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Encyclopedia > John Bardeen
John Bardeen

Born 23 May 1908(1908-05-23)
Madison, Wisconsin, United States
Died January 30, 1991 (aged 82)
Boston, Massachusetts
Nationality United States
Fields Physics
Institutions Bell Labs
University of Minnesota
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Alma mater University of Wisconsin-Madison
Princeton University
Doctoral advisor Eugene Wigner
Doctoral students John Schrieffer
Nick Holonyak
Known for Transistor
BCS theory
Notable awards Nobel Prize in Physics (1956)
Nobel Prize in Physics (1972)
IEEE Medal of Honor (1971)

John Bardeen (May 23, 1908January 30, 1991) was an American physicist and electrical engineer, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics twice: first in 1956 with William Shockley and Walter Brattain for the invention of the transistor; and again in 1972 with Leon Neil Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer for a fundamental theory of convectional superconductivity known as the BCS theory. Image File history File links John_Bardeen. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Madison (disambiguation). ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Boston redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... This article is about the oldest and largest campus of the University of Minnesota. ... A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious campus in the University of Illinois system. ... Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary. ... University of Wisconsin redirects here. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Eugene Wigner Eugene Paul Wigner (Hungarian Wigner Pál Jenő) (November 17, 1902 – January 1, 1995) was a Hungarian physicist and mathematician who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963 for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... John Robert Schrieffer (born May 31, 1931) is an American physicist and winner, with John Bardeen and Leon Neil Cooper, of the 1972 Nobel Prize for Physics for developing the BCS theory (for their initials), the first successful microscopic theory of superconductivity. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nick Holonyak Jr. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... BCS theory (named for its creators, Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer) successfully explains conventional superconductivity, the ability of certain metals at low temperatures to conduct electricity without resistance. ... Image File history File links Nobel_prize_medal. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... Image File history File links Nobel_prize_medal. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... The IEEE Medal of Honor is the highest recognition of the IEEE, and has been awarded once each year since 1917, when its first recipient was Major Edwin H. Armstrong. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... An engineers degree is an academic degree which is intermediate in rank between a masters degree and a doctorate; it is occasionally to be encountered in the United States in technical fields. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... William Bradford Shockley (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was a British-born American physicist and inventor. ... Walter Houser Brattain (February 10, 1902 – October 13, 1987) was a physicist who, along with John Bardeen, invented the transistor. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... Leon Neil Cooper (born February 28, 1930) is an American physicist and winner of the 1972 Nobel Prize for Physics, along with John Bardeen and John Robert Schrieffer, for his role in developing the BCS theory (named for their initials) of superconductivity. ... John Robert Schrieffer (born May 31, 1931) is an American physicist and winner, with John Bardeen and Leon Neil Cooper, of the 1972 Nobel Prize for Physics for developing the BCS theory (for their initials), the first successful microscopic theory of superconductivity. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ... BCS theory (named for its creators, Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer) successfully explains conventional superconductivity, the ability of certain metals at low temperatures to conduct electricity without resistance. ...


The transistor revolutionized the electronics industry, allowing the Information Age to occur, and made possible the development of almost every modern electronical device, from telephones to computers to missiles. His developments in superconductivity, which won him his second Nobel, are used in medical advances such as CAT scans and MRI. A university computer lab containing many desktop PCs The transition of communication technology: Oral Culture, Manuscript Culture, Print Culture, and Information Age Information Age is a term that has been used to refer to the present economic era. ... A telephone handset A touch-tone telephone dial Telephone The telephone or phone (Greek: tele = far away and phone = voice) is a telecommunications device that transmits speech by means of electric signals. ... This article is about the machine. ... For other uses, see Missile (disambiguation). ... negron305 Cat scan redirects here. ... The mri are a fictional alien species in the Faded Sun Trilogy of C.J. Cherryh. ...


