesman during the nations antebellum era. ... Henry Clay, Sr. ...


Calhoun held several high federal-government offices. He served as the seventh Vice President of the United States, first under John Quincy Adams (1825–1829) and then under Andrew Jackson (1829–1832), but resigned the Vice Presidency to enter the United States Senate, where he had more power. He served in the United States House of Representatives (1810–1817) and was Secretary of War (1817–1824) under James Monroe and Secretary of State (1844–1845) under John Tyler. The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... John Tyler, Jr. ...

Contents

Origins and early life

Calhoun was born the 18th (or 19th) of March, 1782 the fourth child of Patrick Calhoun and his wife Martha (nee Caldwell). His father was an Ulster-Scot who emigrated from County Donegal to the Thirteen Colonies where he met Martha, herself the daughter of a Protestant Irish immigrant father [2]. Statistics Province: Ulster Dáil Éireann: Donegal North East, Donegal South West County seat: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ...


When his father became ill, the 17-year-old Calhoun quit school to continue the family farm. With his brothers' financial support, he later returned to his studies, earning a degree from Yale College in 1804. After studying law at the Tapping Reeve Law School in Litchfield, Connecticut, Calhoun was admitted to the South Carolina bar in 1807. Yale redirects here. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Litchfield Law School was the first law school in the United States, established in 1773 by Tapping Reeve, who would later became the Chief Justice of the Connecticut Supreme Court. ... Litchfield is a town in Litchfield County, Connecticut and is known as a affluent summer resort. ...


In January 1811 Calhoun married his first cousin once removed, Floride Bonneau Colhoun, whose branch of the family spelled the surname differently than did his. The couple had 10 children over an 18-year period, although three died in infancy. During her husband's second term as vice president, Floride Calhoun was a central figure in the Petticoat Affair. For the US Federal Agent designation, see Special agent. ... A cousin chart identifies the correct name for the relationship between two people with a common ancestor. ... The Petticoat Affair (also known as the Eaton Affair or the Eaton Malaria) was an 1831 U.S. sex scandal involving members of President Andrew Jacksons Cabinet. ...

An 1822 portrait of John C. Calhoun
An 1822 portrait of John C. Calhoun

Image File history File links JCCalhoun-1822. ... Image File history File links JCCalhoun-1822. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Early political career

In 1810, Calhoun was elected to Congress, and became one of the War Hawks who, led by Henry Clay, were agitating for what became the War of 1812 — no great innovation for Calhoun, who had made his public debut in calling for war after 1807's Chesapeake-Leopard incident. After the war, Calhoun and Clay sponsored a Bonus Bill for public works. With the goal of building a strong nation that could fight a future war, he aggressively pushed for high protective tariffs (to build up industry), a national bank, internal improvements, and many other policies he later repudiated.[3] 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... War Hawk is a term originally used to describe a member of the House of Representatives of the Twelfth Congress of the United States (usually from the south & southwest) who advocated going to war against Great Britain in the War of 1812. ... Henry Clay, Sr. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Bonus Bill of 1817 was a bill introduced by John Calhoun to provide United States highways linking The East and South to The West using the earnings Bonus from the Second Bank of the United States. ... Look up Public works in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In 1817, President James Monroe appointed Calhoun to be Secretary of War, where he served until 1825. As Belko (2004) argues, his management of Indian affairs proved his nationalism. His opponents were the "Old Republicans" in Congress, with their Jeffersonian ideology for economy in the federal government; they often attacked the operations and finances of the war department. Calhoun was a reform-minded executive, who attempted to institute centralization and efficiency in the Indian department, but Congress either failed to respond to his reforms or rejected them. Calhoun's frustration with congressional inaction, political rivalries, and ideological differences that dominated the late early republic spurred him to unilaterally create the Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1824. Calhoun's nationalism also manifested itself in his advice to Monroe to sign off on the Missouri Compromise, which most other southern politicians saw as a distinctly bad deal; Calhoun believed that continued agitation of the slavery issue threatened the Union, so the Missouri dispute had to be concluded. 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The United States in 1820. ...


It should be noted that during this time period, Calhoun was perhaps the most tireless and selfless proponent of the nationalist agenda in American politics. As Secretary of State John Quincy Adams wrote in 1821, "Calhoun is a man of fair and candid mind, of honorable principles, of clear and quick understanding, of cool self-possession, of enlarged philosophical views, and of ardent patriotism. He is above all sectional and factious prejudices more than any other statesman of this Union with whom I have ever acted." [4] Historian Charles Wiltse agrees, noting, "Though he is known today primarily for his sectionalism, Calhoun was the last of the great political leaders of his time to take a sectional position-later than Webster, later than Clay, later than Adams himself." [5]


Vice Presidency

Election

Calhoun originally was a candidate for President in the election of 1824, but after failing to win the endorsement of the legislature in his own state, he decided to set his sights on the vice presidency. Thus, while no candidate received a majority in the Electoral College and the election was ultimately resolved by the House of Representatives, Calhoun was elected Vice President in a landslide. Calhoun was then Andrew Jackon's new vice president. But after Andrew Jackson stated that the union had to be preserved, and their differences became irreconcilable, he then decided he didn't want to be vice president, and resigned. He was elected to the Senate that same year. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States Electoral College is the electoral college that chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ...


The Adams Administration

Calhoun believed that the outcome of the 1824 presidential election, in which the House made Adams president despite the greater popularity of Jackson, demonstrated that control of the federal government was subject to manipulation of selfish politicians. He, therefore, resolved to thwart Adams' reelection. Adams' nationalist program, which had much in common with Calhoun's former program, seemed to Calhoun calculated to further Clay's and Adams' political interests, so Calhoun opposed it. In 1828, he ran for reelection as the running mate of Andrew Jackson, and thus became one of two Vice Presidents to serve under two presidents (the other being George Clinton). Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... George Clinton (July 26, 1739 – April 20, 1812) was an American soldier and politician. ...


The Jackson Administration

Under Andrew Jackson, Calhoun's Vice Presidency remained controversial. Once again, a rift developed between Calhoun and the President. Image File history File links Floride_Calhoun_nee_Colhoun. ... Image File history File links Floride_Calhoun_nee_Colhoun. ... Floride Calhoun (February 15, 1792-July 25, 1866, was the wife of prominent U.S. politician John C. Calhoun. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ...


