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Encyclopedia > John A. Macdonald
The Right Honourable
Sir John Alexander Macdonald
 
John A. Macdonald

Macdonald in 1868.
(age 53)
There have been several John Alexander Macdonalds: John Alexander Macdonald, Canadian prime minister John Alexander Macdonald (Prince Edward Island politician), Canadian member of parliament for Kings Prince Edward Island. ... The Right Honourable (abbreviated as or ) is an honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain people in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Anglophone Caribbean and in other Commonwealth Realms, and elsewhere. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Monarch Queen Victoria
In office
July 1, 1867 – November 5, 1873
Succeeded by Alexander Mackenzie
In office
October 17, 1878 – June 6, 1891
Preceded by Alexander Mackenzie
Succeeded by John Abbott

Born January 10 or 11, 1815
Glasgow, Scotland
Died June 6, 1891
Ottawa, Ontario
Political party Conservative
Spouse Isabella Clark (1st wife)
Agnes Bernard (2nd wife)
Children John Alexander (died in infancy) and Hugh John by Isabella;
Mary by Agnes.
Alma mater none (articled with a lawyer in Kingston)
Profession Lawyer
Religion Presbyterian; later Anglican

Sir John Alexander Macdonald GCB, KCMG, PC (January 11,[1] 1815June 6, 1891) was the first Prime Minister of Canada and the dominant figure of Canadian Confederation. Macdonald's tenure in office spanned 19 years, making him the second longest serving Prime Minister of Canada. He is the only Canadian Prime Minister to win six majority governments. He was the major proponent of a national railway, completed in 1885, linking Canada from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans. He won praise for having helped forge a nation of sprawling geographic size, with two diverse European colonial origins, and a multiplicity of cultural backgrounds and political views. Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... For other persons named Alexander Mackenzie, see Alexander Mackenzie (disambiguation). ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other persons named Alexander Mackenzie, see Alexander Mackenzie (disambiguation). ... The Hon. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... -1... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation. ... Isabella Clark (-1857) was the first wife of Sir John A. Macdonald, first Prime Minister of Canada. ... Sir Hugh John Macdonald, PC , BA (March 13, 1850 – March 29, 1929) was the only surviving son of Sir John A. Macdonald, a Prime Minister of Canada, and was a politician in his own right, serving as a member of the Canadian House of Commons and a federal cabinet minister... For other uses, see Alma mater (disambiguation). ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... In the Westminster System, a majority government is one in which the government enjoys an absolute majority of seats in the legislature or Parliament. ...

Contents

Early years, 1815–1830

John Alexander Macdonald was born in Glasgow, Scotland on January 11,[2] 1815 at 4:15 (am or pm is not listed).[1] His father was Hugh Macdonald, an unsuccessful merchant, who had married his mother, Helen Shaw, on October 21, 1811.[3] Together, they produced five children. The first-born, William died in infancy. The next was Margaret who was followed a year and a half later by John Alexander, then a younger brother, James and a baby sister named Louisa. After the failure of Hugh Macdonald's business ventures, the family emigrated to Kingston, Upper Canada in 1820 along with thousands of others seeking affordable land and promises of new prosperity.[4] For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Murney Tower, Kingston The Fort Henry Guard performing an historical demonstration The Prince George Hotel Kingston, Ontario, the first capital[1] of Canada, is located at the eastern end of Lake Ontario, where the lake runs into the St. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council...


Bad luck followed the family to their new country. When he was only seven, Macdonald watched as his younger brother, James was struck and killed by a drunken servant who was supposed to be looking after them.[5] And, Hugh Macdonald's business ventures in the Kingston area were scarcely more successful than they had been in Scotland.[6] However, the family still managed to scrape up the money to send Macdonald to Kingston's Midland Grammar School where, according to biographer Donald Creighton, he studied subjects such as Latin, French and mathematics. "Already he was a voracious reader," Creighton writes, "and he would sit for hours deep in a book, almost oblivious to what was going on."[7] At 14, Macdonald switched to a school for "general and classical education" founded by a newly-arrived Presbyterian minister from Scotland. It was one of the few schools in Upper Canada that taught both boys and girls.[8] Donald Grant Creighton, CC, MA, BA (July 15, 1902 – December 19, 1979) was a noted Canadian historian. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ...


Macdonald's formal schooling ended at 15, a common experience at the time when only the most prosperous were able to attend university.[9] Nevertheless, Macdonald later regretted leaving school when he did remarking to his private secretary Joseph Pope that if he had attended university, he might have embarked on a literary career. "He did not add, as he might have done," Pope wrote in his biography of Macdonald, "that the successful government of millions of men, the strengthening of an empire, the creation of a great dominion, call for the possession and exercise of rarer qualities than are necessary to the achievement of literary fame."[10] Sir Joseph Pope, K.C.M.G., C.V.O. (16 August 1854 – 2 December 1926) was a Canadian public servant. ...


Law career, 1830–1843

Professional training, 1830–1836

Macdonald's parents decided he should become a lawyer after leaving school.[11] As Donald Creighton writes, "law was a broad, well-trodden path to comfort, influence, even to power." It was also "the obvious choice for a boy who seemed as attracted to study as he was uninterested in trade."[12] Besides, Macdonald needed to start earning money immediately to support his family because his father's business ventures were failing. "I had no boyhood," he complained many years later. "From the age of 16, I began to earn my own living."[13]

A few months after he opened his first law office in 1835, Macdonald moved with his parents and sisters to this two and a half storey stone house on Kingston's Rideau Street.
Library and Archives Canada.