In 1990, Bardeen appeared on LIFE Magazine 's list of "100 Most Influential Americans of the Century."[1] Philippe Halsmans famous portrait of Marilyn Monroe Life generally refers to two American magazines: A humor and general interest magazine published from 1883 to 1936; A publication created by Time founder Henry Luce in 1936, with a strong emphasis on photojournalism. ...

Contents

Early life

John Bardeen was born in Madison, Wisconsin on May 23, 1908.[2] He was the second son of Dr. Charles R. Bardeen and Althea Harmer Bardeen. He was one of five children. His father, Charles Bardeen, was Professor of Anatomy and the first Dean of the Medical School of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Althea Bardeen, before marrying, had taught at the Dewey Laboratory School and run an interior decorating business; after marriage she was an active figure in the art world. For other uses, see Madison (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... University of Wisconsin redirects here. ...


Bardeen's talent for mathematics was recognized early. His seventh grade mathematics teacher encouraged Bardeen in pursuing advanced work, and years later, Bardeen credited him for "first exciting [his] interest in mathematics." For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ...


Althea Bardeen became seriously ill with cancer when John was 12 years old. Charles Bardeen downplayed the seriousness of her illness so that it won't affect his children. John was stunned when his mother died. Charles Bardeen married Ruth Hames, who was his secretary, to give his children the family he thought they needed. However, this didn't helped young John and he barely passed French that year.[3]


Bardeen attended the University High School at Madison for several years, but graduated from Madison Central High School in 1923.[2] He graduated from high school at age fifteen, even though he could have graduated several years earlier. His graduation was postponed due to taking additional courses at another high school and also partly because of his mother's death. He entered the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1923. While in college he joined the Zeta Psi fraternity. He raised the needed membership fees partly by playing billiards. He was initiated as a member of Tau Beta Pi engineering honor society. He chose engineering because he didn't want to be an academic like his father and also because it had lots of maths. He also felt that engineering had good job prospects.[3] University of Wisconsin redirects here. ... The Zeta Psi Fraternity of North America Inc. ... This article is about the various cue sports. ... The bent at Iowa Alpha (Iowa State University) Tau Beta Pi (ΤΒΠ or TBP) is the national engineering honor society in the United States and the second oldest collegiate honor society in the US. It honors students who have shown a history of academic achievement as well as a commitment to...


Bardeen received his B.S. in electrical engineering in 1928 from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.[4] He graduated in 1928 despite also having taken a year off during his degree to work in Chicago.[5] He had taken all the graduate courses in physics and mathematics that had interested him, and, in fact, graduated in five years, one more than usual; this allowed him time to also complete a Master's thesis, supervised by Leo J. Peters. He received his M.S. in electrical engineering in 1929 from Wisconsin.[4] His mentors in mathematics were Warren Weaver and Edward Van Vleck. His primary physics mentor was John Hasbrouck van Vleck, but he was also much influenced by visiting scholars such as Paul Dirac, Werner Heisenberg, and Arnold Sommerfeld. Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... University of Wisconsin redirects here. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Warren Weaver is an author of the well-known work on communication, The Mathematical Theory of Communication (together with Claude Shannon). ... John Hasbrouck van Vleck (March 13, 1899 – October 27, 1980) was an American physicist. ... Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS (IPA: [dɪræk]) (August 8, 1902 – October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld (December 5, 1868 in Königsberg, East Prussia – April 26, 1951 in Munich, Germany) was a German physicist who introduced the fine-structure constant in 1919. ...


Bardeen was unsuccessful in his 1929 application to Trinity College, Cambridge, for one of their coveted fellowships.[5] Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street...


Bardeen stayed on for some time at Wisconsin furthering his studies, but he eventually went to work for Gulf Research Laboratories, the research arm of the Gulf Oil Company, based in Pittsburgh.[1] From 1930 to 1933, Bardeen worked there on the development of methods for the interpretation of magnetic and gravitational surveys.[2] He worked as a geophysicist. After the work failed to keep his interest, he applied and was accepted to the graduate program in mathematics at Princeton University.[3] Gulf Oil was a major global oil company from the 1900s to the 1980s. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ...