The Tariff of 1828, also known as the Tariff of Abominations aggravated the rift between Calhoun and the Jacksonians. He had been assured that Jacksonians would reject the bill, but Northern Jacksonians were primarily responsible for its passage. Frustrated, he returned to his South Carolina plantation to write South Carolina Exposition and Protest, an essay rejecting the nationalist philosophy he once advocated. The Tariff of 1828 (also known as the Tariff of Abominations, ch. ... The Tariff of 1828, also known as the Tariff of Abominations, was a protective tariff passed by the U.S. Congress in 1828. ... The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, also known as Calhouns Exposition , was written in 1828 by John C. Calhoun,in disguise under the pseudonym Mr. ...


He now supported the theory of concurrent majority through the doctrine of nullification — that individual states could override federal legislation they deemed unconstitutional. Nullification traced back to arguments by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in writing the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798, which proposed that states could nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts. Jackson, who supported states rights but believed that nullification threatened the Union, opposed it. The difference, however, between Calhoun's arguments and those of Jefferson and Madison, is that Calhoun explicitly argued for a state's right to secede from the Union, if necessary, instead of simply nullifying certain federal legislation. Madison rebuked the nullificationists and said that no state had the right to nullify federal law.[6] Concurrent majority refers in general to the concept of balancing majority and minority interests through limited government. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson. ... Text of the act. ...


At the 1830 Jefferson Day dinner at Jesse Brown's Indian Queen Hotel (April 13, 1830), Jackson proposed a toast and proclaimed "Our federal Union, it must be preserved," to which Calhoun replied "the Union, next to our liberty, the most dear." In May 1830, the relationship between Jackson and Calhoun deteriorated further when Jackson discovered that Calhoun - while serving as Monroe's Secretary of War - had requested President Monroe to censure Jackson - at the time a General - for invading Spanish Florida in 1818 without authorization from either Calhoun or President Monroe during the Seminole War. Calhoun defended his 1818 request, stating it was the right thing to do. The feud between him and Jackson heated up as Calhoun informed the President that another attack from his opponents was not hard for others to see, and would have a series of argumentative letters sent to each other - fueled by Jackson's opponents - until Jackson stopped the correspondence in July 1830. By February, 1831, the break between Calhoun and Jackson was final after Calhoun - responding to inaccurate press reports about the feud - published the letters in the United States Telegram [1]. During the break, further damage was also done to Jackson and Calhoun's relationship after Floride Calhoun organized a coalition among Cabinet wives against Peggy Eaton, wife of Secretary of War John Eaton, after it was alleged that John and Peggy Eaton had engaged in an adulterous affair while Mrs. Eaton was still legally married to her first husband, John B. Timberlake - which allegedly drove Timberlake to suicide. The scandal which became known as the Petticoat Affair, or the Peggy Eaton Affair, resulted in the resignation of Jackson's Cabinet except for Postmaster General William T. Barry and Martin Van Buren who resigned as Secretary of State, but only in order to take an alternative position in Jackson's administration as United States Minister to Britain. Osceola, Seminole leader, detail from an 1838 lithograph The Seminole Wars were three wars or conflicts in Florida between the Seminole Native American tribe and the United States. ... Floride Calhoun (February 15, 1792-July 25, 1866, was the wife of prominent U.S. politician John C. Calhoun. ... Margaret Eaton (nee ONeale) (1799 - 1879) was the U.S. wife of John Henry Eaton, they married in 1829. ... John Henry Eaton (June 18, 1790–November 17, 1856) was an American politician from Tennessee. ... John B. Timberlake was a purser in The United States Navy, and during his initial service in the military, fell into massive debt. ... The Petticoat Affair (also known as the Eaton Affair or the Eaton Malaria) was an 1831 U.S. sex scandal involving members of President Andrew Jacksons Cabinet. ... William Taylor Barry (February 5, 1784–August 30, 1835) was an American statesman and jurist. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ...


Nullification Crisis

Sketch of John C. Calhoun
Sketch of John C. Calhoun

In 1832, the states' rights theory was put to the test in the Nullification Crisis after South Carolina passed an ordinance that claimed to nullify federal tariffs. The tariffs favored Northern manufacturing interests over Southern agricultural concerns, and the South Carolina legislature declared them to be unconstitutional. John Calhoun had also formed a political party in South Carolina known as the Nullifier Party. Image File history File links Sket-Calhoun. ... Image File history File links Sket-Calhoun. ... The Nullification Crisis was a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson that arose when the state of South Carolina attempted to nullify a federal law passed by the United States Congress. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... The Nullifier Party was a short-lived political party based in South Carolina in the 1830s. ...


In response, Congress passed the Force Bill, which empowered the president to use military power to force states to obey all federal laws, and Jackson sent US Navy warships to Charleston Harbor. South Carolina then nullified the Force Bill. But tensions cooled after both sides agreed to the Compromise Tariff of 1833, a proposal by Senator Henry Clay to change the tariff law in a manner which satisfied Calhoun, who by then was in the Senate. pie is good ... The Tariff of 1833 (also known as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, ch. ... Henry Clay, Sr. ...


The humor in this is that Calhoun argued for the Doctrine of Nullification, which had gone as far as to suggest secession, anonymously, making his true opinions unknown to Jackson. Calhoun had written the 1828 doctrine South Carolina Exposition and Protest- which argued that a state could veto any law it considered unconstitutional [2]. The break between Jackson and Calhoun was complete, and, in 1832, Calhoun ran for the Senate rather than remain as Vice President; because he exposed his nullification beliefs during the nullification crisis, his chances of becoming President were very low [3]. After the Compromise Tariff of 1833 was put into effect, the Nullifier Party, along with other anti-Jackson politicians would form a coalition known as the Whig Party, which Calhoun would side with until he broke with key Whig party Senator Daniel Webster, over slavery as well as the Whigs' program of "internal improvements", which many Southerners felt benefitted Northern industrial interests at the expense of Southern interests. Whig party leader Clay also would side with Webster on these issues. The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, also known as Calhouns Exposition , was written in 1828 by John C. Calhoun,in disguise under the pseudonym Mr. ... The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. ... Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852), was a leading American statesman during the nations antebellum era. ...


U.S. Senator and views on slavery

John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun

On December 28, 1832, Calhoun accepted election to the United States Senate from his native South Carolina, becoming the first Vice President in U.S. history to resign from office. He would achieve his greatest influence and most lasting fame as a senator. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (846x980, 57 KB) Description: Title: en: John C. Calhoun Technique: en: Oil on Canvas Dimensions: en: 30. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (846x980, 57 KB) Description: Title: en: John C. Calhoun Technique: en: Oil on Canvas Dimensions: en: 30. ...