He travelled by steamboat to Toronto (then known as York), where he passed an examination set by the Law Society of Upper Canada.[14] In 1830, there were no law schools, so prospective lawyers wrote the entrance exam, then learned the trade through on-the-job training by articling with an established lawyer. Macdonald was extremely fortunate to begin his apprenticeship with William Lyon Mackenzie, a young lawyer who was a prominent member of Kingston's rising Scottish community. Mackenzie practised corporate law, a lucrative specialty that Macdonald himself would later pursue.[15] A promising law student, Macdonald was managing a branch office for Mackenzie in Napanee at age 17. It meant much more independence and responsibility.[16] In 1833, Mackenzie permitted his articling student to leave his firm to run the law practice of Macdonald's ailing cousin, Lowther Pennington Macpherson, at Picton. By all accounts, the 19-year-old Macdonald did well.[17] But in the summer of 1835, he decided to return to Kingston to open his own practice after George Mackenzie's sudden death during a cholera epidemic.[18] Biographer Donald Swainson writes that Macdonald was determined to step into Mackenzie's shoes as the "leading lawyer within Kingston's Scottish Presbyterian community, a community that was quickly becoming the dominant force in the life of the city."[19] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... York was the name of Toronto, Ontario, between 1793 and 1834 and second captial of Upper Canada. ... The Law Society of Upper Canada (LSUC) is responsible for the self-regulation of lawyers in the province of Ontario. ... Greater Napanee (2001 population 15,132) is a town in Lennox and Addington County in eastern Ontario, Canada approximately 40 kilometres west of Kingston. ... Picton Harbour in the winter Picton is a town and the county seat of Prince Edward County in central Ontario, Canada. ...


Early successes, 1836–1837

Macdonald was then called to the Bar on February 6, 1836.[20] Soon after opening his own law firm he took in two students: Oliver Mowat, a future premier of Ontario and like Macdonald himself, a Father of Confederation, and Alexander Campbell, future Father of Confederation, federal cabinet minister and Lieutenant Governor of Ontario.[21] With the help of his students, Macdonald "busied himself with lucrative but tedious work, such as chasing down unpaid bills and searching titles."[22] Then suddenly, in 1837, Macdonald switched to criminal law for two years. Biographer Richard Gwyn writes that although there's no documentary evidence, there is a "plausible explanation" for Macdonald's motives: The Call to the Bar is a legal term of art in most common law jurisdictions. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Honourable Sir Oliver Mowat, QC (July 22, 1820 – 19 April 1903) was a Canadian politician, and premier of Ontario from 1872 to 1896. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... Sir Alexander Campbell The Honourable Sir Alexander Campbell, PC (March 9, 1822 – 24 May 1892) was an English-born, in Hedon, Canadian statesman and politician, and a father of Canadian Confederation. ... A Lieutenant Governor is a government official who is the subordinate or deputy of a Governor or Governor-General. ...

As a criminal lawyer who took on dramatic cases, Macdonald got himself noticed well beyond the narrow confines of the Kingston business community. He was operating now in the arena where he would spend by far the greatest part of his life – the court of public opinion. And while there he was learning the arts of argument and of persuasion that would serve him all his political life.[23]

Macdonald unsuccessfully defended a man accused of raping an eight-year-old girl but won praise from a local newspaper for conducting "a very able defence." He then won the acquittal of a man accused of murdering a friend after an argument. Alexander Campbell, Macdonald's student wrote years later that Macdonald had persuaded the jury by his "humour and strong liking for anecdote more than for his professional knowledge."[24]


Rebellions of 1837

The Rebellions of 1837 in Upper and Lower Canada proved to be a crucial turning point in Macdonald's legal career. In fact, biographer Donald Creighton argues that the rebellions "made him as a lawyer," giving him the "reputation of a conservative who was not afraid to battle for liberal principles."[25] Macdonald showed he was willing to take professional risks first by defending eight political prisoners from nearby counties who had been charged with treason for allegedly participating in the uprisings against colonial authorities. Macdonald succeeded in winning acquittals for all eight earning praise for his "ingenuity and ability" from a Kingston newspaper which also noted that the young barrister "is rapidly rising in his profession."[26] The Rebellions of 1837 were a pair of Canadian armed uprisings that occurred in 1837 and 1838 in response to frustrations in political reform and ethnic conflict. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... Donald Grant Creighton, CC, MA, BA (July 15, 1902 – December 19, 1979) was a noted Canadian historian. ... Conservative may refer to: Conservatism, political philosophy A member of a Conservative Party Conservative extension, premise of deductive logic Conservativity theorem, mathematical proof of conservative extension Conservative Judaism britney spears Category: ... Murney Tower, Kingston The Fort Henry Guard performing an historical demonstration The Prince George Hotel Kingston, Ontario, the first capital[1] of Canada, is located at the eastern end of Lake Ontario, where the lake runs into the St. ... For the musician, see Sikiru Ayinde Barrister. ...


Then, Macdonald served as co-counsel for John Ashley, the man in charge of a local military jail, who had himself been arrested and briefly imprisoned for allegedly helping 15 political prisoners escape from custody. Ashley sued Colonel Dundas, the military commander for illegal arrest. Dundas was a popular figure, but Macdonald helped persuade the jury to award Ashley substantial monetary damages. Macdonald, Creighton writes, was now associated "with the defence of the plain people against the encroachments of military power. The solid blue of his inherited conservatism was varied now, in a pleasantly interesting fashion, with a few threads of a different and livelier colour."[27]

Battle of the Windmill, near Prescott, Upper Canada, November 13, 1838.
Battle of the Windmill, near Prescott, Upper Canada, November 13, 1838.