Bardeen studied both mathematics and physics as a graduate student, ending up writing his thesis on a problem in solid-state physics, under Nobel laureate physicist Eugene Wigner. Before completing his thesis, he was offered a position as Junior Fellow of the Society of Fellows at Harvard University in 1935. He spent there the next three years, from 1935 to 1938, working with Nobel laureate physicist John Hasbrouck van Vleck and Bridgman on problems in cohesion and electrical conduction in metals, and also did some work on level density of nuclei. He received his Ph.D. in mathematical physics from Princeton University in 1936.[2] This article is about the thesis in academia. ... Solid-state physics, the largest branch of condensed matter physics, is the study of rigid matter, or solids. ... The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ... Eugene Wigner Eugene Paul Wigner (Hungarian Wigner Pál JenÅ‘) (November 17, 1902 – January 1, 1995) was a Hungarian physicist and mathematician who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963 for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and... Harvard redirects here. ... John Hasbrouck van Vleck (March 13, 1899 – October 27, 1980) was an American physicist. ... Mathematical physics is the scientific discipline concerned with the application of mathematics to problems in physics and the development of mathematical methods suitable for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ...


Academic career

In the fall of 1938, Bardeen started in his new role as assistant professor at the University of Minnesota. This article is about the oldest and largest campus of the University of Minnesota. ...


In 1941, the world was embroiled in war, and Bardeen was convinced by his colleagues to take a leave of absence and work for the Naval Ordnance Laboratory. He would stay there for four years. In 1943 he was invited to join the Manhattan Project, but he refused, since he did not want to uproot his family. He received the Meritorious Civilian Service Award for his service at the NOL. The Naval Ordnance Laboratory (NOL), now disestablished, formerly located in White Oak, Maryland was the site of considerable work that had practical impact upon world technology. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ...


After the end of World War II, Bardeen started seeking a return to academia, but the University of Minnesota did not realize the importance of the young field of solid-state physics. They offered him only a small raise. Bardeen's expertise in solid-state physics made him invaluable to Bell Labs, which was just starting a solid-state division. Remembering the lack of support he had received previously from the university to pursue his research, he decided to take a lucrative offer from Bell Labs in 1945. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Solid-state physics, the largest branch of condensed matter physics, is the study of rigid matter, or solids. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ...


Bell Labs

In October 1945, John Bardeen began work at Bell Labs. Bardeen was a member of a Solid State Physics Group, led by William Shockley and chemist Stanley Morgan. Other personnel working in the group were Walter Brattain, physicist Gerald Pearson, chemist Robert Gibney, electronics expert Hilbert Moore and several technicians. He moved his family to Summit, New Jersey. John Bardeen had met William Shockley when they were both in school in Massachusetts. He rekindled his friendship with Walter Brattain. Bardeen knew Walter Brattain from his graduate school days at Princeton. He had previously met Brattain through Brattain's brother, Bob Brattain. Bob Brattain was also a Princeton graduate student. Over the years the friendship of Bardeen and Brattain grew, both in the lab, where Brattain put together the experiments and Bardeen wove theories to explain the results and also on the golf course where they spent time on the weekends. Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... William Bradford Shockley (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was a British-born American physicist and inventor. ... Walter Houser Brattain (February 10, 1902 – October 13, 1987) was a physicist who, along with John Bardeen, invented the transistor. ... Nickname: Location of Summit within Union County and state of New Jersey Coordinates: , Country USA State New Jersey County Union Settled 1710 Incorporation as Township March 23, 1869 Incorporation as City March 8, 1899 Government  - Type Faulkner Act Council-Manager  - Mayor Jordan Glatt  - City Administrator Christopher Cotter Area  - City 15. ...