Calhoun led the pro-slavery faction in the Senate in the 1830s and 1840s, opposing both abolitionism and attempts to limit the expansion of slavery into the western territories. He was also a major advocate of the Fugitive Slave Law, which enforced the co-operation of Free States in returning escaping slaves. Calhoun couched his defense of Southern states' right to preserve the institution of slavery in terms of liberty and self-determination. And whereas other Southern politicians had excused slavery as a necessary evil, in a famous February 1837 speech on the Senate floor, Calhoun went further, asserting that slavery was a "positive good." He rooted this claim on two grounds—white supremacy and paternalism. All societies, Calhoun claimed, are ruled by an elite group which enjoys the fruits of the labor of a less-privileged group. But unlike in the North and Europe, in which the laboring classes were cast aside to die in poverty by the aristocracy when they became too old or sick to work, in the South slaves were cared for even when no longer useful: This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... The Fugitive Slave Law of the United States may refer to one of two laws of the same name: Fugitive Slave Law of 1793 Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

"I may say with truth, that in few countries so much is left to the share of the laborer, and so little exacted from him, or where there is more kind attention paid to him in sickness or infirmities of age. Compare his condition with the tenants of the poor houses in the more civilized portions of Europe—look at the sick, and the old and infirm slave, on one hand, in the midst of his family and friends, under the kind superintending care of his master and mistress, and compare it with the forlorn and wretched condition of the pauper in the poorhouse."

Calhoun's fierce defense of states' rights and support for the Slave Power played a major role in deepening the growing divide between the Northern and Southern states on this issue, wielding the threat of Southern secession to back slave-state demands. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 771 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John C. Calhoun Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 771 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John C. Calhoun Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Fort Hill. ... Clemson is a city located in South Carolina, a state of the United States of America. ... The Slave Power was the term used in the Northern United States in the period 1840-1865 to describe the political power of the slaveholding class in the South. ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ...


After a one year break as Secretary of State, Calhoun returned to the Senate in 1845, participating in the epic Senate struggle over the expansion of slavery in the Western states that produced the Compromise of 1850. But his health deteriorated and he died in March 1850, of tuberculosis in Washington, D.C., at the age of 68, and was buried in St. Phillips Churchyard in Charleston, South Carolina. Henry Clay takes the floor of the Old Senate Chamber; Millard Fillmore presides as Calhoun and Webster look on. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ...


Indian Affairs

John C. Calhoun viewed the interactions with the American Indians as fundamental to protecting the United States. He felt that having a separate, distinct culture within the borders of the United States would create problems in such areas as land usage, interracial relationships, and trade. His beliefs that Indians were inferior steered Calhoun to support a policy of the Removal of the Indians in the eastern United States. His position in the American political system as Secretary of War and later the Vice-Presidency allowed for Calhoun’s policies to be implemented in the United States, resulting in a nationalistic stance that did not permit the American Indian culture from existing inside the boundaries of what Calhoun saw as “white civilization.”


Calhoun saw the Indians as savages that lived outside the culture of the white dominated, market philosophy. He saw this difference between societies as a dominate versus subordinate relationship. This furthered his position that the following difficult dichotomy was in place: either assimilate the Indians into American culture or move them West so they are separated from white American society. Calhoun thought that the period for the Indian to be calmly assimilated had ended by the time Calhoun was appointed to the position of Secretary of War in 1817. For Calhoun this meant that in the best interest of both parties, the United States and the Indians, the Indians should move westward into the area west of Lake Michigan or into the area of the Louisiana Purchase. This, in his opinion, would allow the government to control the interactions between the Indians and the white Americans. It would discourage interracial relationships as well as control the economy for the Indians through the factory system.


In Calhoun’s writings, his position is clear that he feels that the Indians would cease to exist if the United States did not take policies to remove them from the land that was coveted by the white Americans. As savages, their society could not survive. There seemed to be urgency in Calhoun’s writing. He felt it his duty, as an enlightened person in power, to “help” the Indians become civilized. As Secretary of War under James Monroe, Calhoun and his department were authorized to make what they considered generous offers to Eastern tribes in exchange for their moving west of the Mississippi River. Some groups, such as some Cherokees accepted these offers. Other tribes refused the offers, especially those that were not nomadic and had a connection to a specific area. These tribes were eventually relocated through Removal. See:Trail of Tears For the Norwegian musical group, see Trail of Tears (band); for the 2006 documentary, see The Trail of Tears: Cherokee Legacy. ...


Calhoun also established posts or forts for trading with the Indians and created an American presence in the Indian West. The goal was to cut off the Indians’ trade with the British and allow the United States to monopolize the fur trade. Calhoun established the Bureau of Indian Affairs in the War Department in 1824. He did this without any congressional authorization. Congress did authorize a Commissioner of Indian Affairs in 1832 after Calhoun had left the War Department. This gave the War Department, authority over all federal expenditures concerning Indians. In particular, they controlled the funds for the civilization of the Indians.


Many of Calhoun’s policy ideas were implemented during his tenure as Secretary of War and Vice-President. He believed that government interference in the lives of Indians was essential because the Indians were too ignorant and uncivilized to be allowed to make their own decisions and live as they chose.

John C. Calhoun in his final years.
John C. Calhoun in his final years.

Image File history File links JohnCCalhoun. ... Image File history File links JohnCCalhoun. ...

Legacy

During the Civil War, the Confederate government honored Calhoun on a one-cent postage stamp, which was printed but never officially released (as seen below). Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... 5c Jefferson Davis stamp This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the Confederate States of America. ...


Calhoun was also honored by his alma mater, Yale University, which named one of its undergraduate residence halls "Calhoun College." The university also erected a statue of Calhoun in Harkness Tower, a prominent campus landmark. Yale redirects here. ... Calhoun College is a residential college of Yale University. ... Harkness Tower Harkness Tower is a prominent Gothic structure at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, built from 1917 to 1921. ...

Unissued Confederate postage stamp depicting John C. Calhoun.
Unissued Confederate postage stamp depicting John C. Calhoun.

