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Encyclopedia > John Bowlby
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Important Figures
Sigmund FreudCarl Jung
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Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Jung redirects here. ... Alfred Adler (February 7, 1870 – May 28, 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor and psychologist, founder of the school of individual psychology. ... Otto Rank (April 22, 1884 – October 31, 1939) was an Austrian psychologist. ... Anna Freud and Sadie Burkard (December 3, 1895 - October 9, 1982) was the sixth and last child of Sigmund and Julia. ... Margaret Schönberger Mahler (May 10, 1897 – October 2, 1985) was a Hungarian physician, who later became interested in psychiatry. ... Karen Horney Karen Horney (horn-eye), born Danielsen (September 16, 1885 – December 4, 1952) was a German Freudian psychoanalyst of Norwegian and Dutch descent. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French IPA: ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor, who made prominent contributions to the psychoanalytic movement. ... William Ronald Dodds Fairbairn (1889-1964) was a noted Scottish psychoanalyst and is generally regarded as the father of British object relations theory. ... Melanie Klein Melanie Klein (March 30, 1882 – September 22, 1960) was an Austrian-born British psychoanalyst, who devised therapeutic techniques for children with great impact on contemporary methods of child care and rearing. ... Herbert Harry Stack Sullivan (February 21, 1892, Norwich, New York – January 14, 1949, Paris, France) was a U.S. psychiatrist whose work in psychoanalysis was based on direct and verifiable observation (versus the more abstract conceptions of the unconscious mind favored by Sigmund Freud and his disciples). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Nancy Chodorow is a feminist sociologist and psychoanalyst born 20 January 1944 in New York City. ... Susan Sutherland Isaacs (née Fairhurst) (1885–1948) was an educational psychologist and psychoanalyst from the United Kingdom. ... Ernest Jones (1879-1958) was arguably the best-known follower of Sigmund Freud. ... Best known for his development of Self Psychology, a school of thought within psychodynamic/psychoanalytic theory, psychiatrist Heinz Kohuts contributions transformed the modern practice of analytic and dynamic treatment approaches. ...


Important works
The Interpretation of Dreams
Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis
"Beyond the Pleasure Principle"
Civilization and Its Discontents A modern English edition of The Interpretation of Dreams. ... The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis is an enlish Launguage translation of the works of Jaques Lacan. ... Beyond the Pleasure Principle Published in 1920, Beyond the Pleasure Principle marked a turning point for Freud, and a major modification of his previous theoretical approach. ... Civilization and Its Discontents is a book by Sigmund Freud. ...


Schools of Thought
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AttachmentEgo psychology Self psychology is a school of psychoanalytic theory and therapy developed in the United States. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French IPA: ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor, who made prominent contributions to the psychoanalytic movement. ... Analytical psychology is part of the Jungian psychology movement started by Carl Jung and his followers. ... Object relations theory is the idea that the ego-self exists only in relation to other objects, which may be external or internal. ... Interpersonal psychoanalysis is based on the theories of Harry Stack Sullivan, an American psychiatrist who believed that the details of patients interpersonal interactions with others provided insight into the causes and cures of mental disorder. ... Relational psychoanalysis is a school of psychoanalysis in the United States that emphasizes the role of real and imagined relationships with others in mental disorder and psychotherapy. ... Mother and child. ... Ego psychology is a school of psychoanalysis that originated in Freuds ego-id-superego model. ...

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John Bowlby (February 26, 1907 - September 2, 1990) was a British psychoanalyst, notable for his interest in child development and his pioneering work in attachment theory. is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Mother and child. ...

Contents

Background

John Bowlby was born in London to an upper-middle-class family. He was the fourth of six children and was raised by a nanny in traditional British fashion of his class. His father, Sir Anthony Bowlby, was surgeon to the King's Household, but with a tragic history; at age five, his own father (John's grandfather) had been killed while serving as a war correspondent in the Anglo-Chinese Opium War. Normally, John saw his mother only one hour a day after teatime, though during the summer she was more available. Like many other mothers of her social class, she considered that parental attention and affection would lead to dangerous spoiling. When Bowlby was almost four years old, his beloved nanny, who was actually his primary caretaker in his early years, left the family. Later, he was to describe this separation as being as tragic as the loss of a mother.


