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Encyclopedia > John B. Magruder
John B. Magruder
John B. Magruder

John Bankhead Magruder (May 1, 1807February 19, 1871) was a U.S. Army officer in the Mexican War, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. Image File history File links John_B._Magruder. ... Image File history File links John_B._Magruder. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1871 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... The Mexican-American War was a war fought between the United States and Mexico between 1846 and 1848. ... For other meanings of confederate and confederacy, see confederacy (disambiguation) National Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God our Vindicator) Official language English de facto nationwide Various European and Native American languages regionally Capital Montgomery, Alabama February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861 Richmond, Virginia May 29, 1861–April 9, 1865 Largest... General is a high military rank, used by nearly every country in the world. ... The American Civil War (1861–1865) was fought in North America within the United States of America, between twenty-three mostly northern states of the Union and the Confederate States of America, a coalition of eleven southern states that declared their independence and claimed the right of secession from the...


Prince John Magruder, as he was known to army friends, was born in Port Royal, Virginia. He first attended the University of Virginia, where as a student, he had the opportunity to dine with President Thomas Jefferson. He graduated from the U.S. Military Academy in 1830 and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 7th U.S. Infantry regiment and then the 1st Artillery. Port Royal is a town located in Caroline County, Virginia. ... Website Virginia. ... The President of the United States (often abbreviated POTUS) is the head of state of the United States. ... Thomas Jefferson (April 13 (April 2 Old Style), 1743 – July 4, 1826) was the third (1801–1809) President of the United States, second (1797–1801) Vice President, first (1789–1795) United States Secretary of State, and an American statesman, ambassador to France, political philosopher, revolutionary, agriculturalist, horticulturist, land owner, architect... Alternate meanings: West Point (disambiguation). ... 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... A regiment is a military unit, larger than a company and smaller than a division. ...


Magruder served in Florida against the Seminole and under Winfield Scott in Mexico. He was brevetted to major for "gallant and meritorious conduct" at the battle of Cerro Gordo and to lieutenant colonel for his bravery in the storming of Chapultepec. He served on frontier duty in California and at Fort Leavenworth. State nickname: Sunshine State Other U.S. States Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville (largest metropolitan area is Miami) Governor Jeb Bush (R) Senators Bill Nelson (D) Mel Martinez (R) Official language(s) English Area 170,451 km² (22nd)  - Land 137,374 km²  - Water 30,486 km² (17. ... Seminole is the name of an American Indian tribe formed in Florida in the 18th century. ... Winfield Scott Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786 – May 29, 1866) was a United States lieutenant general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. ... In the US military, brevet refers to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... Major is the name most commonly given to the military rank equivalent to NATO rank code OF-3. ... Cerro Gordo may refer to: Cerro Gordo, North Carolina Cerro Gordo, Illinois Cerro Gordo County, Iowa This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... Chapultepec (Grasshopper Hill in the Nahuatl language) is a large hill on the outskirts of central Mexico City with much significance in Mexican history. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Senators Dianne Feinstein (D) Barbara Boxer (D) Official language(s) English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... In 1827, Colonel Henry Leavenworth established a post on the bluffs overlooking the western bank of the Missouri River to protect the fur trade, safeguard commerce on the Santa Fe Trail and maintain the peace among the inhabitants. ...


Prince John was tall and flamboyantly handsome. He spoke with a lisp, except when singing tenor, which he did frequently. His avocation was composing songs and staging concerts and amateur theater productions, something to relieve the tedium of peacetime garrison duty. This theatrical bent would come in handy in the war.


At the start of the Civil War, Magruder was assigned to the artillery in the garrison forces of Washington, D.C., but he resigned from the U.S. Army when Virginia seceded and he was commissioned a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army; he was quickly promoted to major general. He commanded the small Army of the Peninsula defending Richmond, Virginia against George B. McClellan's invasion of the Virginia Peninsula in the Union's Peninsula Campaign. This separate army was incorporated as a division in the Army of Northern Virginia on April 12, 1862. Washington, D.C. is the capital city of the United States of America. ... The examples and perspective in this article do not represent a worldwide view. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was formed in February, 1861, to defend the Confederate States of America, which had itself been formed that same year when seven southern states seceded from the United States (with four more to follow). ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia, in the United States of America. ... George McClellan George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general (and briefly the general-in-chief of all the Union armies) during the American Civil War. ... The Virginia Peninsula is a peninsula in southeast Virginia, bounded by the York River, James River, Hampton Roads, and Chesapeake Bay. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Map of the events of the campaign. ... A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to fifteen thousand soldiers. ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


During the Battle of Yorktown, Magruder completely deceived McClellan as to his strength by ostentatiously marching small numbers of troops past the same position multiple times, appearing to be a larger force. He moved his artillery around frequently and fired liberally when Union troops were sighted. This subterfuge caused McClellan's Army of the Potomac weeks of needless delay. Magruder performed poorly and unaggressively in the subsequent Seven Days Battles, however. Some blame heavy drinking for his erratic performance. At the Battle of Malvern Hill, Magruder received orders from Lee after a long delay and his execution of those orders as if they were current caused considerable losses during the bloody assault. The Battle of Yorktown (1862) was a battle of the American Civil War that was part of the Union offensive called the Peninsular Campaign. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... Eastern Theater operations in 1862 The Seven Days Battles was a series of six major battles over the seven days from June 25 to July 1, 1862, near Richmond, Virginia, in the American Civil War. ... Battle of Malvern Hill Conflict American Civil War Date July 1, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Malvern Hill, also known as the Battle of Poindexter’s Farm, took place on July 1, 1862 in Henrico County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of...


