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Encyclopedia > John B. Floyd
John Buchanan Floyd


In office
March 6, 1857 – December 29, 1860
President James Buchanan
Preceded by Jefferson Davis
Succeeded by Joseph Holt

Born June 1, 1806(1806-06-01)
Blacksburg, Virginia, U.S.
Died August 26, 1863 (aged 57)
Abingdon, Virginia, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Profession Lawyer, Politician

John Buchanan Floyd (June 1, 1806August 26, 1863), was a Virginia politician (legislator and governor), U.S. Secretary of War, and the Confederate general in the American Civil War who lost the crucial Battle of Fort Donelson. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1445x2000, 1007 KB) TITLE: Hon. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868) was the 15th president of the United States (1857–1861). ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... Joseph Holt (January 6, 1807–August 1, 1894) was U.S. Secretary of War and a U.S. Postmaster General under James Buchanan. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Blacksburg is the name of some places in the United States of America: Blacksburg, South Carolina Blacksburg, Virginia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Motto: Honor Pro Antiquis, Fides Pro Futuris Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State Virginia County Washington Founded 1776 Government  - Mayor Lois Humphreys Area  - City  8. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Secretary of War was a member of the Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Andrew H. Foote John B. Floyd Gideon J. Pillow Simon B. Buckner Strength 24,531 District of Cairo & Western Flotilla 16,171 Casualties 2,691 (507 killed, 1,976 wounded, 208 captured/missing) 13,846 (327 killed...

Contents

Early life

Floyd was born at "Smithfield" estate, Blacksburg, Virginia. He was the son of John Floyd (1783–1837), who served as a representative in Congress from 1817 to 1829 and Governor of Virginia from 1830 to 1834. Blacksburgs location within Virgina Virginias location within the United States Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Montgomery Founded 1798 Government  - Mayor Ron Rordam Area  - Town  19. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... John Floyd (April 24, 1783–August 17, 1837) was a United States Representative from Virginia. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Tim Kaine, the current Governor The Governor of Virginia serves as the chief executive of the Commonwealth of Virginia for a four-year term. ...


After graduating from South Carolina College in 1826 (by some accounts 1829), Floyd practiced law in his native state and at Helena, Arkansas, where he lost a large fortune and his health in a cotton-planting venture. In 1839, he returned to Virginia and settled in Washington County, which he represented in the state legislature in 1847–49 and again in 1853. From 1849 to 1852, he was Governor of Virginia. As Governor, he recommended to the legislature the enactment of a law laying an import tax on the products of states that refused to surrender fugitive slaves owned by Virginia masters. The University of South Carolina, Columbia (USC or Carolina) is a public, co-educational, research university located in Columbia, South Carolina, United States. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Helena-West Helena, Arkansas. ... Washington County is a county located in the state of Virginia. ... The Virginia General Assembly is the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Virginia, a U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Secretary of War

In March 1857, Floyd became Secretary of War in the cabinet of President James Buchanan, where his lack of administrative ability was soon apparent. In December 1860, on ascertaining that Floyd had honored heavy drafts made by government contractors in anticipation of their earnings, the president requested his resignation. Several days later Floyd was indicted for malversation in office, although the indictment was overruled in 1861 on technical grounds. There is no proof that he profited by these irregular transactions; in fact, he went out of the office financially embarrassed. The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868) was the 15th president of the United States (1857–1861). ...

President Buchanan and his Cabinet
From left to right: Jacob Thompson, Lewis Cass, John B. Floyd, James Buchanan, Howell Cobb, Isaac Toucey, Joseph Holt and Jeremiah S. Black, (c. 1859)