Finally, Macdonald took his biggest risk of all by agreeing to advise American raiders who had participated in an abortive invasion to liberate Canada from what they saw as the yoke of British colonial oppression. The inept raiders had been captured after the Battle of the Windmill (1838, near Prescott, Ontario) – a battle in which 16 Canadians were killed and 60 wounded. Worst of all, the American invaders were accused of mutilating the body of a dead Canadian lieutenant. Creighton writes that Kingston was "mad with grief and rage and horror."[28] At least two other lawyers refused to help when the brother-in-law of one of the Americans pleaded with them to provide legal advice. Macdonald must have hesitated, but eventually said yes after the frantic brother-in-law knocked on his door one morning before he was out of bed. Image File history File links Battle_of_the_Windmill. ... Image File history File links Battle_of_the_Windmill. ... Combatants American Hunter insurgents United Kingdom, Canadian Loyalists Commanders Nils von Schoultz Henry Dundas Strength 250 American Hunter insurgents 500 regulars and 1133 Upper Canadian militia Casualties 18 - 53 dead 136 captured 17 dead 60 wounded The Battle of the Windmill is also a fictional battle in the book Animal... Prescott is a town of approximately 4,200 people on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River in Ontario, Canada, directly across from Ogdensburg, New York. ...

It was surely wisdom to have nothing to do with the whole affair. And yet, he took the case. Even he might have found it difficult to say why. A curious interest in people, a relish for cases which were odd and difficult, a jaunty recognition of the fact that professional prestige involved publicity, and, perhaps, a certain stubborn, independent conviction that these helpless and deluded men deserved at least the bare minimum of assistance – all these may have helped to move him to his decision.[29]

There was little Macdonald could do to defend the Americans. Under military rules governing courts martial, civilian lawyers were not allowed to question witnesses or address the judge. Macdonald could only give private advice which helped the brother-in-law to ask searching questions during his trial, but did not save him from the gallows. Macdonald also advised "General" Nils Szoltevcky Von Schoultz, the brave and charismatic Polish immigrant who had led the American raiders after their real commanders abandoned them at Windmill Point. Von Shoultz insisted on pleading guilty and wanted to leave Macdonald $100 in his will. Macdonald had to refuse it, but he never forgot the tragic story of the tall, handsome Pole.[30] Nils Von Schoultz (October 7, [[[1807]] - December 8, 1838) was a Finnish-born Swedish national who helped lead the Battle of the Windmill during the Upper Canada rebellion in 1838. ...


Biographer Donald Creighton writes that although the rebellions and their aftermath helped Macdonald's career, they also had lasting psychological effects. "For him, and for Kingston," Creighton writes, "the 'rebellion' had been not so much a native uprising as a succession of American raids; and from then on he never quite lost a certain lingering anxiety for the problem of British North American defence."[25]


Political rise, 1843–1864

John A. Macdonald in 1843, age 28.
John A. Macdonald in 1843, age 28.

In 1843, Macdonald entered politics, standing for the office of Alderman in Kingston, a position to which he was elected.[31] In 1844 he was elected to the legislature of the Province of Canada to represent Kingston,[32] gained the recognition of his peers and in 1847 was appointed Receiver General in William Henry Draper's administration. However, Macdonald had to give up his portfolio when Draper's government lost the next election. He left the Conservatives, hoping to build a more moderate and palatable base. In 1854, he helped with the founding of the Liberal-Conservative Party under the leadership of Sir Allan McNab. Within a few years, the Liberal-Conservatives would attract all of the old Conservative base as well as some centrist Reformers. The Liberal-Conservatives came to power in 1854 and under the new administration Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions. ... William Henry Draper (March 11, 1801-November 3, 1877) was a lawyer, judge and political figure in Upper Canada and Canada West. ... Sir Allan Napier MacNab (1798 - 1862) was a Canadian military and political leader. ...

John A. Macdonald in 1856, age 41.
John A. Macdonald in 1856, age 41.

Macdonald was appointed Attorney-General. During his time in cabinet, Macdonald was usually the most powerful minister, even when other men held the premiership. In the next election Macdonald continued his rise in politics by becoming Joint Premier of the Province of Canada with Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché of Canada East for the years 1856 and 1857. In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General or Attorney-General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada were the leaders of the Province of Canada, from the 1841 unification of Upper Canada and Lower Canada until Confederation in 1867. ... Étienne-Paschal Taché Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché (5 September 1795 – 30 July 1865) was a Canadian doctor and politician. ...


Taché resigned in 1857, and George-Étienne Cartier took his place. In the election of 1858, the Macdonald-Cartier government was defeated and they resigned as Premiers. In an interesting piece of politics, the Governor General of Canada asked Cartier to become the senior Premier, only a week after his defeat. Cartier accepted and brought Macdonald into office along with him. This was legal as any member of the cabinet could re-enter the cabinet provided they did so within a month of resigning their previous position. Macdonald focused on communications and defence, especially the Intercolonial Railway. Canada had to pressure the Colonial Office, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island to, as one historian notes, "consider an ambitious scheme proposed by their pushing and turbulent neighbour, Canada." [Creighton, 1956, p. 273] Hon. ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada, or (masculine): Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state. ... Motto: Munit Hae et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Largest metro Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto), French Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


The coalition government was again defeated in 1862. Macdonald then served as the leader of the opposition until the election of 1864, when Taché came out of retirement and joined ranks with Macdonald to form the governing party yet again.