Clemson University is also part of Calhoun's legacy. The campus occupies the site of Calhoun's Fort Hill plantation, which he bequeathed to his wife and daughter, who promptly sold it to a relative along with 50 slaves, receiving $15,000 for the 1100 acres and $29,000 for the slaves. When that owner died, Thomas Green Clemson foreclosed the mortgage as administrator of his mother-in-law's estate, thus regaining the property from his in-laws' widow. Clemson's chief claim to fame, prior to founding the university in his will, was having served as ambassador to Belgium — a post he obtained through the influence of his father-in-law, who was Secretary of State at the time. In 1888, after Calhoun's daughter had died, Clemson wrote a will bequeathing his father-in-law's former estate to South Carolina on the condition that it be used for an agricultural university to be named "Clemson." A nearby town named for Calhoun was renamed Clemson in 1943. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... 5c Jefferson Davis stamp This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the Confederate States of America. ... Clemson University is a public, coeducational, land-grant, research university located in Clemson, South Carolina, United States. ... Thomas Green Clemson (1809–1889) was an American politician and statesman, serving as an ambassador and the United States Superintendent of Agriculture. ... Clemson is a city located in South Carolina, a state of the United States of America. ...


Calhoun is also the namesake for Calhoun Community College in Decatur, Alabama, and Lake Calhoun in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Many streets in the south, such as John C. Calhoun Drive in Orangeburg, South Carolina and the John C. Calhoun Expressway in Augusta, GA, are named in his memory. In 1957, United States Senators honored Calhoun as one of the "five greatest senators of all time." Located in North Alabamas high technology corridor, Calhoun Community College exemplifies the two-year college mission of commitment to excellence in teaching and service. ... Decatur, Alabama is a city in Morgan County, Alabama, with a small portion in southern Limestone County. ... Two fishermen cast off the dock of Lake Calhoun at dusk, with the Minneapolis skyline in the background. ... Minneapolis redirects here. ... Downtown Orangeburg, South Carolina downtown Orangeburg Orangeburg City Hall/Stevenson Municipal Auditorium Orangeburg, also known as The Garden City, is the largest city and county seat of Orangeburg County, South Carolina, United States. ... The seal of the City of Augusta Augusta is a city located in the Georgia. ...


Calhoun also has a landing on the Santee Cooper River in Santee, South Carolina, named after him. Calhoun Monument stands in Charleston, South Carolina. Calhoun Street, a large thoroughfare in Charleston was also named after Calhoun and the USS John C. Calhoun was a Fleet Ballistic Missile nuclear submarine, under sail from 1963 to 1994. Santee is a town located in Orangeburg County, South Carolina. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... USS (SSBN-630), a James Madison-class ballistic missile submarine, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for the distinguished legislator. ...


Facts

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Joseph Calhoun (1750—1817) a Representative from South Carolina; born in Staunton, Augusta County, Virginia, October 22, 1750; moved with his father to South Carolina in 1756 and settled in Granville District, on Little River, near the present town of Abbeville. ... John Ewing Colhoun (1750 – October 26, 1802) was a United States senator and lawyer from South Carolina. ... John Ewing Colhoun (1750 – October 26, 1802) was a United States senator and lawyer from South Carolina. ... Floride Calhoun (February 15, 1792-July 25, 1866, was the wife of prominent U.S. politician John C. Calhoun. ... Twice removed redirects here. ... Andrew Pickens (November 13, 1779–July 1, 1838) was an American military and political leader who served as Governor of South Carolina (1816 - 1818). ... Governor-elect Francis W. Pickens in 1860 (from Harpers Weekly) Francis Wilkinson Pickens (April 7, 1805 – January 25, 1869) was an American lawyer and politician who served as Governor of South Carolina when the state seceded from the United States during the American Civil War. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the fifty-fifth Governor of Maryland. ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... Thomas R. Marshall Thomas Riley Marshall (March 14, 1854 – June 1, 1925) was an American politician who served as the twenty-eighth Vice President of the United States of America under Woodrow Wilson from 1913 to 1921. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Lena Mary Calhoun Horne (born June 30, 1917 in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, New York City, New York) is a popular singer of African-American descent. ... The Illinois State Capitol in Springfield, Illinois, built 1868 - 1888 Springfield is the capital of the State of Illinois and the county seat of Sangamon County. ...

See also

This is a partial list of places named for American statesman John C. Calhoun: Calhoun, Georgia Calhoun, Kentucky Calhoun, Missouri Calhoun, Tennessee Calhoun, Colorado Calhoun, Alabama Calhoun, Arkansas Calhoun, Louisiana Calhoun City, Mississippi Calhoun County, Alabama Calhoun County, Arkansas Calhoun County, Florida Calhoun County, Georgia Calhoun County, Illinois Calhoun County...

Notes

  1. ^ Vision & Values in a Post-9/11 World: A curriculum on Civil Liberties, Patriotism, and the U.S. Role Abroad for Unitarian Universalist Congregations, Developed by Pamela Sparr on behalf of the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations, Spring 2002. (Retrieved 28 August 2007)
  2. ^ [http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=PED&db=6105330&id=I19299 wc.rootsweb.com
  3. ^ Wiltse (1944) vol 1 ch 8-11
  4. ^ Adams, Diary, V, 361
  5. ^ Wiltse, John C. Calhoun: Nationalist, 234
  6. ^ Rutland, Robert Allen. (1997) James Madison: The Founding Father, p.248-249.

References

Primary sources

  • The Papers of John C. Calhoun Edited by Clyde N. Wilson; 28 volumes, University of South Carolina Press, 1959-2003. [4]; contains all letters, pamphlets and speeches by JCC and most letters written to him.
  • speech in the Senate, January 13, 1834, -- "fanatics and madmen of the North"  "No, Sir, State rights are no more."
  • speech on the bill to continue the charter of the Bank of the United States, March 21, 1834
  • speech on the Senate floor September 18, 1837, on the bill authorizing an issue of Treasury Notes
  • speech on his amendment to separate the Government and the banks, October 3, 1837
  • reply to Clay March 10, 1838, the Clay-Calhoun debate -- "Whatever the Government receives and treats as money, is money"
  • Slavery a Positive Good, speech on the Senate floor, February 6, 1837.
  • Calhoun, John C. Ed. H. Lee Cheek, Jr. Calhoun: Selected Writings and Speeches (Conservative Leadership Series), 2003. ISBN 0-89526-179-0.
  • Calhoun, John C. Ed. Ross M. Lence, Union and Liberty: The Political Philosophy of John C. Calhoun, 1992. ISBN 0-86597-102-1.
  • "Correspondence Addressed to John C. Calhoun, 1837-1849," Chauncey S. Boucher and Robert P. Brooks, eds., Annual Report of the American Historical Association, 1929. 1931

Clyde N. Wilson Clyde N. Wilson is a professor of history at the University of South Carolina, a paleoconservative political commentator, and an occasional contributor to the National Review. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... H. Lee Cheek, Jr. ... Ross Marlo Lence, Ph. ...

