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Encyclopedia > John Burgoyne
John Burgoyne
February 24, 1722August 4, 1792

General John Burgoyne
Nickname Gentleman Johnny
Place of birth Sutton
Allegiance Flag of the United Kingdom Great Britain
Service/branch British Army
Years of service 1743 - 1777, 1782 - 1784
Rank General
Commands Commander-in-Chief, Ireland
Battles/wars Seven Years' War
American War of Independance
Awards Privy Council of Great Britain
Other work Member of Parliament

General John Burgoyne (February 24, 1722August 4, 1792) was the British army officer, politician and dramatist. During the American Revolutionary War, on October 17, 1777, at Saratoga he surrendered his army of 6,000 men. is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Download high resolution version (1115x1373, 419 KB)Engraving of John Burgoyne, from the 18th century. ... Sutton may mean: // Sutton, meaning south settlement in Saxon, is a very common place name. ... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The office of Commander-in-Chief, Ireland was the commander of British forces in Ireland before 1922. ... For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ... This article is about military actions only. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... A dramatist is an author of dramatic compositions, usually plays. ... This article is about military actions only. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants British 9th/Hill, 20th/Lynd, 21st/ Hamilton, 62nd/Ansthruter, Simon Fraser Brunswick Major Generals V. Riedesel, 1st Brigade (Brunswickers) Brig. ... The Convention Army (1777-1783) were the British and allied troops captured after the Battle of Saratoga in the American Revolutionary War. ...

Contents

Early biography

John Burgoyne was born on February 24, 1722 in Sutton near (and now part of) London. He attended the prestigious Westminster School as did many British army officers of the time. In 1740 he purchased a commission in the 13th Light Dragoons, a fashionable cavalry regiment, and soon acquired the nickname "Gentleman Johnny". He became well known for his stylish uniforms and general high living which saw him run up large debts. He was promoted to Lieutenant in 1741. is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... , Sutton is the principal town in the London Borough of Sutton. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Westminster School (disambiguation). ... 13th Light Dragoon’s Cap Badge 1801 The 13th Light Dragoons (later renamed The 13th Hussars) were a cavalry regiment of the British Army whose battle honours include Waterloo and The Charge of the Light Brigade. ... This page describes uniform in the sense of clothing. ... Debt is that which is owed. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ...


In 1743 Burgoyne eloped with Lady Charlotte Stanley the daughter of one of Britain's leading politicians Lord Derby, after which he lived abroad for seven years. By Lord Derby's intervention, in an act of forgiveness, Burgoyne was then reinstated at the outbreak of the Seven Years' War (known to English speakers in North America as The French and Indian War), and in 1758 he became captain and lieutenant-colonel in the Foot Guards. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Edward Stanley, 11th Earl of Derby (27 September 1689-22 February 1776), known as Sir Edward Stanley, 5th Baronet, from 1714 to 1736, was a British peer and politician. ... For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ... North American redirects here. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... Foot guards is a term used to describe elite infantry regiments. ...


After the death of his wife in 1776, Burgoyne had 4 children by his mistress Susan Caulfield; one was Field Marshal John Fox Burgoyne father of Royal Navy Captain Hugh Talbot Burgoyne Victoria Cross. Lieutenant General Sir John Fox Burgoyne, G.C.B., photo by Roger Fenton, 1855 Sir John Fox Burgoyne, 1st Baronet (July 24, 1782 – October 7, 1871) was a British Field Marshal. ... Photo submitted by Simon Manchee Lieutenant Hugh Talbot Burgoyne, RN, was an Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ...


Seven Years War

In 1758–59, he participated in several expeditions made against the French coast, and in the later year he was instrumental in introducing light cavalry into the British Army. The two regiments then formed were commanded by George Eliott (afterwards Lord Heathfield) and Burgoyne. This was a revolutionary step, and Burgoyne was a pioneer in the early development of British Light Cavalry. Burgoyne admired independent thought amongst common soldiers, and encouraged his men to use their own initiative which was in stark contrast to the established system employed at the time by the British army. Motto: Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Anthem: La Marseillaise France() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital (and largest city) Paris Official languages French Demonym French Government Unitary semi-presidential republic  -  President Nicolas Sarkozy  -  Prime Minister François Fillon Formation  -  French State 843 French State Formed   -  Current... An army unit consisting of mounted soldiers are commonly known as cavalry. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Baron Heathfield, of Gibraltar, is an extinct title in the Peerage of Great Britain. ...