The Confederation of Canada, 1864–1867

To resolve the frequent legislative deadlocks in the Province of Canada, George Brown, the leader of the Clear Grits (the forerunners to the Liberal Party of Canada) and an extremely vocal opponent of Macdonald's Conservatives, joined with Macdonald's Conservatives and George-Étienne Cartier's Parti Bleu in 1864 to form the Great Coalition. The coalition sought to reform the political system of Canada, and was a crucial step in achieving a consensus to support future reform. However, the Parti Rouge of Canada East, led by Jean-Baptiste-Éric Dorion, still refused to join the coalition. Macdonald then spent 1864 to 1867 organizing the legislation needed to confederate the colonies into the country of Canada. In September 1864, he led the Canadian delegation at the Charlottetown Conference in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, to present his idea to the Maritime colonies, who were discussing a union of their own. In October 1864 delegates for confederation met in Quebec City, Quebec, for the Quebec Conference, where the Seventy-Two Resolutions were created – the plan for confederation. By 1866, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and the Province of Canada had agreed to confederation. Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island were opposed. In the final conference of confederation held in 1866 in London, England the agreement to confederate was completed. George Brown George Brown (November 29, 1818 – May 9, 1880) was a Scottish-born Canadian journalist and politician. ... Clear Grits were Upper Canadian reformers with support concentrated among southwestern Ontario farmers, who were frustrated and disillusioned by the 1849 Reform government of Robert Baldwin and Louis_Hippolyte Lafontaines lack of radicalism. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The parti bleu was a moderate political group in Quebec, Canada that emerged in 1854. ... The Great Coalition refers to the grand coalition of political parties that formed in the Province of Canada in 1864. ... The Parti rouge (alternatively known as the parti democratique) was formed in what is now Quebec, Canada, around 1848 by radical French-Canadians inspired by the ideas of Louis-Joseph Papineau, the Institut canadien de Montréal, and the reformist movement lead by the Parti patriote of the 1830s. ... Delegates of the Charlottetown Convention The Charlottetown Conference was held in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island for representatives from the colonies of British North America to discuss Canadian Confederation. ... For other uses, see Charlottetown (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Quebec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Quebec Conference refers to one of several different meetings by the same name that were held in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Munit Hae et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Largest metro Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto), French Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


In 1867 the agreement was brought to the British Parliament, which passed the British North America Act creating the Dominion of Canada. Upon the creation of the Dominion of Canada, the Province of Canada was then divided into the individual provinces of Quebec and Ontario. Macdonald was asked by the first Governor General of Canada Charles Monck, to form the first administration. He was subsequently knighted on Canada Day, 1867, the only colonial leader ever to receive that honour. The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts of the British Parliament dealing with the government of Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The dignity of Knight Bachelor is a part of the British honours system. ... Canada Day (French: Fête du Canada), formerly Dominion Day, is Canadas national holiday, marking the establishment of Canada as new federation with its own constitution on July 1, 1867. ...

Macdonald in 1870, age 55.
Macdonald in 1870, age 55.

Image File history File links Johnamacdonald1870. ... Image File history File links Johnamacdonald1870. ...

First term as prime minister, 1867–1871

Queen Victoria knighted John A. Macdonald for playing an integral role in bringing about Confederation. His appointment as a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George was announced at the birth of the Dominion, July 1, 1867. An election was held in August which put Macdonald and his Conservative party into power. Queen Victoria redirects here. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Canadian parliament after the 1867 election The 1867 federal election, which proved how much canada sucks ended on September 20th, was the first election for the new . ...


Macdonald's vision as prime minister was to enlarge the country and unify it. Accordingly, under his rule Canada bought Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory from the Hudson's Bay Company for £300,000 (about $11,500,000 in modern Canadian dollars). This became the Northwest Territories. In 1870 Parliament passed the Manitoba Act, creating the province of Manitoba out of a portion of the Northwest Territories in response to the Red River Rebellion led by Louis Riel. This article is about the trading territory. ... The North-Western Territory at its greatest extent, 1859 The North-Western Territory was a region of British North America until 1870. ... Hbc redirects here. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... The Manitoba Act was an Act of the Parliament of Canada, and was given Royal Assent on May 12, 1870. ... The Métis provisional government The Red River Rebellion or Red River Resistance are the names given to the events surrounding the actions of a provisional government established by Métis leader Louis Riel in 1869 at the Red River Settlement in what is now the Canadian province of Manitoba. ... Louis Riel (22 October 1844 – 16 November 1885) was a Canadian politician, a founder of the province of Manitoba, and leader of the Métis people of the Canadian prairies. ...


Second term and resignation over Pacific scandal, 1871–1873

Macdonald in November 1883, age 68.
Macdonald in November 1883, age 68.

In 1871 Britain added British Columbia to Confederation, making it the sixth province. Macdonald promised a transcontinental railway connection to persuade the province to join, which his opponents decried as a highly unrealistic and expensive promise. In 1873 Prince Edward Island joined Confederation, and Macdonald created the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (then called the "North-West Mounted Police") to act as a police force for the vast Northwest Territories. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Colony of British Columbia. ... RCMP redirects here. ...


In 1873, Macdonald was accused of taking bribes to award contracts for the construction of the railway. The Pacific Scandal broke and Macdonald was forced to resign on November 5th, 1873. Liberal leader Alexander Mackenzie formed a caretaker government. After New Years, 1874, the Liberals called an election. Macdonald's Tories were unable to recover from the scandal and the Liberals formed a majority government. This election was also the first in Canada to use a secret ballot. The Pacific scandal involves the allegations of bribes being taken by Canadas Conservative government of Sir John A. Macdonald. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... For other persons named Alexander Mackenzie, see Alexander Mackenzie (disambiguation). ... A caretaker is a term mainly used in the United Kingdom, meaning a concierge or janitor. ... The Canadian federal election of 1874 was held on January 22, 1874. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ...


Final years as prime minister, 1878–1891

1890 painting of Macdonald, age 75, by Robert Harris.
1890 painting of Macdonald, age 75, by Robert Harris.

Macdonald was returned to power in 1878 on the strength of the National Policy, a plan to promote trade within the country by protecting it from the industries of other nations and renewing the effort to complete the previously promised Canadian Pacific Railway, which was accomplished in 1885. That year, Louis Riel also returned to Canada and launched the North-West Rebellion in the territory of Saskatchewan, but now that there was a railway through the area, militia were quickly sent to put it down. The success of this operation gave the CPR enough political capitol to garner sufficient support to complete its construction. The trial and subsequent execution of Riel for treason caused a deep political division between French Canadians, who supported Riel (a culturally French Métis) and English Canadians, who supported Macdonald. Copy of Harriss painting Meeting of the Delegates of British North America, also known as The Fathers of Confederation. ... The National Policy was a Canadian economic program introduced by John A. Macdonalds Conservative Party in 1879 after it returned to power. ... An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ... wwwww Combatants Dominion of Canada • Métis Provisional Government •Cree–Assiniboine Natives Commanders Leif Crozier Frederick Middleton William Otter Thomas Bland Strange Sam Steele Big Bear Fine-Day Gabriel Dumont Louis Riel Wandering Spirit The North-West Rebellion (or North-West Resistance or the Saskatchewan Rebellion) of 1885 was a... For other uses, see Saskatchewan (disambiguation). ... The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, SAMPA: [meti], in French: [metis] or, [mEtIs]) are an ethnic group of the Canadian prairies and Ontario. ...