At the age of seven, he was sent off to boarding school, as was common for boys of his social status. His later work, for example Separation: Anxiety and Anger, revealed that he regarded it as a terrible time for him. Because of such experiences as a child, he displayed an unusual sensitivity to children’s suffering throughout his life. A boarding school is a usually fee-charging school where some or all pupils not only study, but also live during term time, with their fellow students and possibly teachers. ...


He died September 2, 1990 at his summer home in Isle of Skye, Scotland. He had married Ursula Longstaff, herself the daughter of a surgeon, on April 16, 1938, and they had four children, including (Sir) Richard Bowlby, who succeeded his uncle as third Baronet and has in recent years been supportive of interest in his father's work, in which he has, however, no professional training.


Career

John Bowlby’s intellectual career began at Trinity College, University of Cambridge, where he studied psychology and pre-clinical sciences. He won prizes for outstanding intellectual performance. After Cambridge he took some time to work with maladjusted and delinquent children, then at the age of twenty-two enrolled at University College Hospital in London. At the age of twenty-six he qualified in medicine. While still in medical school he also found time to enroll himself in the Institute for Psychoanalysis. Following medical school, he trained in adult psychiatry at the Maudsley Hospital. In 1937, he qualified as a psychoanalyst, and he became president of Trinity College in 1938. Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... University College Hospital is a teaching hospital in London, part of the University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, and associated with University College London. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... An MRI scan of a human brain and head. ... The Maudsley Hospital in Denmark Hill, Camberwell, South London is unique as a psychiatric hospital in that it was always intended to be a centre of treatment and research rather than confinement and asylum. Now part of the South London and Maudsley NHS Trust (SLaM) the hospital derives its origins... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... pychoanalysis today comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind; the term also refers to a specific type of treatment where the analyst, upon hearing the thoughts of the analysand (analytic patient), formulates and then explains the unconscious bases for the patients symptoms and character problems. ...


During World War II, he was a Lieutenant Colonel, RAMC. After the war, he was Deputy Director of the Tavistock Clinic, and from 1950, Mental Health Consultant to the World Health Organisation. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Tavistock Clinic is a noted centre for mental health therapy in the British NHS. It offers outpatient clinical services in London and provides many postgraduate training and academic courses for the mental health and social care professions. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ...


Because of his previous work with maladapted and delinquent children, he became interested in the development of children and began work at the Child Guidance Clinic in London.


Bowlby was interested in finding out the actual patterns of family interaction involved in both healthy and pathological development. He focused on how attachment difficulties were transmitted from one generation to the next. The three most important experiences for Bowlby’s future work and the development of attachment theory were his work with:

  • Maladapted and delinquent children.
  • James Robertson (psychoanalyst) (in 1952) in making the documentary film ‘A Two-Year Old Goes to the Hospital’, which was one of the films about ”young children in brief separation“. The documentary illustrated the impact of loss and suffering experienced by young children separated from their primary caretakers.
  • Melanie Klein during his psychoanalytic training. She was his supervisor, however they had different views about the role of the mother in the treatment of a three-year-old boy. Specifically and importantly, Klein stressed the role of the child's fantasies about his mother, and Bowlby emphasized the actual history of the relationship.

James Robertson (1911–1988) was a Psychiatric Social Worker and Psychoanalyst based at the Tavistock Clinic and Institute, London from 1948 until 1976. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Melanie Klein Melanie Klein (March 30, 1882 – September 22, 1960) was an Austrian-born British psychoanalyst, who devised therapeutic techniques for children with great impact on contemporary methods of child care and rearing. ...

'Maternal Deprivation' controversy

Main article: Maternal deprivation
Father and child
Father and child

Whilst working for the World Health Organization WHO in 1951[1] Bowlby produced 'Maternal Care and Mental Health' in which he expounded the theory of 'Maternal Deprivation'. By a mechanism that Bowlby saw as very similar to imprinting, which he called 'monotropy', Bowlby described the process by which the young infant developed a firm attachment or bond to its mother within the first six months of life that if broken would cause serious consequences. It was Dr John Bowlby in Maternal Care and Mental Health (1951)[1] who argued that infants form a special relationship with their mother, which is qualitatively different from the relationship which they form with any other Mother and child kind of person. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1757x1718, 819 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Father ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1757x1718, 819 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Father ...