Academic secondary sources

  • Bartlett, Irving H. John C. Calhoun: A Biography (1993)
  • Belko, William S. "John C. Calhoun and the Creation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs: An Essay on Political Rivalry, Ideology, and Policymaking in the Early Republic." South Carolina Historical Magazine 2004 105(3): 170-197. ISSN 0038-3082
  • Brown, Guy Story. "Calhoun's Philosophy of Politics: A Study of A Disquisition on Government"
  • Capers; Gerald M. John C. Calhoun, Opportunist: A Reappraisal 1960.
  • Capers Gerald M., "A Reconsideration of Calhoun's Transition from Nationalism to Nullification," Journal of Southern History, XIV (Feb., 1948), 34-48. online in JSTOR
  • Cheek, Jr., H. Lee. Calhoun And Popular Rule: The Political Theory Of The Disquisition And Discourse. (2004) ISBN 0-8262-1548-3
  • Ford Jr., Lacy K. Origins of Southern Radicalism: The South Carolina Upcountry, 1800-1860 (1988)
  • Ford Jr., Lacy K. "Republican Ideology in a Slave Society: The Political Economy of John C. Calhoun, The Journal of Southern History. Vol. 54, No. 3 (Aug., 1988), pp. 405-424 in JSTOR
  • Ford Jr., Lacy K. "Inventing the Concurrent Majority: Madison, Calhoun, and the Problem of Majoritarianism in American Political Thought," The Journal of Southern History, Vol. 60, No. 1 (Feb., 1994), pp. 19-58 in JSTOR
  • Gutzman, Kevin R. C., "Paul to Jeremiah: Calhoun's Abandonment of Nationalism," in _The Journal of Libertarian Studies_ 16 (2002), 3-33.
  • Hofstadter, Richard. "Marx of the Master Class" in The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It (1948)
  • Niven, John. John C. Calhoun and the Price of Union (1988)
  • Peterson, Merrill. The Great Triumvirate: Webster, Clay, and Calhoun (1987)
  • Rayback Joseph G., "The Presidential Ambitions of John C. Calhoun, 1844-1848," Journal of Southern History, XIV (Aug., 1948), 331-56. online in JSTOR
  • Wiltse, Charles M. John C. Calhoun, Nationalist, 1782-1828 (1944) ISBN 0-8462-1041-X; John C. Calhoun, Nullifier, 1829-1839 (1948); John C. Calhoun, Sectionalist, 1840-1859 (1951); the standard scholarly biography

Richard Hofstadter (August 6, 1916 - October 24, 1970) was an American historian and DeWitt Clinton Professor of American History at Columbia University. ...