A Conservative election poster from 1891.
A Conservative election poster from 1891.

In 1891, Macdonald won the elections again, but by this time, the 76-year-old political warhorse started to feel the years of overwork, stress, drink and several bouts of severe illness, including a gallstone problem in 1870 that turned his office into a sick room for two months. On May 29, 1891, Sir John A. suffered a severe stroke, which robbed him of the ability to speak, and from which he would never recover. He died a week later on June 6, 1891 at the age of 76. He would lie in state in the Canadian Senate Chamber (prime ministers now lie in state in the Hall of Honour in the Centre Block) where grieving Canadians turned out in the thousands to pay their respects. His state funeral was held on June 9, attended by hundreds of thousands of people. He is buried in Cataraqui Cemetery in Kingston, Ontario. None of his children left heirs; he is survived by relative Hugh Gainsford. Image File history File links John_A_Macdonald_election_poster_1891. ... Image File history File links John_A_Macdonald_election_poster_1891. ... The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... The Centre Block is the main building of the three on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cataraqui Cemetery in Kingston, Ontario is the citys largest, and holds the distinction of being the burial site of Canadas first prime minister. ... Murney Tower, Kingston The Fort Henry Guard performing an historical demonstration The Prince George Hotel Kingston, Ontario, the first capital[1] of Canada, is located at the eastern end of Lake Ontario, where the lake runs into the St. ...


Personal life

Tragic first marriage

Portrait of Isabella Clark Macdonald, artist unknown. Donald Creighton writes that within two years, her marriage to John A. became "a grey, unrelieved tragedy."Library and Archives Canada.
Portrait of Isabella Clark Macdonald, artist unknown. Donald Creighton writes that within two years, her marriage to John A. became "a grey, unrelieved tragedy."
Library and Archives Canada.

John A. Macdonald's adult life was marked by sickness, death, meth and tragedy. Yet, he rose above his private unhappiness and personal failings to become a well-loved and highly successful public figure, applying "all his passion to politics".[33] He officially became head of his family on September 29, 1841, with the sudden death of his father Hugh from a brain hemorrhage.[34] Now, John A. was solely responsible for the financial support of his mother and two unmarried sisters. Fortunately, his law practice was going well and his income was supplemented by extensive business activities. He served for example, as a director of the prosperous Commercial Bank of the Midland District as well as its lawyer. The Bank provided him with a large part of his income.[35] He also bought real estate and eventually became a director of a dozen Kingston companies.[36] A cerebral hemorrhage is a condition in the brain in which a blood vessel leaks. ...


But at the same time, he frequently suffered from an undiagnosed illness. The symptoms, weakness and listlessness, began in 1840 and continued sporadically throughout 1841.[37] Macdonald decided he needed a complete rest, and in January 1842 he set sail for Britain, his pockets full of the money (about two thousand dollars) he had won during three nights of playing a card game called Loo.[38] Macdonald's trip proved to be fateful. He recovered his health and met his first cousin Isabella Clark.[39] Isabella's features were gentle and tranquil, according to biographer Donald Creighton, "her hair brushed smoothly away from its centre part in the demure fashion of the 1840s."[40] She also had "large, beautiful blue eyes with an imploring expression that melted more than one observer's heart."[41] "Isa," as Macdonald called her, followed him home to Kingston and on September 1, 1843, they were married. Macdonald was 28, Isabella, 34.[42] Isabella Clark (-1857) was the first wife of Sir John A. Macdonald, first Prime Minister of Canada. ... Donald Grant Creighton, CC, MA, BA (July 15, 1902 – December 19, 1979) was a noted Canadian historian. ... Isabella Clark (-1857) was the first wife of Sir John A. Macdonald, first Prime Minister of Canada. ...


For the first year and a half, the Macdonalds lived the life of a happy, successful couple. John A. had been elected city alderman a few months before his marriage, so he was now a prominent local politician, and his law partnership with his former student, Alexander Campbell, continued to flourish.[43] In the fall of 1844, Macdonald was elected as a Conservative Member of Parliament for Kingston.[44] Then, in 1845, everything changed when his beloved "Isa" got sick. She suffered periodic attacks that included severe headaches and numbness. Biographer Patricia Phenix writes that Isabella was diagnosed "as suffering from everything from tic douloureux, a devastating pain in the fifth nerve of her face, to 'uterine neuralgia.'"[45]. To relieve the pain, she drank liquid opium as well as sherry. The opium and alcohol combined with the painful attacks left her groggy, exhausted and bedridden.[46] Her chronic illness may also have had psychological causes rooted in an "hysterical personality" compounded by migraine headaches and her dependence on opium.[47] As the illness continued, Macdonald feared Isabella would die. "The warm, pleasant edifice of his domestic happiness," Donald Creighton writes, "was crumbling towards utter ruin."[48] An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions. ... Sir Alexander Campbell The Honourable Sir Alexander Campbell, PC (March 9, 1822 – 24 May 1892) was an English-born, in Hedon, Canadian statesman and politician, and a father of Canadian Confederation. ... Trigeminal neuralgia, or Tic Douloreux, is a neuropathic disorder of the trigeminal nerve that causes episodes of intense pain in the eyes, lips, nose, scalp, forehead, upper jaw, and lower jaw. ... Neuralgia is a painful disorder of the nerves. ... This article is about the drug. ... Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. ...