In 1761, he sat in parliament for Midhurst, and in the following year he served as a Brigadier-general in Portugal, winning particular distinction by his capture of Valencia de Alcántara and of Vila Velha de Ródão, playing a major part in repulsing a large Spanish force bent on invading Portugal. , Midhurst is a market town in the English county of West Sussex, with a population of approximately 5000. ... Brigadier General (sometimes known as a one-star general from the United States insignia) is the lowest rank of general officer in some countries, usually ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Next of the portuguese border. ... District Castelo Branco Mayor   - Party Maria do Carmo de Jesus Amaro Sequeira PS Area 329. ...


In 1768, he became a member of Parliament for Preston, and for the next few years he occupied himself chiefly with his parliamentary duties, in which he was remarkable for his general outspokenness and, in particular, for his attacks on Lord Clive, who was at the time considered the nation's leading soldier. This article is about Preston, Lancashire. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


At the same time, he devoted much attention to art and drama (his first play, The Maid of the Oaks, being produced by David Garrick in 1775). David Garrick by Thomas Gainsborough. ...


Early Revolutionary War

In the army he had become a major-general. On the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, he was appointed to a command. He arrived in Boston in 1775 a few weeks after the first shots of the war had been fired at Lexington and Concord. He participated as part of the garrison during the Siege of Boston, although he did not see action at the Battle of Bunker Hill like many of his contemporaries. Frustrated by the lack of opportunities he returned to England, long before the rest of the garrison evacuated the city in March 1776.[1] This article is about military actions only. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Combatants Militia of the Province of Massachusetts Bay (Minutemen) British Army Royal Marines Commanders John Parker James Barrett William Heath Francis Smith, John Pitcairn, Walter Laurie, Lord Hugh Percy Strength 75 at Lexington Green (Parker). ... Combatants New England militia, Continental Army Great Britain Commanders Artemas Ward, George Washington Thomas Gage, William Howe Strength 17,000 The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War, in which New England militiamen—and then the Continental Army—surrounded... For a list of numerous places and things that are named after this battle, see Bunker Hill. ...


In 1776, he was at the head of the British reinforcements that sailed down the Saint Lawrence River designed both to relieve Quebec which was under siege by the Continental army and for a subsequent invasion of the colonies from Canada. The British successfully relieved the besieged garrison, but their attempts to invade New York failed largely, Burgoyne believed, because of a lack of boldness by the British commander. a broat veiew of the St LAwrence River, with a Quebec City on a background The Saint Lawrence River (In French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large south west-to-north east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Continental Army was an army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. ... This article is about the state. ...


Saratoga

Burgoyne's march on Albany June-October 1777.
Burgoyne's march on Albany June-October 1777.

The following year, having convinced King George III and his government of General Carleton's faults, Burgoyne took his place. In 1777 he was given command of the British forces in Canada and charged with the implementation of a plan largely of his own creation that would see Burgoyne and his force crossing Lake Champlain before advancing on Albany, New York where they would rendezvous with another British army coming North from New York city and thereby, it was believed, end the entire war virtually at a stroke. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (901x1055, 312 KB) Burgoynes March on Albany June-October 1777 aka. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (901x1055, 312 KB) Burgoynes March on Albany June-October 1777 aka. ... George III redirects here. ... Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester. ... For ships named after the lake, see USS Lake Champlain. ... For other uses, see Albany. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


From the beginning Burgoyne was vastly overconfident. Leading what he believed was an overwhelming force, he saw the campaign largely as a stroll that would make him a national hero who had saved the rebel colonies for the crown. Before leaving London he had wagered a friend ten pounds that he would return victorious within a year. He refused to heed more cautious voices, both British and American, that suggested a successful campaign using the route he proposed was impossible, as the failed attempt the previous year had shown.