The assignment of the group was to seek a solid-state alternative to fragile glass vacuum tube amplifiers. Their first attempts were based on Shockley's ideas about using an external electrical field on a semiconductor to affect its conductivity. These experiments mysteriously failed every time in all sorts of configurations and materials. The group was at a standstill until Bardeen suggested a theory that invoked surface states that prevented the field from penetrating the semiconductor. The group changed its focus to study these surface states, and they met almost daily to discuss the work. The rapport of the group was excellent, and ideas were freely exchanged.[6] By the winter of 1946 they had enough results that Bardeen submitted a paper on the surface states to Physical Review. Brattain started experiments to study the surface states through observations made while shining a bright light on the semiconductor's surface. This led to several more papers (one of them co-authored with Shockley), which estimated the density of the surface states to be more than enough to account for their failed experiments. The pace of the work picked up significantly when they started to surround point contacts between the semiconductor and the conducting wires with electrolytes. Moore built a circuit that allowed them to vary the frequency of the input signal easily and suggested that they use glycol borate (gu), a viscous chemical that didn't evaporate. Finally they began to get some evidence of power amplification when Pearson, acting on a suggestion by Shockley,[7] put a voltage on a droplet of gu placed across a P-N junction. Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ... Physical Review is one of the oldest and most-respected scientific journals publishing research on all aspects of physics. ... An electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... A p-n junction is formed by combining N-type and P-type semiconductors together in very close contact. ...


The invention of the transistor

A stylized replica of the first transistor invented at Bells Labs on December 23, 1947.
A stylized replica of the first transistor invented at Bells Labs on December 23, 1947.
Further information: Transistor, History of transistor

In the spring of 1947, William Shockley set Brattain and Bardeen a task to explain why an amplifier he had devised didn't work. At the heart of the amplifier was a crystal of silicon. They would switch to germanium after some months. To figure out what was going on, Bardeen had to remember some of the quantum mechanics research that had been done on semiconductors while he was completing his Ph.D. at Princeton University. Bardeen had also come up with some new theories himself. By observing Brattain's experiments, Bardeen realized that everyone had been falsly assuming electrical current traveled through all parts of the germanium in a similar way. The electrons behaved differently at the surface of the metal. If they could control what was happening at the surface, the amplifier should work. Image File history File links Replica-of-first-transistor. ... Image File history File links Replica-of-first-transistor. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... William Bradford Shockley (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was a British-born American physicist and inventor. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ...


On December 23, 1947, Bardeen and Brattain—working without Shockley—succeeded in creating a point-contact transistor that achieved amplification. By the next month, Bell Lab's patent attorneys started to work on the patent applications.[8] is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A point-contact transistor was the first type of transistor ever constructed. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) is the research and development arm of Lucent Technologies and previously the United States Bell System. ...


Bell Labs attorneys soon discovered that Shockley's field effect principle had been anticipated and patented in 1930 by Julius Lilienfeld, who filed his MESFET-like patent in Canada already on October 22, 1925.[9] Although the patent appeared "breakable" (it could not work) the patent attorneys based one of its four patent applications only on the Bardeen-Brattain point contact design. Three others submitted at the same time covered the electrolyte-based transistors with Bardeen, Gibney and Brattain as the inventors. Shockley's name was not on any of these patent applications. This angered Shockley, who thought his name should also be on the patents because the work was based on his field effect idea. He even made efforts to have the patent written only in his name, and told Bardeen and Brattain of his intentions. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld (1881 – 1963) was born in Germany and emigrated to the USA in 1927. ... MESFET stands for Metal-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the same time Shockley secretly continued his own work to build a different sort of transistor based on junctions instead of point contacts; he expected this kind of design would be more likely to be viable commercially. Shockley worked furiously on his magnum opus, Electrons and Holes in Semiconductors which was finally published as a 558 page treatise in 1950. In it, Shockley worked out the critical ideas of drift and diffusion and the differential equations that govern the flow of electrons in solid state crystals. Shockley's diode equation is also described. This seminal work became the "bible" for an entire generation of scientists working to develop and improve new variants of the transistor and other devices based on semiconductors. Closeup of the image below, showing the square shaped semiconductor crystal various semiconductor diodes, below a bridge rectifier Structure of a vacuum tube diode In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal component, almost always one that has electrical properties which vary depending on the direction of flow of charge...