Macdonald's two sons

John A. responded to his wife's protracted illness by taking her to Savannah, Georgia where he hoped the warm climate and the company of her sisters would restore her health. They set off on their journey in the summer of 1845. The trip turned out to be long and gruelling with Isabella often unable to walk and suffering excruciating pain. They first joined Isabella's sisters in New Haven, Connecticut, finally reaching Savannah in late November. John A. was anxious to return home to continue his political career. He had to remain in the American south however, until Isabella's sisters arrived in mid-January 1846. He would not see his wife again until Christmas when they were reunited in New York City.[49] There, Isabella became pregnant. After Macdonald returned to Canada, she remained under medical care in New York.[50] Their first son, John Alexander, was born in New York on August 3, 1847 after a long and agonizing labour.[51] "His eyes are dark blue, very large & nose to match," Macdonald wrote to his sister-in-law. "When born his length was 1 foot 9 inches & was strong and healthy, though thin."[52] Savannah redirects here. ... New Haven redirects here. ...

Miniature of an oil painting depicting the infant, Hugh John Macdonald in a gold locket.Library and Archives Canada.
Miniature of an oil painting depicting the infant, Hugh John Macdonald in a gold locket.
Library and Archives Canada.

Macdonald rented Bellevue House in Kingston in 1848 in the hope that the fresh suburban air and quiet would help Isabella's condition after her return from New York. This experiment, however, was a failure. Worse still, shortly after the Macdonalds moved into their new home, 13-month-old John Alexander was found dead in his crib, a possible victim of SIDS or sudden infant death syndrome.[53] Isabella became pregnant again in 1849, yet another miracle for a 40-year-old chronically-ill woman.[54] Their second son, Hugh John, was born on March 13, 1850. "We have got Johnnie back again," Macdonald wrote to his sister. "I don't think he is so pretty, but he is not so delicate. He was born fat & coarse."[55] Bellevue House as it looks today . Bellevue House National Historic Site of Canada was the home to Canadas first Prime Minister Sir John Alexander Macdonald from 1848 to 1849. ... Sir Hugh John Macdonald, PC , BA (March 13, 1850 – March 29, 1929) was the only surviving son of Sir John A. Macdonald, a Prime Minister of Canada, and was a politician in his own right, serving as a member of the Canadian House of Commons and a federal cabinet minister...


Hugh John and his father were never close. The boy was raised by Macdonald's sister Margaret and her husband, James Williamson, after Isabella's death in 1857. Hugh John went on to become premier of the Province of Manitoba. 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... In Canada, a Premier is the head of government of a province. ... Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797...


Debt and drinking

Macdonald's frequent absences from his law practice to care for Isabella and the expenses of providing medical and nursing care drove him into debt. Salaries for politicians during this period were meager stipends. His partner objected to his casual habit of using law firm revenues to pay his expenses and in 1849, Alexander Campbell decided to leave the partnership.[56] Macdonald had already turned to the bottle for solace during the 12 lonely years of Isabella's illness. They were years in which, according to Donald Creighton, he had become "a bachelor husband who had to go for companionship to bars and lounges and smoking rooms; a frustrated host who drank too much on occasion, partly because it was the only way he could entertain, and because it passed the empty time, and because it was an easy way to forget."[57]


Second marriage and daughter

In 1867, at the age of 52, Macdonald married his second wife Susan Agnes Bernard (1836–1920). They had one daughter, Margaret Mary Theodora Macdonald (1869–1933), who was born with hydrocephalus and suffered from physical and mental disabilities. Macdonald always hoped she would recover, but she never did. She died in 1933. [Blah blah blacksheep have you any wool? Yes sir yes sir three bags full!] Categories: Canadian people stubs | 1836 births | 1920 deaths | Spouses of the Prime Ministers of Canada ...


Supreme Court appointments

Macdonald chose the following jurists to be appointed as justices of the Supreme Court of Canada by the Governor General: The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada, or (masculine): Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state. ...

The Honourable Christopher Salmon Patterson (January 16, 1823 – July 24, 1893) was a Canadian Puisne judge of the Supreme Court of Canada. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Honourable John Wellington Gwynne (March 30, 1814 – January 7, 1902) was a Canadian lawyer and Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sir William Johnstone Ritchie, PC , Kt (October 28, 1813 – September 25, 1892) was one of the first judges appointed to the Supreme Court of Canada and became the second Chief Justice of the court. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A Puisne Justice or Puisne Judge (pronounced puny) is the title for a regular member of a Court. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...

Freemasonry

Macdonald was a Freemason, initiated in 1844 at St. John’s Lodge No. 5 in Kingston. In 1868, he was named by the United Grand Lodge of England as its Grand Representative near the Grand Lodge of Canada (in Ontario) and the rank of Past Grand Senior Warden conferred upon him. He continued to represent the Grand Lodge of England until his death in 1891. His commission, together with his apron and earmuffs, are in the Masonic Temple at Kingston, along with his regalia as Past Grand Senior Warden. Among the books in his library was a very rare copy of the first Masonic book published in Canada, A History of Freemasonry in Nova Scotia (1786).[58][59] American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... The United Grand Lodge of Englands Coat of Arms Headquarters of The UGLE. The United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE) is the main governing body of Freemasonry within England, and certain jurisdictions overseas (normally ex-British Empire and Commonwealth countries). ... Current logo of the Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario. ... The word temple has different meanings in the fields of architecture, religion, geography, anatomy, and education. ...