Although this work found popular appeal that still finds resonance today, there was a great deal of professional disquiet at the time, so much so that the WHO felt obliged to publish a rebuttal entitled, 'Deprivation of maternal care. A reassessment of its effects' (1962)[2]. Professor Sir Michael Rutter in 'Maternal Deprivation Reassessed' (1972)[3], which New Society described as a, 'classic in the field of child care', showed that children are not invariably so damaged and that, in any event, other people, including their fathers, are also very important to children. According to Schaffer in 'Social Development' (2000)[4] it seems likely that social convention explains whatever parenting differences are observed and that when fathers assume the principal responsibility for their children such differences disappear. Professor Sir Michael Rutter (b. ...


It was in the light of such research evidence that Bowlby adapted the original idea of 'Maternal Deprivation' and developed the attachment theory. In his view, attachment behavior was an evolutionary survival strategy for protecting the infant from predators, and attachment theory reflects that. Mary Ainsworth, a student of Bowlby’s, further extended and tested his ideas, and in fact played the primary role in suggesting that several attachment styles existed. It was Dr John Bowlby in Maternal Care and Mental Health (1951)[1] who argued that infants form a special relationship with their mother, which is qualitatively different from the relationship which they form with any other Mother and child kind of person. ... Mother and child. ... Mary Ainsworth (December 1913 - 1999) was an American developmental psychologist known for her work in early emotional attachment with The Strange Situation as well as her work in the development of Attachment Theory. ...


Legacy

Main article: Attachment theory

Attachment theory is highly regarded as a well-researched explanation of infant and toddler behavior and in the field of infant mental health. It is hard to imagine any clinical work with an infant or toddler that is not about attachment, since dealing with that issue has been shown to be an essential developmental task for that age period. Mother and child. ... Mother and child. ...


Following Bowlby‘s leads, a few established child-development researchers and others have suggested developmentally appropriate mental health interventions to sensitively foster emotional relationships between young children and adults. These approaches used tested techniques which were not only congruent with attachment theory, but with other established principles of child development. In addition, nearly all mainstream approaches for the prevention and treatment of disorders of attachment use attachment theory. Treatment and prevention programs include Alicia Lieberman ("Parent-child Psychotherapy"), Stanley Greenspan ("Floor Time"), Mary Dozier (autonomous states of mind), Robert Marvin ("Circle of Security"), Daniel Schechter (intergenerational communication of trauma), and Joy Osofsky ("Safe Start Initiative"). Mother and child. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Attachment disorder is a broad term intended to describe disorders of mood, behavior, and social relationships arising from a failure to form normal attachments to primary care giving figures in early childhood. ... Mother and child. ... Stanley Greenspan (born 1941) is an American child and adult psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who is currently a Clincal Professor at George Washington University Medical School. ...


Some clinicians have claimed Bowlby's theory as a basis for controversial interventions popularly known as attachment therapy, but such claims have not had wide confirmation from theoreticians and the interventions themselves have been criticized as not meeting generally accepted standards of research or practice by professionals.[5][6] Attachment therapy is the name applied to a category of alternative child mental health interventions by practitioners and proponents of such treatments, including the accompanying parenting techniques which proponents consider as important as the therapy itself. ...


References

  1. ^ Bowlby, J (1951) Maternal Care and Mental Health, World Health Organisation WHO
  2. ^ Ainsworth, M (1962) Deprivation of maternal care. A reassessment of its effects, World Health Organisation WHO
  3. ^ Rutter (1981) Maternal Deprivation Reassessed, Second edition, Harmondsworth, Penguin.
  4. ^ Schaffer (2000) Social Development, Oxford, Blackwell
  5. ^ O'Connor TG; Zeanah CH (eds) (Sep 2003). Special Issue: Current perspectives on assessment and treatment of attachment disorders. Attachment & Human Development 5 (3): 219-326. ISSN 1469-2988. 
  6. ^ Chaffin M; et al (Feb 2006). Report of the APSAC Task Force on Attachment Therapy, Reactive Attachment Disorder, and Attachment Problems. Child Maltreatment 11 (1): 76-89. doi:10.1177/1077559505283699. ISSN 1552-6119. 

ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ...

See also

Attachment disorder is a broad term intended to describe disorders of mood, behavior, and social relationships arising from a failure to form normal attachments to primary care giving figures in early childhood. ... Attachment in children deals with the theory of attachment between children and their caregivers. ... Mother and child. ... Attachment therapy is the name applied to a category of alternative child mental health interventions by practitioners and proponents of such treatments, including the accompanying parenting techniques which proponents consider as important as the therapy itself. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Attachment disorder. ... The term refrigerator mother was coined in the 1940s as a label for mothers of autistic children. ... The “Trauma model” of mental disorders is an expression coined by psychiatrist Colin Ross as a solution to the problem of comorbidity in the mental health field. ...