General Robert E. Lee significantly reorganized his army after the Seven Days, replacing whom he thought were ineffective commanders, and Magruder fell victim. He was soon reassigned to command the District of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. Robert Edward Lee, as a U.S. Army Colonel before the war Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was a career army officer and the most successful general of the Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ... ... State nickname: Land of Enchantment Other U.S. States Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Governor Bill Richardson (D) Senators Pete Domenici (R) Jeff Bingaman (D) Official language(s) English and Spanish Area 315,194 km² (5th)  - Land 314,590 km²  - Water 607 km² (0. ... State nickname: The Grand Canyon State, The Copper State Other U.S. States Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Governor Janet Napolitano (D) Senators John McCain (R) Jon Kyl (R) Official language(s) English Area 295,254 km² (6th)  - Land 294,312 km²  - Water 942 km² (0. ...


On January 1, 1863, Magruder's forces won the (mostly naval) Battle of Galveston, recapturing the city and port for the Confederacy. The Confederate Congress published its official Thanks: January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Battle of Galveston occurred on January 1, 1863 when Confederate forces under Gen. ...

...The bold, intrepid, and gallant conduct of Maj. Gen. J. Bankhead Magruder, Col. Thomas Green, Maj. Leon Smith, and other officers, and of the Texan Rangers and soldiers engaged in the attack on, and victory achieved over, the land and naval forces of the enemy at Galveston, on the 1st of January, 1863, eminently entitle them to the thanks of Congress and the country. ... This brilliant achievement, resulting, under the providence of God, in the capture of the war steamer Harriet Lane and the defeat and ignominious flight of the hostile fleet from the harbor, the recapture of the city and the raising of the blockade of the port of Galveston, signally evinces that superior force may be overcome by skillful conception and daring courage.

From August, 1864, to March, 1865, Magruder commanded the Department of Arkansas, but then returned to command the District of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. Unfortunately, it was only a matter of months before the entire Trans-Mississippi region was surrendered to the Union by General Kirby Smith. Note: as an adjective (stressed on the second syllable instead of the first), august means honorable. ... 1864 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1865 is a common year starting on Sunday. ... State nickname: The Natural State Other U.S. States Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Governor Mike Huckabee (R) Senators Blanche Lincoln (D) Mark Pryor (D) Official language(s) English Area 137,732 km² (29th)  - Land 134,856 km²  - Water 2,876 km² (2. ... Portrait of Edmund Kirby Smith during the Civil War Edmund Kirby Smith (1824–1893) was a general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, notable for his command of the western Confederacy after the fall of Vicksburg. ...


After the war, Magruder fled to Mexico and entered the service of Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico as a major general in the Imperial Mexican Army, but by May, 1867, the emperor's forces had succumbed to a siege and the emperor himself was executed. Magruder returned to Houston, Texas, where he died in 1871. He is buried in Galveston, the scene of his greatest military success, in Episcopal Cemetery. Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico, (July 6, 1832 – June 19, 1867) was a member of Austrias Imperial Habsburg family. ... This article is about the month of May. ... 1867 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... City nickname: Space City Location Location in the state of Texas Government Counties Harris County Fort Bend County Montgomery County Mayor Bill White Physical characteristics Area      Land      Water 601. ... 1871 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Fort Magruder, a Confederate stronghold In James City County during the Battle of Williamsburg, was named for him. The small town of Magruder in York County, Virginia near Williamsburg was named for him. During World War II, about 1943, the U.S. Navy relocated the residents and the entire former town of Magruder became part of a large military reservation known as Camp Peary. Beginning in 1951, the facility has been designated for "Armed Forces Experimental Training Activity", and unofficially, is known as a Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) facility nicknamed "The Farm". Access was still highly restricted as of 2005. Also name for him is a major connector road, Magruder Boulevard, (Virginia State Highway 134), which runs through the independent city of Hampton and York County. James City County is a county located on the Virginia Peninsula in the state of Virginia. ... The Battle of Williamsburg, also known as the Battle of Fort Magruder, took place on May 5, 1862 in York County and Williamsburg, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Magruder was a small town in Virginia near Williamsburg in York County which is now extinct. ... Location in the state of Virginia Formed 1634 Seat Yorktown Area  - Total  - Water 558 km² (216 mi²) 285 km² (110 mi²) 50. ... Williamsburg is a city located on the Virginia Peninsula in the Hampton Roads area of Virginia. ... World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atom bomb. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Camp Peary is a military reservation in York County, Virginia. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Virginia State Highway 134 in located the Virginia Peninsula region of Hampton Roads, Virginia. ... An independent city is a city that does not form part of another local government entity. ... Hampton is an independent city located in Virginia. ...


See also

Map of the events of the campaign. ... Magruder was a small town in Virginia near Williamsburg in York County which is now extinct. ... Lost counties, cities and towns of Virginia are those which formerly existed in the English Colony of Virginia or the Commonwealth of Virginia as one of the United States. ...

References

  • Cadorph, Paul D., Prince John Magruder: His Life and Campaigns, Wiley, 1996, ISBN 0-471-15941-7
  • Eicher, John H., & Eicher, David J.: Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3
  • Foote, Shelby, The Civil War, A Narrative: Fort Sumter to Perryville, Random House, 1958, ISBN 0-394-49517-9

 
 

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