Trivia

  • Macdonald was well known for his wit and also for his alcoholism. He is known to have been drunk for many of his debates in parliament. Two apocryphal stories are commonly repeated; the first describing an election debate in which Macdonald was so drunk he began vomiting while on stage. His opponent quickly pointed this out and said: "Is this the man you want running your country? A drunk!" Collecting himself, Macdonald replied "I get sick ... not because of drink [but because] I am forced to listen to the ranting of my honourable opponent."[60] The second version has Macdonald responding to his opponent's query of his drunkenness with "It goes to show that I would rather have a drunk Conservative than a sober Liberal." (Montreal Gazette, 30 May 1862)
  • Macdonald's temper sometimes got the better of him, such as in one incident in the House of Commons when Donald Smith angered him so much, that he charged across the Commons floor to physically attack him. While he was restrained, Macdonald was unrepentant, proclaiming "I'll lick him faster than Hell can scorch a feather!"
  • Macdonald resembled British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli. At Disraeli's funeral in 1881, another British official thought that he saw Disraeli's ghost in attendance, although it was actually Macdonald.
  • The Vancouver Sun reported on June 30, 2005, that Macdonald's birthplace in Glasgow, Scotland, is under threat of demolition.
  • Macdonald's private train car, which he named The Jamaica, was given to him by the Canadian Pacific Railway for his work on the railway.
  • According to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Macdonald's nicknames included Old Chieftain and Old Tomorrow*. *For his habit of putting off any large political problems until conditions were personally favourable to him.[61]
  • Macdonald's nephew Newton Ford was the father of iconic Canadian-American actor Glenn Ford.[62]
  • As of 2008: Macdonald was the first of two Canadian prime-ministers to die in office (The other is John Thompson).
  • Macdonald was the favourite target of the "Grip" magazine's premier cartoonist John Wilson Bengough; who came to fame by ridiculing Macdonald's government, during the Pacific Railroad scandal.

Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois... Donald Alexander Smith Donald Alexander Smith (August 6, 1820 – January 21, 1914) was a Scottish born Canadian fur trader, financier, railroad baron and politician. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (December 21, 1804 – April 19, 1881), born Benjamin DIsraeli was a British Conservative statesman and literary figure. ... The Vancouver Sun is a daily newspaper first published in the Canadian province of British Columbia on February 12, 1912. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Jamaica was Canadian Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonalds private passenger car given to him by the Canadian Pacific Railway for his work on the railway. ... An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ... Gwyllyn Samuel Newton Glenn Ford (May 1, 1916 – August 30, 2006) was an acclaimed Canadian-born actor from Hollywoods Golden Era with a career that spanned seven decades. ... Sir John Sparrow David Thompson, KCMG, PC, QC, (November 10, 1845 – December 12, 1894) was a Canadian lawyer and judge who served as the fourth Prime Minister of Canada from December 5, 1892 to December 12, 1894 as well as Premier of Nova Scotia in 1882. ... John Wilson Bengough (1851 -- 2 October 1923) was one of Canadas first cartoonists. ...

Legacy

Macdonald is depicted on the Canadian ten-dollar bill. He also has bridges (Macdonald-Cartier Bridge), airports (Ottawa Macdonald-Cartier International Airport, and highways (Macdonald-Cartier Freeway) named after him, as well as statues and a plethora of schools across the country. In Kingston, Macdonald Park and Sir John A. Macdonald Boulevard are both named in his honour. The Hotel Macdonald in Edmonton and Macdonald House, part of Canada's high commission in London, are also named for him. The Canadian ten-dollar bill is one of the most common banknotes of the Canadian dollar. ... The Macdonald-Cartier Bridge with the Lester B. Pearson Building in the background. ... Ottawa/Macdonald-Cartier International Airport or Macdonald-Cartier International Airport (Laéroport international Macdonald-Cartier in French), (IATA: YOW, ICAO: CYOW), serves Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. ... Highway 401 redirects here. ... Murney Tower, Kingston The Fort Henry Guard performing an historical demonstration The Prince George Hotel Kingston, Ontario, the first capital[1] of Canada, is located at the eastern end of Lake Ontario, where the lake runs into the St. ... The Hotel Macdonald is a hotel built in 1915 in the city of Edmonton, Alberta, by the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. ...


Macdonald and his son, Hugh John Macdonald, briefly sat together in the Canadian House of Commons prior to the elder Macdonald's death. Sir Hugh John Macdonald, PC , BA (March 13, 1850 – March 29, 1929) was the only surviving son of Sir John A. Macdonald, a Prime Minister of Canada, and was a politician in his own right, serving as a member of the Canadian House of Commons and a federal cabinet minister... Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois...

Macdonald's funeral train carried his remains on June 10, 1891, from Ottawa to Kingston.
Macdonald's funeral train carried his remains on June 10, 1891, from Ottawa to Kingston.

In 2004, Macdonald was nominated as one of the top 10 "Greatest Canadians" by viewers of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. He is considered by some Canadian political scientists to be the founder of the Red Tory tradition. Sir John A. MacDonalds funeral train. ... Sir John A. MacDonalds funeral train. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... -1... Murney Tower, Kingston The Fort Henry Guard performing an historical demonstration The Prince George Hotel Kingston, Ontario, the first capital[1] of Canada, is located at the eastern end of Lake Ontario, where the lake runs into the St. ... Officially launched on April 5, 2004, The Greatest Canadian was a television program series by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) to determine who is considered to be the greatest Canadian of all time, at least among those who watched and participated in the program. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ... The Red Tory Tradition: Ancient Roots-New Routes, by Ron Dart Red Tory is a term given to a political philosophy, tradition, and disposition in Canada. ...


