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Encyclopedia > John Barbour

For the 19th-century U.S. senator from Virginia see John Strode Barbour Jr. Categories: People stubs ...


John Barbour (c. 1316 - March 13, 1395), Scottish poet, was born, perhaps in Aberdeenshire, early in the 14th century, approximately 1316. In a letter of safe-conduct dated 1357, allowing him to go to Oxford for study, he is described as archdeacon of Aberdeen. He is named in a similar letter in 1364 and in another in 1368 granting him permission to pass to France, probably for further study, at the university of Paris. In 1372 he was one of the auditors of exchequer, and in 1373 a clerk of audit in the king's household. In 1375 (he gives the date, and his age as 60) he composed what is commonly considered as his best known poem, The Brus, for which he received, in 1377, the gift of ten pounds, and, in 1378, a life-pension of twenty shillings, which he devoted to provide for a mass to be sung for himself and his parents, and this was duly done in the church of St. Machar until the Reformation. Events Pope John XXII elected to the papacy. ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... Events End of reign of Hungary by Capet-Anjou family. ... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Scotlands location within the UK Languages with Official Status1 English Gaelic Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... Poets are authors of poems, or of other forms of poetry such as dramatic verse. ... The traditional county of Aberdeenshire (Siorrachd Obar Dheathain in Gaelic) borders Banffshire and Inverness-shire to the west, Perthshire, Angus and Kincardineshire to the south, and the North Sea to the north and east. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right}. It is housed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to... Events Pope John XXII elected to the papacy. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... An archdeacon is a position in Christian churches. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: Université de Paris) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganized as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ...


Additional rewards followed, including the renewal of his exchequer auditorship (though he may have continued to enjoy it since his first appointment) and ten pounds to his pension. The only biographical evidence of his closing years is his signature as a witness to sundry deeds in the "Register of Aberdeen" as late as 1392. According to the obit-book of Aberdeen Cathedral, he died on March 13, 1395. The state records show that his life-pension was not paid after that date. March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... Events End of reign of Hungary by Capet-Anjou family. ...


Considerable controversy has arisen regarding Barbour's literary work. If he is the author of the five or six long poems which have been ascribed to him by different writers, he adds to his importance as the father of Scots poetry the reputation of being one of the most voluminous writers in Early Scots, certainly the most voluminous of all Scots poets. Scots (or Lallans, meaning Lowlands), often Lowland Scots to distinguish it from the Gaelic of the Highlands, is a language used in Scotland, as well as parts of Northern Ireland and border areas of the Republic of Ireland, where it is known in official circles as Ulster Scots or Ullans... This article needs cleanup. ...


The Brus, in 14,000 octosyllabic lines and twenty books, is a narrative poem with a purpose partly historical, partly patriotic. It celebrates the praises of Robert the Bruce and James Douglas, the flowers of Scottish chivalry, opening with a description of the state of Scotland at the death of Alexander III (1286) and concluding with the death of Douglas and the burial of the Bruce's heart (1332). The central episode is the battle of Bannockburn. Patriotic as the sentiment is, it is in more general terms than is found in later Scots literature. The king is a hero of the chivalric type common in contemporary romance; freedom is a "noble thing" to be sought and won at all costs; the opponents of such freedom are shown in the dark colours which history and poetic propriety require; but there is none of the complacency of the merely provincial habit of mind. The lines do not lack vigour; and there are passages of high merit, notably the oft-quoted section beginning "A! fredome is a noble thing." Robert I, King of Scots, usually known as Robert the Bruce (July 11, 1274 – June 7, 1329, reigned 1306 – 1329), was, according to a modern biographer (Geoffrey Barrow), a great hero who lived in a minor country. ... James Douglas can refer to: James Douglas (the Good, the Black) an early-14th century Lord of Douglas and champion of Robert the Bruce James Douglas a mid-19th century governor of Vancouver Island James Buster Douglas, a boxer James Douglas, 4th Duke of Hamilton James Douglas, 4th Earl of... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Scotlands location within the UK Languages with Official Status1 English Gaelic Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... Alexander III (September 4, 1241 – March 19, 1286), king of Scots, also known as Alexander the Glorious, ranks as one of Scotlands greatest kings. ... Events Margaret I of Scotland became queen of Scotland, end of Canmore dynasty. ... Events November 7 - Lucerne joins the Swiss Confederation with Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden. ... The Battle of Bannockburn (June 23, 1314 – June 24, 1314) was a significant Scottish victory in the Wars of Scottish Independence. ...