Underlining the plan was the belief that Burgoyne's aggressive thrust from Canada would be aided by the movements of two other large British forces under General Howe and Sir Henry Clinton who would support the advance. However the orders dispatched from London were not clear on this point, meaning that Howe took no action to support Burgoyne, while Clinton moved from New York too late and in too little strength to be any great help to Burgoyne. For the surrealist painter, see William Howe (painter). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see York (disambiguation). ...


This left Burgoyne to conduct the campaign largely single-handedly. Even though he was not aware of this yet, he could still be reasonably confident of success. Having amassed an army of over 7,000 troops in Canada - Burgoyne was also led to believe by reports that he could rely on the support of large numbers of Native Americans and American Loyalists who would rally to the flag once the British came South. Even if the countryside was not as pro-British as expect, much of the area between Lake Champlain and Albany was underpopulated anyway, and Burgoyne was skeptical any major enemy force could gather there. This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Britannia offers solace and a promise of compensation for her exiled American born Loyalists. ... For ships named after the lake, see USS Lake Champlain. ... For other uses, see Albany. ...


The campaign was initially successful. Burgoyne gained possession of the vital outposts of Fort Ticonderoga (for which he was made a lieutenant-general) and Fort Edward, but, pushing on, was detached from his communications with Canada, and hemmed in by a superior force, led by Horatio Gates, at Saratoga. Several attempts to break through the enemy lines were repulsed. On October 17, 1777, his troops, 5,800 in number, laid down their arms. The success was the greatest the colonists had yet gained, and it proved the turning-point in the war in the Northern Theatre. U.S. 1955 postage stamp depicting Ethan Allen and Fort Ticonderoga. ... Fort Edward can refer to at least two places: Fort Edward (village), New York Fort Edward (town), New York a temporary fort in South Africa, ca. ... Horatio Gates Horatio Lloyd Gates (1727–1806) was an American general during the Revolutionary War. ... Combatants British 9th/Hill, 20th/Lynd, 21st/ Hamilton, 62nd/Ansthruter, Simon Fraser Brunswick Major Generals V. Riedesel, 1st Brigade (Brunswickers) Brig. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Convention Army (1777-1783) were the British and allied troops captured after the Battle of Saratoga in the American Revolutionary War. ...

(Surrender of General Burgoyne by John Trumbull)
(Surrender of General Burgoyne by John Trumbull)

Rather than an outright unconditional surrender, Burgoyne had agreed to a Convention that would involve his men surrendering their weapons, and returning to Europe with a pledge not to return to North America. Burgoyne had been most insistent on this point, even suggesting he would try to fight his way back to Canada if it was not agreed. Soon afterwards the Continental Congress, urged by George Washington, repudiated the treaty and imprisoned the remnants of the army in Massachusetts and Virginia, where they were sometimes maltreated . This widely seen as revenge for the poor British treatment of Continental prisoners. Image File history File links Surrender_of_General_Burgoyne. ... Image File history File links Surrender_of_General_Burgoyne. ... This article is about the American painter. ... Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... The Continental Congress resulted from the American Revolution and was the de facto first national government of the United States. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Following Saratoga, the indignation in Britain against Burgoyne was great. He returned at once, with the leave of the American general, to defend his conduct and demanded but never obtained a trial. He was deprived of his regiment and a governorship which he held. Following the defeat, France recognized the United States and entered the war on February 6, 1778, transforming it into a global conflict. is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1778 (MDCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


While Burgoyne was at the time widely held to blame for the defeat, over the years responsibility for the disaster at Saratoga shifted to Lord George Germain, the Secretary of State for the Colonies - who had overseen the overall strategy for the campaign and had significantly neglected to order General William Howe commander of another larger army in North America to move and support Burgoyne's invasion, instead leaving him to believe he was free to launch his own attack on the rebel capital at Philadelphia, thereby leaving Burgoyne stranded and outnumbered at Saratoga. John Burgoyne John Burgoyne (February 24, 1723–August 4, 1792) was a British general during the American Revolutionary War. ... Several places and events that have shared the name Saratoga. ... George Sackville, 1st Viscount Sackville (January 26, 1716 - August 26, 1785) was a British soldier and politician who was Secretary of State for America in Lord Norths cabinet during the American Revolution. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... For the surrealist painter, see William Howe (painter). ... North American redirects here. ... Rebel may mean: A participant in a rebellion, see Rebellion. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ...