Shockley was dissatisfied with certain parts of the explanation for how the point contact transistor worked and conceived of the possibility of minority carrier injection. This led Shockley to ideas for what he called a "sandwich transistor." This resulted in the junction transistor, which was announced at a press conference on July 4, 1951. Shockley obtained a patent for this invention on September 25, 1951. Different fabrication methods for this device were developed but the "diffused-base" method became the method of choice for many applications. It soon eclipsed the point contact transistor, and it and its offspring became overwhelmingly dominant in the marketplace for many years. Shockley continued as a group head to lead much of the effort at Bell Labs to improve it and its fabrication for two more years. A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a type of transistor. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Shockley took the lion's share of the credit in public for the invention of transistor, which led to a deterioration of Bardeen's relationship with Shockley.[10] Bell Labs management, however, consistently presented all three inventors as a team. Shockley eventually infuriated and alienated Bardeen and Brattain, and he essentially blocked the two from working on the junction transistor. Bardeen began pursuing a theory for superconductivity and left Bell Labs in 1951. Brattain refused to work with Shockley further and was assigned to another group. Neither Bardeen nor Brattain had much to do with the development of the transistor beyond the first year after its invention.[11]


The "transistor" (a combination of "transfer" and "resistor") was 50 times smaller than the vacuum tubes it replaced in televisions and radios and allowed electrical devices to become more compact.[1] Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ...


University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

A commemorative plaque remembering John Bardeen and the theory of superconductivity, at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
A commemorative plaque remembering John Bardeen and the theory of superconductivity, at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

By 1951, Bardeen was looking for a new job. Fred Seitz, a friend of Bardeen, convinced the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to make Bardeen an offer of $10,000 a year. Bardeen accepted the offer and left Bell Labs.[8] He joined the engineering faculty and the physics faculty at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1951. He was Professor of Electrical Engineering and of Physics at Illinois. His first Ph.D. student was Nick Holonyak (1954), the inventor of the first LED in 1962.[12] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 511 KB) Summary A commemorative plaque placed in the Bardeen Engineering Quad at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 511 KB) Summary A commemorative plaque placed in the Bardeen Engineering Quad at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign. ... A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious campus in the University of Illinois system. ... A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious campus in the University of Illinois system. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... Nick Holonyak Jr. ... “LED” redirects here. ...


At Illinois, he established two major research programs, one in the Electrical Engineering Department and one in the Physics Department. The research program in the Electrical Engineering Department dealt with both experimental and theoretical aspects of semiconductors, and the research program in the Physics Department dealt with theoretical aspects of macroscopic quantum systems, particularly superconductivity and quantum liquids.[13]


He was an active professor at Illinois from 1951 to 1975 and then became Professor Emeritus.[1]


The Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956

In 1956, John Bardeen shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with William Shockley of Semiconductor Laboratory of Beckman Instruments and Walter Brattain of Bell Telephone Laboratories "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect".[14] Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... William Bradford Shockley (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was a British-born American physicist and inventor. ... Walter Houser Brattain (February 10, 1902 – October 13, 1987) was a physicist who, along with John Bardeen, invented the transistor. ...


Bardeen first heard the news that the Nobel Prize in Physics had been awarded to him, Brattain, and Shockley when he was making breakfast and listening to the radio on the morning of Thursday, November 1, 1956.[15] Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Nobel Prize ceremony took place in Stockholm, Sweden on the evening of Monday, December 10. Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley received their awards that night from King Gustav VI and then adjourned for a great banquet in their honor. On that night the three men were together, and they remembered the days when they had been friends and a great research team.[15] For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a representative democracy based on a parliamentary system. ... Gustaf VI Adolf (Oskar Fredrik Wilhelm Olaf Gustaf Adolf) (November 11, 1882 – September 15, 1973) was King of Sweden from 1950 until his death. ...