Although he had openly opposed secession before the election of Abraham Lincoln, his conduct after the election, especially after his breach with Buchanan, fell under suspicion, and he was accused in the press of having sent large stores of government arms to Federal arsenals in the South in the anticipation of the Civil War. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Jacob Thompson (May 15, 1810–March 24, 1885) was a U.S. politician. ... Lewis Cass (October 9, 1782 – June 17, 1866) was an American military officer and politician. ... James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868) was the 15th president of the United States (1857–1861). ... Howell Cobb (September 7, 1815–October 9, 1868) was an American political figure. ... Isaac Toucey (November 15, 1792–July 30, 1869) was an American statesman who served as a U.S. Senator, Secretary of the Navy, Attorney General of the United States and Governor of Connecticut. ... Joseph Holt (January 6, 1807–August 1, 1894) was U.S. Secretary of War and a U.S. Postmaster General under James Buchanan. ... Jeremiah Sullivan Black (January 10, 1810–August 19, 1883) was an American statesman and lawyer. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ...


After his resignation, a congressional commission in the summer and fall of 1861 investigated Floyd's actions as Secretary of War. All of his records of orders and shipments of arms from 1859 to 1860 were examined. It is recorded that in response to John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry he bolstered the Federal arsenals in some Southern states by over 115,000 muskets and rifles in late 1859. He also ordered heavy ordnance to be shipped to the Federal forts in Galveston Harbor, Texas, and the new fort on Ship Island off the coast of Mississippi.[1]


In the last days of his term, he apparently had an intention to send these heavy guns, but his orders were revoked by the president. During the year 1860, the Southern states actually received less than their full quota of arms and the heavy guns were a normal shipment required to complete the construction of Federal forts.[citation needed]


His resignation as Secretary of War, on December 29, 1860, was precipitated by the refusal of Buchanan to order Major Robert Anderson to abandon Fort Sumter, which eventually led to the start of the war. On January 27, 1861, he was indicted by the District of Columbia grand jury for conspiracy and fraud. Floyd appeared in criminal court in Washington, D.C., on March 7, 1861, to answer the charges against him. According to Harper's Weekly, the indictments were thrown out. is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Anderson after the War Robert Anderson (June 14, 1805 – October 26, 1871) was a Union Army officer in the American Civil War, known for his command of Fort Sumter at the start of the war. ... Fort Sumter, a Third System masonry coastal fortification located in Charleston harbor, South Carolina, was named after General Thomas Sumter. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... ... In the American common law legal system, a grand jury is a type of jury which determines if there is enough evidence for a trial. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Teresa Bagioli Sickles confession, 1859 Harpers Weekly (A Journal of Civilization) was an American political magazine based in New York City. ...

THE INDICTMENTS AGAINST FLOYD QUASHED. The indictments against Ex-Secretary Floyd have been quashed in the Court at Washington, on the ground—first, that there was no evidence of fraud on his part; and second, that the charge of malfeasance in the matter of the Indian bonds was precluded from trial by the act of 1857, which forbids a prosecution when the party implicated has testified before a Committee of Congress touching the matter.

Harper's Weekly, March 30, 1861 is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Civil War

General John B. Floyd

After the secession of Virginia, Floyd was commissioned a major general in the Provisional Army of Virginia, but on May 23, 1861, he was appointed a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army. He was first employed in some unsuccessful operations in the Kanawha Valley of western Virginia under Robert E. Lee, where he was wounded in the arm at the Battle of Carnifex Ferry on September 10. In January 1862, he was dispatched to the Western Theater to report to General Albert Sidney Johnston and was given command of Fort Donelson. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government. ... Kanawha County is a county located in the state of West Virginia. ... // This article is about the Confederate general. ... Battle of Carnifex Ferry Conflict American Civil War Date September 10, 1861 Place Nicholas County, West Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Carnifex Ferry took place on September 10, 1861 in Nicholas County, West Virginia as part of the operations in West Virginia during the American Civil War. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Western Theater Overview (1861 – 1865) This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... This article or section should be merged with Battle of Fort Donelson Fort Donelson, Tennessee, was the site of the first significant Union victory of the American Civil War. ...