Later life

Burgoyne's London home in later life
Burgoyne's London home in later life

In 1782, however, when his political friends came into office, he was restored to his rank, given a colonelcy and made commander-in-chief in Ireland and a privy councillor. After the fall of the Rockingham government in 1783, Burgoyne withdrew more and more into private life, his last public service being his participation in the impeachment of Warren Hastings. Burgoyne is buried in Westminster Abbey, in the North Walk of the Cloisters, where he was a student as a child and he spent the remaining years of his life. Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... Warren Hastings (December 6, 1732 - August 22, 1818) was the first governor-general of British India, from 1773 to 1786. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


Dramatist

In his time Burgoyne was a notable playwright. He wrote a number of hit plays - the most notable of which were The Maid of the Oaks and The Heiress. In an ironic twist, a song from one of his plays The World Turned Upside Down was played by British bands during the surrender at Yorktown. Had it not been for his role at Saratoga, Burgoyne would most likely be foremost remembered today as a dramatist. A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... Yorktown is the name of several places in the United States of America: Yorktown, Arkansas Yorktown, Illinois Yorktown, Indiana Yorktown, Iowa Yorktown, Kentucky Yorktown, Maryland Yorktown, New Jersey Yorktown, New York Yorktown, Ohio Yorktown, Texas Yorktown, Virginia - site of the Battle of Yorktown Yorktown, Philadelphia, a neighborhood in Philadelphia. ... Several places and events that have shared the name Saratoga. ... A dramatist is an author of dramatic compositions, usually plays. ...


Popular culture

  • Burgoyne appears in the historical novel Jack Absolute by Chris Humphreys set during the Saratoga campaign, and in its prequel The Blooding of Jack Absolute and sequel Absolute Honor.

Chris Humphreys is a British actor. ... George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was a world-renowned Irish author. ... The Devils Disciple is the only full-length play by G. Bernard Shaw set in America. ... Laurence Olivier, as photographed in 1939 by Carl Van Vechten Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM (May 22, 1907 – July 11, 1989) was an English actor and director, esteemed by many as the greatest actor of the 20th century. ...

External links

  • Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
  • Portrait of John Burgoyne at the Frick Collection
  • Westminster Abbey
  • Ancestors of General John Burgoyne
  • Map from a London Newspaper 1778 [1]
Military offices
Preceded by
Sir John Irwin
Commander-in-Chief, Ireland
1782–1784
Succeeded by
Sir William Augustus Pitt
The office of Commander-in-Chief, Ireland was the commander of British forces in Ireland before 1922. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Battle of Saratoga (1793 words)
Burgoyne had taken the precaution of returning to London during the winter and lobbied for the command.
Burgoyne described the operation as a reconnaissance in strength, designed to see if he could occupy the hill to the West of the American fortifications.
Burgoyne awaited news of Clinton’s advance until 17th October 1777, when he was forced to sign the convention by which his troops surrendered to Gates, who had by then between 18,000 and 20,000 men.
John Burgoyne - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (608 words)
John Burgoyne, nicknamed "Gentleman Johnny", entered the army at an early age of 15.
By Lord Derby's intervention, Burgoyne was then reinstated at the outbreak of the Seven Years' War, also called The French and Indian War, and in 1758 he became captain and lieutenant-colonel in the Foot Guards.
General Burgoyne, whose wife died in June 1776 during his absence in Canada, had several children (born between 1782 and 1788) by Susan Caulfield, an opera singer, one of whom became Field Marshal Sir John Fox Burgoyne.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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