Bardeen brought only one of his three children to the Nobel Prize ceremony. His two sons were studying at Harvard University, and Bardeen didn't wanted to disrupt their studies. King Gustav scolded Bardeen because of this, and Bardeen assured the King that the next time he would bring all his children to the ceremony.[15] Harvard redirects here. ...


BCS theory

Further information: BCS theory

In 1957, John Bardeen, in collaboration with Leon Cooper and his doctoral student John Robert Schrieffer, proposed the standard theory of superconductivity known as the BCS theory (named for their initials).[1] BCS theory (named for its creators, Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer) successfully explains conventional superconductivity, the ability of certain metals at low temperatures to conduct electricity without resistance. ... Leon N Cooper (born February 28, 1930) is an American physicist and winner of the 1972 Nobel Prize for Physics, along with John Bardeen and John Robert Schrieffer, for his role in developing the BCS theory (named for their initials) of superconductivity, work he did in his 20s. ... John Robert Schrieffer (born May 31, 1931) is an American physicist and winner, with John Bardeen and Leon Neil Cooper, of the 1972 Nobel Prize for Physics for developing the BCS theory (for their initials), the first successful microscopic theory of superconductivity. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ... BCS theory (named for its creators, Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer) successfully explains conventional superconductivity, the ability of certain metals at low temperatures to conduct electricity without resistance. ...


BCS theory explains conventional superconductivity, the ability of certain metals at low temperatures to conduct electricity without electrical resistance. BCS theory views superconductivity as a macroscopic quantum mechanical effect. It proposes that electrons with opposite spin can become paired, forming Cooper pairs. Independently and at the same time, superconductivity phenomenon was explained by Nikolay Bogoliubov by means of the so-called Bogoliubov transformations. Conventional superconductors are materials that display superconductivity as described by BCS theory or its extensions. ... For alternative meanings see metal (disambiguation). ... Temperature is the physical property of a system which underlies the common notions of hot and cold; the material with the higher temperature is said to be hotter. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... Electrical resistance is a measure of the degree to which an electrical component opposes the passage of current. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ... For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Properties The electron (also called negatron, commonly represented as e−) is a subatomic particle. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... A Cooper pair is the name given to electrons that are bound together in a certain manner first described by Leon Cooper. ... Nikolai Nikolaevich Bogoliubov (21 August 1909, Nizhny Novgorod – 13 February 1992, Moscow) was a Russian-Ukrainian mathematician and theoretical physicist known for his work in statistical field theory and dynamical systems. ... In theoretical physics, the Bogoliubov transformation, named after Nikolay Bogolyubov, is a unitary transformation from a unitary representation of some canonical commutation relation algebra or canonical anticommutation relation algebra into another unitary representation, induced by an isomorphism of the CCR/CAR algebra. ...


In many superconductors, the attractive interaction between electrons (necessary for pairing) is brought about indirectly by the interaction between the electrons and the vibrating crystal lattice (the phonons). Roughly speaking the picture is the following: A phonon is a quantized mode of vibration occurring in a rigid crystal lattice, such as the atomic lattice of a solid. ...


An electron moving through a conductor will attract nearby positive charges in the lattice. This deformation of the lattice causes another electron, with opposite "spin", to move into the region of higher positive charge density. The two electrons are then held together with a certain binding energy. If this binding energy is higher than the energy provided by kicks from oscillating atoms in the conductor (which is true at low temperatures), then the electron pair will stick together and resist all kicks, thus not experiencing resistance. For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ...


The Nobel Prize in Physics in 1972

In 1972, John Bardeen shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Leon Neil Cooper of Brown University and John Robert Schrieffer of the University of Pennsylvania for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory.[16] Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... Leon Neil Cooper (born February 28, 1930) is an American physicist and winner of the 1972 Nobel Prize for Physics, along with John Bardeen and John Robert Schrieffer, for his role in developing the BCS theory (named for their initials) of superconductivity. ... Brown University is a private university located in Providence, Rhode Island. ... John Robert Schrieffer (born May 31, 1931) is an American physicist and winner, with John Bardeen and Leon Neil Cooper, of the 1972 Nobel Prize for Physics for developing the BCS theory (for their initials), the first successful microscopic theory of superconductivity. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ...