Despite a number of errors of fact, notably the confusion of the three Bruces in the person of the hero, the poem is historically trustworthy as compared with contemporary verse-chronicle, and especially with the Wallace of the next century, but it is much more than a rhyming chronicle; it contains many fine descriptive passages, and sings the praises of freedom. Its style is somewhat bald and severe. No one has doubted Barbur's authorship of the Brus, but argument has been attempted to show that the text as we have it is an edited copy, perhaps by John Ramsay, a Perth scribe, who wrote out the two extant texts, preserved in the Advocates library, Edinburgh, and in the library of St John's College, Cambridge. Illustration of a 15th century scribe This is about scribe, the profession. ... Full name The College of Saint John the Evangelist of the University of Cambridge Motto - Named after The Hospital of Saint John the Evangelist, Cambridge, named after John the Evangelist Previous names - Established 1511 Sister College Balliol College Master Prof. ...


Yet another work was added to the list of Barbour's works by the discovery in the library of the University of Cambridge, by Henry Bradshaw, of a long Scots poem of over 33,000 lines, dealing with Legends of the Saints, as told in the Legenda A urea and other legendaries. The general likeness of this poem to Barbour's accepted work in verse-length, dialect and style, and the facts that the lives of English saints are excluded and those of St. Machar (the patron saint of Aberdeen) and St. Ninian are inserted, made the ascription plausible. Later criticism, though divided, has tended in the contrary direction, and has based its strongest negative judgment on the consideration of rhymes, assonance and vocabulary. The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... Henry Bradshaw can refer to more than one person; Henry Bradshaw (poet) (c. ... This article is about the Scottish city. ... Saint Ninian (c. ...


Attempts have been made to name Barbour as the author of the Buik of Alexander (a translation of the Roman d'Alexandre and associated pieces), as known in the unique edition, c. 1580, printed at the Edinburgh press of Alexander Arbuthnot. Alexander Arbuthnot (1538-1583) was a Scottish ecclesiastic poet. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
John Barbour - LoveToKnow 1911 (1143 words)
BARBOUR 1 3 16 - 1 395), Scottish poet, was born, perhaps in Aberdeenshire, early in the 14th century, approximately 1316.
The general likeness of this poem to Barbour's accepted work in verse-length, dialect and style, and the facts that the lives of English saints are excluded and those of St Machar (the patron saint of Aberdeen) and St Ninian are inserted, made the ascription plausible.
John balormy y es his name, a man of ful gud fame." But whether this north-east Scots author is Barbour is a question which we cannot answer by means of the data at present available.
§2. John Barbour; "The Bruce". V. The Earliest Scottish Literature. Vol. 2. The End of the Middle Ages. The ... (2032 words)
In John Barbour, the author of The Bruce, we have a typical example of the prosperous churchman of the fourteenth century.
Barbour does not often draw full length portraits of his heroes; but, almost at the end of his poem, tells us how Douglas looked and what were his chief characteristics (XX, 511 ff.).
Barbour was not of the order whose “eye in a fine frenzy rolling, Doth glance from heaven to earth, from earth to heaven.” He was a God-fearing churchman and statesman, who thought it well to put on record his country’s deliverance, before, in the inglorious days of Bruce’s successors, its memory should have perished.
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