Fort Donelson protected the crucial Cumberland River and, indirectly, the manufacturing city of Nashville and Confederate control of Middle Tennessee. It was the companion to Fort Henry on the nearby Tennessee River, which, on February 6, 1862, was captured by Union Army Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and river gunboats. Floyd was not an appropriate choice to defend such a vital point, having political influence, but virtually no military experience. General Johnston had other experienced, more senior, generals (P.G.T. Beauregard and William J. Hardee) available and made a serious error in selecting Floyd. Floyd had little military influence on the Battle of Fort Donelson itself, deferring to his more experienced subordinates, Brig. Gens. Gideon J. Pillow and Simon Bolivar Buckner. As the Union forces surrounded the fort and the town of Dover, the Confederates launched an assault on February 15 in an attempt to open an escape route. Although successful at first, indecision on General Pillow's part left the Confederates in their trenches, facing growing reinforcements for Grant. The Cumberland River is an important waterway in the southern United States. ... “Nashville” redirects here. ... Middle Tennessee is a distinct portion of the state of Tennessee, delineated according to law as well as custom. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Andrew H. Foote Lloyd Tilghman # Strength 15,000 plus the 7 ships of the Western Flotilla 3,000–3,400 Casualties 40 129[1] The Battle of Fort Henry was fought February 6, 1862, in western Tennessee... A riverboat passing under the Henley Street Bridge on the Tennessee River. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BO-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. ... William J. Hardee (1817-1873) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Andrew H. Foote John B. Floyd Gideon J. Pillow Simon B. Buckner Strength 24,531 District of Cairo & Western Flotilla 16,171 Casualties 2,691 (507 killed, 1,976 wounded, 208 captured/missing) 13,846 (327 killed... Gideon Johnson Pillow (June 8, 1806 – October 8, 1878) was an American lawyer, politician, and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Simon Bolivar Buckner Simon Bolivar Buckner (April 1, 1823 – January 8, 1914) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, the officer who yielded to Ulysses S. Grants famous demand for unconditional surrender at the Battle of... Dover is a city located in Stewart County, Tennessee. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Early in the morning of February 16, at a council of war, the generals decided to surrender their army. Floyd, concerned that he would be arrested for treason if captured by the North, turned his command over to Gideon Pillow, who immediately turned it over to Buckner. Pillow escaped on a small boat across the Cumberland and the next morning Floyd escaped by steamboat with two regiments from his old Virginia command, just before Buckner surrendered to Grant, one of the great strategic defeats of the Civil War. Floyd was relieved of his command by Confederate President Jefferson Davis, without a court of inquiry, on March 11, 1862. He resumed his commission as a major general of Virginia Militia, but his health soon failed and he died a year later at Abingdon, Virginia, where he is buried in Sinking Spring Cemetery. is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A council of war is a term in military science that describes a meeting held to decide on a course of action, usually in the midst of a battle. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The President of the Confederate States was the Head of State of the short-lived republic of the Confederate States of America, which seceded from the United States. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Motto: Honor Pro Antiquis, Fides Pro Futuris Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State Virginia County Washington Founded 1776 Government  - Mayor Lois Humphreys Area  - City  8. ...


In memoriam

Floyd County in northwest Georgia, home to the cities of Rome and Cave Spring, is named for John Floyd. Floyd County locator map Floyd County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. ...


References

  • Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Gott, Kendall D., Where the South Lost the War: An Analysis of the Fort Henry—Fort Donelson Campaign, February 1862, Stackpole books, 2003, ISBN 0-8117-0049-6.
  • U.S. War Department, The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1880–1901.
  • Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders, Louisiana State University Press, 1959, ISBN 0-8071-0823-5.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

The Official Records of the American Civil War or often more simply the Official Records or ORs, constitute a unique, authentic, and comprehensive collection of first-hand accounts, orders, reports, and correspondence drawn from War and Navy Department records of both Confederate and Union governments during the American Civil War. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Official Records, Series III, Vol. I.
Preceded by
William "Extra Billy" Smith
Governor of Virginia
1849–1852
Succeeded by
Joseph Johnson
Preceded by
Jefferson Davis
United States Secretary of War
1857–1860
Succeeded by
Joseph Holt

 
 

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