Bardeen did bring all his children to the Nobel Prize ceremony in Stockholm, Sweden.[15] For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ...


This was Bardeen's second Nobel Prize in Physics. He became the first person to win two Nobel Prizes in the same field.[17] He also became only the third person to win two Nobel Prizes. The other two were Marie Curie, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903 and Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1911, and Linus Pauling, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954 and Nobel Peace Prize in 1962. In 1980, Frederick Sanger won his second Nobel Prize in Chemistry and became the fourth person to win two Nobel Prizes.[18] This article is about the chemist and physicist. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American scientist, peace activist, author and educator of German ancestry. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Frederick Sanger, OM, CH, CBE, FRS (born 13 August 1918) is an English biochemist and a two time Nobel laureate in chemistry. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ...


Bardeen gave much of his Nobel Prize money to fund the Fritz London Memorial Lectures at Duke University.[19] Fritz Wolfgang London (March 7, 1900–March 30, 1954) was a German-born American physicist for whom the London force is named. ... Duke University is a private coeducational research university located in Durham, North Carolina, United States. ...


Other awards

In 1971, Bardeen received the IEEE Medal of Honor for "his profound contributions to the understanding of the conductivity of solids, to the invention of the transistor, and to the microscopic theory of superconductivity." The IEEE Medal of Honor is the highest recognition of the IEEE, and has been awarded once each year since 1917, when its first recipient was Major Edwin H. Armstrong. ...


Bardeen was one of 11 recipients given the Third Century Award from President George H.W. Bush in 1990 for "exceptional contributions to American society" and was granted a gold medal from the Soviet Academy of Sciences in 1988. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born June... CCCP redirects here. ...


Xerox

Bardeen was also an important advisor to Xerox Corporation. Though quiet by nature, he took the uncharacteristic step of urging Xerox executives to keep their California research center, Xerox PARC, afloat when the parent company was suspicious that its research center would amount to little. Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) (name pronounced ) is a global document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ... Bold text // Headline text Link title This article is about the computer research center. ...


Death

Bardeen died of cardiac arrest at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts on January 30, 1991. While he lived in Champaign-Urbana, he was in Boston for medical consultation.[1] Brigham and Womens Hospital (BWH) is a hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Boston redirects here. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Urbana (pronounced ) is the county seat of Champaign County, Illinois, United StatesGR6. ...


Bardeen and his wife Jane had three children, James and William Bardeen and Elizabeth Greytak, and six grandchildren when he died.[1]


Personal life

Bardeen married Jane Maxwell on July 18, 1938. While at Princeton, he met Jane during a visit to his old friends in Pittsburgh. is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ...


Bardeen was a man with a very unassuming personality. While he served as a professor for almost 40 years at the University of Illinois, he was best remembered by neighbors for throwing cookouts where he would cook for his friends, many of whom were unaware of his accomplishments at the university. He enjoyed playing golf and going on picnics with his family.[12] This article is about the sport. ... Friends and family gather for a picnic in a public park in Columbus, Ohio, c. ...


It has been said that Bardeen proves wrong the stereotype of the "crazy scientist."[12] Lillian Hoddeson, a University of Illinois historian who wrote a book on Bardeen, said that because he "differed radically from the popular stereotype of genius and was uninterested in appearing other than ordinary, the public and the media often overlooked him."[12] For other uses, see Stereotype (disambiguation). ... A genius is a person of great intelligence. ...