Selected bibliography

  • Bowlby J [1950] (1995). Maternal Care and Mental Health, 2nd edition, The master work series, Northvale, NJ; London: Jason Aronson. [Geneva, World Health Organization, Monograph series no. 3]. ISBN 1-56821-757-9. OCLC 33105354. 
  • Bowlby J [1965] (1976). in Fry M (abridged & ed.): Child Care and the Growth of Love (Report, World Health Organisation, 1953 (above)), Ainsworth MD (2 add. ch.), 2nd edn., Pelican books, London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-013458-1. ISBN 0-14-020271-4. OCLC 154150053. 
  • Bowlby J [1969] (1999). Attachment, 2nd edition, Attachment and Loss (vol. 1), New York: Basic Books. LCCN 00266879; NLM 8412414. ISBN 0-465-00543-8 (pbk). OCLC 11442968. 
  • Bowlby J (1973). Separation: Anxiety & Anger, Attachment and Loss (vol. 2); (International psycho-analytical library no.95). London: Hogarth Press. ISBN 0712666214 (pbk). ISBN 0-70120-301-3. OCLC 8353942. 
  • Bowlby J (1980). Loss: Sadness & Depression, Attachment and Loss (vol. 3); (International psycho-analytical library no.109). London: Hogarth Press. ISBN 0-465-04238-4 (pbk). ISBN 0-70120-350-1. OCLC 59246032. 
  • Bowlby J (1988). A Secure Base: Parent-Child Attachment and Healthy Human Development, Tavistock professional book. London: Routledge. ISBN 0422622303 (pbk). ISBN 0-415-00640-6. OCLC 42913724. 
  • Bretherton I (Sep 1992). The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology 28 (5): 759-775. ISSN 0012-1649. OCLC 1566542. 
  • Holmes J (1993). John Bowlby and Attachment Theory, Makers of modern psychotherapy. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-07730-3 (pbk). ISBN 0-415-07729-X. OCLC 27266442. 
  • Van Dijken S (1998). John Bowlby: His Early Life: A Biographical Journey into the Roots of Attachment Theory. London; New York: Free Association Books. ISBN 1853433934 (pbk). ISBN 1853433926. OCLC 39982501. 
  • Van Dijken S; Van der Veer R; Van IJzendoorn MH; Kuipers HJ (Summer 1998). Bowlby before Bowlby: The sources of an intellectual departure in psychoanalysis and psychology. Journal of the History of the Behavioural Sciences 34 (3): 247-269. doi:<247::AID-JHBS2>3.0.CO;2-N 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6696(199822)34:3<247::AID-JHBS2>3.0.CO;2-N. ISSN 0022-5061. Retrieved on 2007-09-01. 
  • Mayhew B (Nov 2006). Between love and aggression: The politics of John Bowlby. History of the Human Sciences 19 (4): 19-35. doi:10.1177/0952695106069666. ISSN 0952-6951. 
  • Van der Horst FCP; van der Veer R; van Ijzendoorn MH (19 Mar 2007). John Bowlby and ethology: An annotated interview with Robert Hinde (Epub ahead of print). Attachment & Human Development. doi:10.1080/14616730601149809. ISSN 1469-2988. Retrieved on 2007-09-01. 

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Summaries and links to full-text or articles and books by John Bowlby

  Results from FactBites:
 
John Bowlby Summary (1501 words)
John Bowlby was born in 1907, the son of a London surgeon.
Bowlby argues that when the child is separated from the attachment figure, intimate emotional bonds and the associated sense of security are strained and may lead to deviations from normal personality development.
John Mostyn Bowlby was born 26 February 1907 in London to an upper-middle-class family.
John Bowlby - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (942 words)
John Bowlby (1907 - 1990) was a British developmental psychologist in the psychoanalytic tradition, notable for his pioneering work in attachment theory.
John Mostyn Bowlby was born 26 February 1907 in London to an upper-middle-class family.
John Bowlby’s intellectual career began at Trinity College, University of Cambridge, where he studied psychology and pre-clinical sciences.
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