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Notes and references
1. The Democratic Party vice-presidential nominee split this year between Calhoun and William Smith.
Persondata
NAME Calhoun, John Caldwell
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION American politician
DATE OF BIRTH March 18, 1782
PLACE OF BIRTH Abbeville, South Carolina
DATE OF DEATH March 31, 1850
PLACE OF DEATH Washington, D.C.
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Elihu Root (February 15, 1845 – February 7, 1937) was an American lawyer and statesman and the 1912 recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... Luke Edward Wright (1846 - 1922) was a U.S. political figure. ... Jacob McGavock Dickinson, born 30 January 1851 in Columbus, Mississippi, died 13 December 1928, was United States Secretary of War under President William Howard Taft from 1909 to 1911. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, who served as Secretary of War, Governor-General of the Philippines, and Secretary of State at various times. ... Lindley Miller Garrison (1864-1932) was a New Jersey lawyer who served as Secretary of War under U.S. President Woodrow Wilson between 1913 and 1916. ... Newton Diehl Baker (December 3, 1871 - December 25, 1937) was an American politician in the Democratic Party, and a notable figure in the Progressive movement. ... John Wingate Weeks (April 11, 1860–July 12, 1926) was an American politician in the Republican Party. ... Cover of Time Magazine (December 15, 1924) Dwight Filley Davis (July 5, 1879 - November 28, 1945) was an American tennis player and politician. ... James Good James William Good (September 24, 1866 November 18, 1929) was an American politician from the state of Iowa. ... Patrick Jay Hurley (January 8, 1883, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory — July 30, 1963, Santa Fe, NM) was an American soldier, statesman, and diplomat. ... George Henry Dern (born 1872) was an American politician, and the 54th War Secretary. ... Harry Hines Woodring (May 31, 1890 - September 9, 1967) was a U.S. political figure. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, who served as Secretary of War, Governor-General of the Philippines, and Secretary of State at various times. ... Robert Porter Patterson was the United States Secretary of War under United States President Harry S. Truman from the 27th of September 1945 to the 18th of July, 1947. ... Kenneth Claiborne Royall (July 24, 1894–May 25, 1971) was a U.S. general. ... Image File history File links Usdowseal. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836), the American politician. ... George Clinton (July 26, 1739 – April 20, 1812) was an American soldier and politician. ... Elbridge Thomas Gerry (pronounced ) (July 17, 1744 – November 23, 1814) was an American statesman and diplomat. ... Daniel D. Tompkins (June 21, 1774 – June 11, 1825) was an entrepreneur, jurist, Congressman, Governor of New York, and the sixth Vice President of the United States. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... Richard Mentor Johnson (October 17, 1780 – November 19, 1850) was the ninth Vice President of the United States, serving in the administration of Martin Van Buren. ... John Tyler, Jr. ... For other persons named George Dallas, see George Dallas (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... William Rufus DeVane King William Rufus DeVane King (April 7, 1786–April 18, 1853) was a U.S. Representative from North Carolina, a Senator from Alabama, and the thirteenth Vice President of the United States. ... John C. Breckinridge This article is about the politician and Confederate General. ... Hannibal Hamlin (August 27, 1809 – July 4, 1891) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other persons named Henry Wilson, see Henry Wilson (disambiguation). ... William Almon Wheeler (June 30, 1819 – June 4, 1887) was a Representative from New York and the nineteenth Vice President of the United States. ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... Thomas Andrews Hendricks (September 7, 1819 – November 25, 1885)[1] was a U.S. Representative and a Senator from Indiana, a Governor of Indiana, and the twenty-first Vice President of the United States (serving with Grover Cleveland). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Adlai E. Stevenson I Adlai Ewing Stevenson I (October 23, 1835 – June 14, 1914) was a Representative from Illinois and the twenty-third Vice President of the United States. ... Garret Augustus Hobart (June 3, 1844–November 21, 1899) was the twenty-fourth Vice President of the United States. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. ... James Schoolcraft Sherman (October 24, 1855 – October 30, 1912) was a Representative from New York and the 27th Vice President of the United States. ... Thomas R. Marshall Thomas Riley Marshall (March 14, 1854 – June 1, 1925) was an American politician who served as the twenty-eighth Vice President of the United States of America under Woodrow Wilson from 1913 to 1921. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was an American banker and politician who was the 30th Vice President of the United States. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... John Nance Garner IV (November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States (1933-41). ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Alben William Barkley (November 24, 1877 – April 30, 1956) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives and the United States Senate from Kentucky, and the thirty-fifth Vice President of the United States. ... Nixon redirects here. ... LBJ redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the fifty-fifth Governor of Maryland. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... James Danforth[1][2] Dan Quayle (born February 4, 1947) is an American politician and a former Senator from the state of Indiana. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... This is a list of the candidates for the offices of President of the United States and Vice President of the United States that the U.S. Democratic Party has nominated since its founding. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... Richard Mentor Johnson (October 17, 1780 – November 19, 1850) was the ninth Vice President of the United States, serving in the administration of Martin Van Buren. ... For other persons named George Dallas, see George Dallas (disambiguation). ... William Orlando Butler (April 19, 1791 - August 6, 1880) was a U.S. political figure from Kentucky. ... William Rufus DeVane King William Rufus DeVane King (April 7, 1786–April 18, 1853) was a U.S. Representative from North Carolina, a Senator from Alabama, and the thirteenth Vice President of the United States. ... John C. Breckinridge This article is about the politician and Confederate General. ... Herschel Vespasian Johnson (September 18, 1812 - August 16, 1880) was an American politician. ... Joseph Lane (1801-1881) was an American general during the Mexican War. ... Southern Democrats are members of the U.S. Democratic Party who reside in the U.S. South. ... George Pendleton George Hunt Pendleton (July 19, 1825 – November 24, 1889) was a Representative and a Senator from Ohio. ... Francis Preston Blair, Jr. ... Benjamin Gratz Brown (May 28, 1826 - December 13, 1885) was a Liberal Republican Senator, Governor of Missouri, and the Vice presidential candidate in the election of 1872. ... Thomas Andrews Hendricks (September 7, 1819 – November 25, 1885)[1] was a U.S. Representative and a Senator from Indiana, a Governor of Indiana, and the twenty-first Vice President of the United States (serving with Grover Cleveland). ... William Hayden English (August 27, 1822–February 7, 1896) was an American politician. ... Thomas Andrews Hendricks (September 7, 1819 – November 25, 1885)[1] was a U.S. Representative and a Senator from Indiana, a Governor of Indiana, and the twenty-first Vice President of the United States (serving with Grover Cleveland). ... Allen Granberry Thurman (November 13, 1813_December 12, 1895) was a Democratic Representative and Senator from Ohio. ... Adlai E. Stevenson I Adlai Ewing Stevenson I (October 23, 1835 – June 14, 1914) was a Representative from Illinois and the twenty-third Vice President of the United States. ... Arthur Sewall (November 25, 1835 _ September 5, 1900 was a U.S. Democratic politician from Maine most notable as William Jennings Bryans first running mate in 1896. ... Adlai E. Stevenson I Adlai Ewing Stevenson I (October 23, 1835 – June 14, 1914) was a Representative from Illinois and the twenty-third Vice President of the United States. ... Henry Gassaway Davis (16 November 1823 - March 11, 1916) was a U.S. Democratic politician from West Virginia. ... John Worth Kern (December 20, 1849 - August 17, 1917) was a U.S. Democratic politician from Indiana. ... Thomas R. Marshall Thomas Riley Marshall (March 14, 1854 – June 1, 1925) was an American politician who served as the twenty-eighth Vice President of the United States of America under Woodrow Wilson from 1913 to 1921. ... FDR redirects here. ... Charles Wayland Bryan (February 10, 1867 - March 4, 1945), was the younger brother of perennial U.S. Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan. ... Joseph Taylor Robinson Joseph Taylor Robinson (August 26, 1872 - July 14, 1937) was a Democratic United States Senator, Senate Majority Leader, member of the United States House of Representatives, Governor of Arkansas, and U.S. Vice Presidential candidate. ... John Nance Garner IV (November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States (1933-41). ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Alben William Barkley (November 24, 1877 – April 30, 1956) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives and the United States Senate from Kentucky, and the thirty-fifth Vice President of the United States. ... credited to the United States Senate Historical Office John Jackson Sparkman (December 20, 1899 – November 16, 1985) was a United States politician from Alabama. ... The issue of Time Magazine in which Kefauvers victory in the New Hampshire primary was reported. ... LBJ redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... Edmund Muskie (March 28, 1914 – March 26, 1996) was an American Democratic politician from Maine. ... Thomas Eagleton and George McGovern on July 24, 1972 cover of Time magazine after his nomination for vice president on the Democratic ticket Thomas Eagleton on August 7, 1972 cover of Time Magazine after his withdrawal for vice president on the Democratic ticket. ... Robert Sargent Shriver, Jr. ... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ... Geraldine Anne Ferraro (born August 26, 1935) is a Democratic politician and a former member of the United States House of Representatives. ... Lloyd Millard Bentsen Jr. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... Joseph Isadore Joe Lieberman (born February 24, 1942) is a United States Senator from Connecticut. ... This article is about the American attorney and politician. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Edmund Jennings Randolph (August 10, 1753 – September 12, 1813) was an American attorney, Governor of Virginia, Secretary of State, and the first United States Attorney General. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Timothy Pickering Timothy Pickering (July 17, 1745 – January 29, 1829) was the third United States Secretary of State, serving in that office from 1795 to 1800 under Presidents George Washington and John Adams. ... For other persons named John Marshall, see John Marshall (disambiguation). ... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... Robert Smith (November 3, 1757 – November 26, 1842) was the second United States Secretary of the Navy from 1801 to 1809 and the sixth United States Secretary of State from 1809 to 1811. ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... Henry Clay, Sr. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... Edward Livingston (May 26, 1764–May 23, 1836) was a prominent American jurist and statesman. ... Louis McLane Louis McLane (May 28, 1786–October 7, 1857) represented the state of Delaware in both the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate and served as the Secretary of the Treasury and later the Secretary of State under President Andrew Jackson. ... Portait of U.S. Secretary of State John Forsyth John Forsyth (October 22, 1780 – October 21, 1841) was a 19th century American politician from Georgia. ... Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852), was a leading American statesman during the nations antebellum era. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Abel P. Upshur Abel Parker Upshur (June 17, 1790–February 28, 1844) was an American lawyer and statesman. ... For other persons named James Buchanan, see James Buchanan (disambiguation). ... John Middleton Clayton (July 24, 1796–November 9, 1856) was an American statesman from Delaware who served as a U.S. Senator and as the U.S. Secretary of State from 1849 to 1850. ... Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852), was a leading American statesman during the nations antebellum era. ... Edward Everett (April 11, 1794 – January 15, 1865) was a Whig Party politician from Massachusetts. ... William Learned Marcy ( December 12, 1786– July 4, 1857) was an American statesman. ... Lewis Cass (October 9, 1782 – June 17, 1866) was an American military officer and politician. ... Jeremiah Sullivan Black (January 10, 1810–August 19, 1883) was an American statesman and lawyer. ... William Henry Seward, Sr. ... Elihu Benjamin Washburne (September 23, 1816–October 22/23, 1887) was one of seven brothers that played a prominent role early in the formation of the United States Republican Party and the Lincoln and Grant administrations. ... Hamilton Fish Hamilton Fish, (3 August 1808–7 September 1893), born in New York City, was an American statesman who served as Governor of New York, United States Senator and United States Secretary of State. ... Photograph of U.S. Secretary of State William M. Evarts William Maxwell Evarts (February 6, 1818–February 28, 1901) was an American lawyer and statesman. ... James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen (August 4, 1817–May 20, 1885) was a member of the United States Senate from New Jersey and a United States Secretary of State. ... Thomas Francis Bayard, Sr. ... James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State John W. Foster John Watson Foster (March 2, 1836 – November 15, 1917) was an American military man, journalist and diplomat. ... Walter Quintin Gresham (March 17, 1832–May 28, 1895) was an American statesman and jurist. ... Richard Olney (September 15, 1835–April 8, 1917) was an American statesman. ... John Sherman John Sherman (May 10, 1823–October 22, 1900) was a Senator from Ohio and a member of the United States Cabinet. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Supreme Court justices | Judges of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit | U.S. Secretaries of State | Spanish-American War people | American lawyers | 1849 births | 1923 deaths ... John Milton Hay (October 8, 1838 – July 1, 1905) was an American statesman, diplomat, author, journalist, and private secretary and assistant to Abraham Lincoln. ... Elihu Root (February 15, 1845 – February 7, 1937) was an American lawyer and statesman and the 1912 recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. ... Categories: Stub | 1860 births | 1919 deaths | U.S. Secretaries of State ... Philander C. Knox Philander Chase Knox (May 6, 1853–October 12, 1921) was an American lawyer and politician who served as Attorney General and U.S. Senator and was Secretary of State from 1909-1913. ... For other persons of the same name, see William Bryan. ... This article is about the former Secretary of State. ... Categories: Stub | 1869 births | 1950 deaths | U.S. Secretaries of State ... Charles Evans Hughes, Sr. ... Frank Billings Kellogg (December 22, 1856 – December 21, 1937) was an American politician and statesman. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, who served as Secretary of War, Governor-General of the Philippines, and Secretary of State at various times. ... Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871–July 23, 1955) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. ... James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1879 – April 9, 1972) was an American politician from the state of South Carolina. ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... Dean Acheson Dean Gooderham Acheson (April 11, 1893 – October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer; as United States Secretary of State in the late 1940s he played the central role in defining American foreign policy for the Cold War. ... John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888 – May 24, 1959) served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. ... For the American physician (1865–1910), see Christian Archibald Herter (physician). ... David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909 – December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. ... William Pierce Rogers (June 23, 1913 – January 2, 2001) was an American politician, who served as a Cabinet officer in the administrations of two U.S. Presidents in the third quarter of the 20th century. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Edmund Muskie (March 28, 1914 – March 26, 1996) was an American Democratic politician from Maine. ... For other persons named Alexander Haig, see Alexander Haig (disambiguation). ... Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ... James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930) served as the Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagans first administration, Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H. W. Bush. ... Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger (born August 1, 1930), is an American statesman and diplomat who served as The United States Secretary of State under President George H. W. Bush. ... Warren Minor Christopher (born October 27, 1925) is an American diplomat and lawyer. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová, IPA: , on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Image File history File links Department_of_state. ... South Carolina ratified the Constitution on May 23, 1788. ... Pierce Butler (July 11, 1744 - February 15, 1822) was a soldier, planter, and statesman, recognized as one of United States Founding Fathers. ... John Hunter (1732–1802) was an American farmer from Newberry, South Carolina. ... Charles Pinckney Charles Pinckney (October 26, 1757–October 29, 1824) was an American politician who was a signer of the United States Constitution, Governor of South Carolina, a Senator and a member of the House of Representatives. ... General Thomas Sumter (August 14, 1734 - June 1, 1832) was a hero of the American Revolution and went on to become a longtime member of the Congress of the United States. ... John Taylor was the Democratic-Republican governor of South Carolina from 1826 to 1828. ... William Smith (September 6, 1762-June 26, 1840) was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the U.S. Senate representing South Carolina in 1816. ... Robert Young Hayne (November 10, 1791–September 24, 1839) was an American political leader. ... Daniel Elliott Huger (June 28, 1779 - August 21, 1854) was a United States Senator from South Carolina. ... Franklin Harper Elmore (October 15, 1799 - May 29, 1850) was a United States Representative and Senator. ... Robert W. Barnwell Robert Woodward Barnwell (1801-1882) was an American planter, lawyer, and educator from South Carolina who served as a Senator in both the United States Senate and that of the Confederate States of America. ... Robert Barnwell Rhett of South Carolina was a lawyer, state legislator, state attorney general (1832), U.S. representative (1837-49), and senator (1850-52). ... William Ford De Saussure (February 22, 1792 - March 13, 1870) was a United States Senator from South Carolina. ... Josiah James Evans (November 27, 1786 - May 6, 1858) was a United States Senator from South Carolina from 1853 to 1858. ... Arthur Perronneau Hayne (March 12, 1788 or 1790 – January 7, 1867) was a United States Senator from South Carolina. ... James Chesnut, Jr. ... Thomas J. Robertson Thomas James Robertson (August 3, 1823 - October 13, 1897) was a United States Senator from South Carolina. ... Matthew Calbraith Butler (March 8, 1836 – April 14, 1909) was an American military commander and politician from the state of South Carolina. ... Benjamin Tillman Benjamin Ryan Tillman (August 11, 1847 - July 3, 1918) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina from 1890 to 1894 and as a United States Senator from 1895 until his death. ... Christie Benet (1879-1951) was a Democratic politician who briefly represented the state of South Carolina in the U.S. Senate in 1918. ... Senator William P. Pollock William Pegues Pollock (December 9, 1870 - June 2, 1922) was a United States Senator from South Carolina. ... Nathaniel Barksdale Dial (April 24, 1862 - December 11, 1940) was a United States Senator from South Carolina. ... Coleman Livingston Blease (October 8, 1868–January 19, 1942) was a politician from the U.S. state of South Carolina known for his populist appeals and racism. ... James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1879 – April 9, 1972) was an American politician from the state of South Carolina. ... Alva Moore Lumpkin (November 13, 1886 - August 1, 1941) was a United States Senator from South Carolina. ... Roger Craft Peace (May 19, 1899 - August 20, 1968) was a United States Senator from South Carolina. ... Burnet Rhett Maybank (March 7, 1899 - September 1, 1954) was a U.S. Senator and governor of South Carolina. ... Charles Ezra Daniel (November 11, 1895 - September 13, 1964) was a United States Senator from South Carolina. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator representing that state. ... Thomas Albert Wofford (September 27, 1908 - February 25, 1978) was a United States Senator from South Carolina. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator representing that state. ... Lindsey Olin Graham (born July 9, 1955) is an American politician from South Carolina. ... Ralph Izard Ralph Izard (January 23, 1741 or 1742–May 30, 1804) was a U.S. politician. ... Jacob Read (1752–July 17, 1816) was an American lawyer from Charleston, South Carolina. ... John Ewing Colhoun (1750 – October 26, 1802) was a United States senator and lawyer from South Carolina. ... Pierce Butler (July 11, 1744 - February 15, 1822) was a soldier, planter, and statesman, recognized as one of United States Founding Fathers. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... William Harper (January 17, 1790 in Antigua and Barbuda-October 10, 1847) was a US Senator from South Carolina in the 1800s. ... William Smith (September 6, 1762-June 26, 1840) was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the U.S. Senate representing South Carolina in 1816. ... Stephen Decatur Miller (May 8, 1787 - March 8, 1838) was an American politician. ... William C. Preston William Campbell Preston was a senator from the United States and a member of the Nullifier, and later Whig Parties. ... George McDuffie (1788 - 11 March 1851) was a Governor of South Carolina and a member of the United States Senate. ... Andrew Pickens Butler (November 18, 1796-May 25, 1857, was an American statesman and one of the authors of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. ... James Henry Hammond (November 15, 1807 – November 13, 1864) was a politician from South Carolina. ... Frederick Adolphus Sawyer (December 12, 1822 - July 31, 1891) was a United States Senator from South Carolina. ... John J. Patterson John James Patterson (August 8, 1830 - September 28, 1912) was a businessman and United States Senator from South Carolina. ... Wade Hampton during the Civil War Wade Hampton III (March 28, 1818 – April 11, 1902) was a Confederate cavalry leader during the American Civil War and afterwards a politician from South Carolina, representing it as governor and U.S. Senator. ... John Laurens Manning Irby (September 10, 1854 - December 9, 1900) was a United States Senator from South Carolina. ... Joseph Haynsworth Earle (April 30, 1847 - May 20, 1897) was a United States Senator from South Carolina. ... John Lowndes McLaurin (May 9, 1860 - July 29, 1934) was a United States Representative and Senator from South Carolina; born in Red Bluff, South Carolina, he attended schools at Bennettsville, South Carolina and Englewood, New Jersey as well as Bethel Military Academy (near Warrenton, Virginia) and Swarthmore College (in Pennsylvania. ... Asbury Churchwell Latimer (July 31, 1851 - February 20, 1908) was a United States Representative and Senator from South Carolina. ... Frank Boyd Gary (March 9, 1860 - December 7, 1922) was a United States Senator from South Carolina. ... Ellison Durant Cotton Ed Smith (August 1, 1864 - November 17, 1944) was a Politician from the U.S. State of South Carolina. ... Wilton Earle Hall (March 11, 1901 - February 25, 1980) was a United States Senator from South Carolina. ... Olin DeWitt Talmadge Johnston (November 18, 1896 - April 18, 1965) was a Politician from the U.S. State of South Carolina. ... Donald Stuart Russell (February 22, 1906-February 22, 1998) was Democratic Senator from South Carolina. ... Ernest Frederick Fritz Hollings (born January 1, 1922) was a Democratic United States Senator from South Carolina from 1966 to January 3, 2005. ... James Warren DeMint (born September 2, 1951) has been a U.S. Senator from South Carolina since 2005. ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Daniel D. Tompkins (June 21, 1774 – June 11, 1825) was an entrepreneur, jurist, Congressman, Governor of New York, and the sixth Vice President of the United States. ... National Portrait Gallery. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... William Harris Crawfordlalalalalalala (February 24, 1772 – September 15, 1834) was an important American politician, as well as a judge, during the early 19th century. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Wikipedia also has an entry for Richard Rush (director) Richard Rush Richard Rush (August 29, 1780–July 30, 1859) was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... William Wirt (November 8, 1772 – February 18, 1834) was an American author and statesman who is credited with turning the position of United States Attorney General into one of influence. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Benjamin Williams Crowninshield (December 27, 1772 – February 3, 1851) served as the United States Secretary of the Navy between 1815 and 1818, during the administrations of Presidents James Madison and James Monroe. ... Smith Thompson (January 17, 1768 - December 18, 1843) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice from 1823 until his death in 1843. ... U.S. Navy collection portrait of Samuel Southard Samuel Lewis Southard (1787-1842) (son of Henry Southard and brother of Isaac Southard) was a prominent U.S. statesman of the early 1800s, serving as a U.S. Senator, Secretary of the Navy, and Governor of New Jersey. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Abbeville Opera House Abbeville is a city in Abbeville County, South Carolina, 86 miles (138 km) west of Columbia. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...

 
 

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