Legacy

Quotation
Near the end of this decade, when they begin enumerating the names of the people who had the greatest impact on the 20th century, the name of John Bardeen, who died last week, has to be near, or perhaps even arguably at, the top of the list... Mr. Bardeen shared two Nobel Prizes and won numerous other honors. But what greater honor can there be when each of us can look all around us and everywhere see the reminders of a man whose genius has made our lives longer, healthier and better.
      — "Chicago Tribune" Editorial, February 3, 1991

In honor of Professor Bardeen, the engineering quadrangle at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is named the Bardeen Quad. Quadrangle of University of Sydney In architecture, a quadrangle, or more colloquially, quad, is a space or courtyard, usually square or rectangular in plan, the sides of which are entirely or mainly occupied by parts of a large building. ...


Also in honor of Bardeen, Sony Corporation endowed a $53 million John Bardeen professorial chair at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, beginning in 1990. The current John Bardeen Professor is Nick Holonyak, Bardeen's first doctoral student and protege. Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Nick Holonyak Jr. ...


At the time of Bardeen's death, then-University of Illinois chancellor Morton Weir said, "It is a rare person whose work changes the life of every American; John's did."[17]


Bardeen is honored on a 2008 United States Postage Stamp as part of the "American Scientists" series. The stamp was unveiled in a ceremony at the University of Illinois.[20] A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ...


References

Cited references

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "John Bardeen, Nobelist, Inventor of Transistor, Dies", Washington Post, 1991-01-31. Retrieved on 2007-08-03. 
  2. ^ a b c d Biography of John Bardeen. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-11-01.
  3. ^ a b c Biography of John Bardeen 1. PBS. Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  4. ^ a b Curriculum Vitae of John Bardeen. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-11-01.
  5. ^ a b David Pines (2003-05-01). John Bardeen: genius in action. physicsworld.com. Retrieved on 2008-01-07.
  6. ^ Brattain quoted in Crystal Fire p. 127
  7. ^ Crystal Fire p. 132
  8. ^ a b Biography of John Bardeen 2. PBS. Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  9. ^ US patent 1745175 "Method and apparatus for controlling electric current" first filing in Canada on 22.10.1925
  10. ^ Diane Kormos Buchwald. American Scientist 91.2 (Mar.-Apr. 2003): 185-86.
  11. ^ Crystal Fire p. 278
  12. ^ a b c d "Nice Guys Can Finish As Geniuses at University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign.", Knight Ridder News Service, Chicago Tribune, 2003-01-25. Retrieved on 2007-08-03. 
  13. ^ Biography at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved on 2007-11-06.
  14. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-11-06.
  15. ^ a b c d Biography of John Bardeen 3. PBS. Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  16. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics in 1972. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-12-19.
  17. ^ a b "Physicist John Bardeen, 82, transistor pioneer, Nobelist", Chicago Sun-Times, 1991-01-31. Retrieved on 2007-08-03. 
  18. ^ Nobel Laureates Facts. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-12-19.
  19. ^ Fritz London Memorial Prize. Duke University. Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  20. ^ Bardeen Stamp Celebrated at Campus Ceremony. University of Illinois. Retrieved on 2008-03-04.

Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

General references

  • Hoddeson, Lillian and Vicki Daitch. True Genius: the Life and Science of John Bardeen. National Academy Press, 2002. ISBN 0-309-08408-3

External links

Awards
Preceded by
Dennis Gabor
IEEE Medal of Honor
1971
Succeeded by
Jay W. Forester
Persondata
NAME Bardeen, John
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Physicist
DATE OF BIRTH May 23, 1908(1908-05-23)
PLACE OF BIRTH Madison, Wisconsin
DATE OF DEATH January 30, 1991
PLACE OF DEATH Boston, Massachusetts
Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Madison (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Boston redirects here. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
John Bardeen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (984 words)
John Bardeen was born in Madison, Wisconsin to Charles and Althea Bardeen.
Bardeen's first PhD student was Nick Holonyak (1954), the inventor of the first visible laser and light-emitting diode, in 1962.
Bardeen received the IEEE Medal of Honor in 1971 for "his profound contributions to the understanding of the conductivity of solids, to the invention of the transistor, and to the microscopic theory of superconductivity."
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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