Biographical and historical studies

  • Collins, Joseph Edmund. (1883) Life and times of the Right Honourable Sir John A. Macdonald: Premier of the Dominion of Canada
  • Careless, J.M.S. (1963) Canada A Story of Challenge. (Revised Edition) Toronto: Macmillan of Canada.
  • Creighton, Donald. (1952) John A. Macdonald: The Young Politician vol 1: 1815–1867. Toronto: The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited.
  • Creighton, Donald. (1955) John A. Macdonald: The Old Chieftain vol 2: 1867–1891. Toronto: The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited.
  • Creighton, Donald. (1964) The Road to Confederation: The Emergence of Canada: 1863–1867. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada.
  • Guillet, Edwin C, (1967) You'll Never Die, John A!. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada.
  • Gwyn, Richard. (2007) The Man Who Made Us: The Life and Times of Sir John A. Macdonald. vol 1: 1815–1867. Random House Canada.
  • Johnson, J.K. (1969) Affectionately Yours: The Letters of Sir John A. Macdonald and His Family. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada.
  • Johnson, J.K. and Waite, P.B. (2007) "Sir John Alexander Macdonald," in Canada's Prime Ministers, Macdonald to Trudeau: Portraits from the Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  • McSherry, James. (1984) "The invisible lady: Sir John A. Macdonald's first wife." In Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, pp. 91–97.
  • Phenix, Patricia. (2006) Private Demons, The Tragic Personal Life of John A. Macdonald. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart.
  • Pope, Joseph. (1894) Memoirs of the Right Honourable Sir John Alexander Macdonald, G.C.B., First Prime Minister of The Dominion of Canada, Vols. 1&2. Ottawa: J. Durie & Son.
  • Pope, Joseph. (1915) The Day of Sir John Macdonald: A Chronicle of the First Prime Minister of the Dominion. Toronto: Brook & Co.
  • Pope, Joseph (1921) Correspondence of Sir John Macdonald: selections from the correspondence of Sir John Alexander Macdonald. Toronto: Oxford University Press.
  • Sletcher, Michael. (2004) "Sir John A. Macdonald," in James Eli Adams, and Tom and Sara Pendergast, eds., Encyclopedia of the Victorian Era. 4 vols., Danbury, CT: Grolier Academic Reference.
  • Swainson, Donald. (1989) Sir John A. Macdonald: The Man and the Politician. Kingston, ON: Quarry Press.
  • Waite, P. B. (1975) Macdonald: His Life and World. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited.
  • Waite, P. B. (1976) John A. Macdonald. Don Mills, ON: Fitzhenry and Whiteside Limited.
  • Wallace, W. Stewart. (1924) Sir John Macdonald. Toronto: The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited.

Notes

  1. ^ a b Pope, Sir Joseph (1930) Memoirs of The Right Honourable John Alexander Macdonald. Toronto: ON: The Musson Book Company Ltd., p.3. Pope relates that Hugh Macdonald recorded the time of Sir John's birth as 4:15, January 11, 1815.
  2. ^ Waite, P.B. (1976) John A. Macdonald. Don Mills: ON: Fitzhenry and Whiteside Limited, p.7. Waite points out that there is some debate over the actual birthday. January 10 is the official date recorded in the Glasgow Registry Office, but January 11 is the day Macdonald and his family celebrated his birthday.
  3. ^ Phenix, Patricia. (2007) Private Demons: The Tragic Personal Life of John A. Macdonald. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart Ltd. p.6.
  4. ^ Swainson, Donald. (1989) Sir John A. Macdonald: The Man and the Politician. Kingston, ON: Quarry Press, p.17.
  5. ^ Pope, Joseph. (1894) Memoirs of the Right Honourable Sir John Alexander Macdonald, vol.1. Ottawa: J. Durie and Son, p.5. The death was treated as an accident.
  6. ^ Pope, p.3.
  7. ^ Creighton, Donald (1952) John A. Macdonald: The Young Politician. Toronto: The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited, p.14–15.
  8. ^ Creighton, pp.17–18
  9. ^ Creighton, p.18.
  10. ^ Pope, pp.4–5.
  11. ^ Swainson, p.19.
  12. ^ Creighton, p.19.
  13. ^ Pope, p.6.
  14. ^ Gwyn, p.34.
  15. ^ Gwyn, pp.46–47.
  16. ^ Creighton, p.25.
  17. ^ Swainson, p.21.
  18. ^ Creighton, p.34.
  19. ^ Swainson, pp.21&23.
  20. ^ Johnson J.K. and Waite P.B. (2007) "Sir John Alexander Macdonald" in Canada's Prime Ministers, Macdonald to Trudeau: Portraits from the Canadian Dictionary of Biography, p.1. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  21. ^ Pope, p.8.
  22. ^ Gwyn, pp.48–49.
  23. ^ Gwyn, p.49.
  24. ^ The details of these cases are recounted in Gywn, pp.49–50.
  25. ^ a b Creighton, p.68.
  26. ^ Quoted in Creighton, p.54.
  27. ^ Creighton, pp.55–58
  28. ^ Creighton, p.63.
  29. ^ Creighton, pp.63–64.
  30. ^ Creighton, pp.65–68. The information about the $100 legacy appears in Pope, p.10.
  31. ^ Sir John A. Macdonald – Canadian Confederation. Libraries and Archives Canada.
  32. ^ Sir John A. Macdonald. The Quebec History Encyclopedia.
  33. ^ Gwyn, p. 86.
  34. ^ Phenix, p.49.
  35. ^ Swainson, p.29.
  36. ^ Gwyn, pp.54–55.
  37. ^ Swainson, p.31.
  38. ^ Creighton, p.84. The two thousand dollar figure is from Gwyn, p.55.
  39. ^ Waite, P.B. (1975) Macdonald: His Life and World. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited, p.24. Waite notes that "strictly speaking" Isabella was "a half-second cousin." The two had a maternal grandmother in common.
  40. ^ Creighton, p.85.
  41. ^ Phenix, pp.56–57.
  42. ^ Phenix pp.56 & 59
  43. ^ Swainson, p.33. Macdonald concluded his partnership agreement with Campbell on the same day as his wedding. See, Phenix, p.61.
  44. ^ Creighton, p.99.
  45. ^ Phenix, p.70.
  46. ^ Phenix, pp.69–71, 82 & 86.
  47. ^ McSherry, James. (1984) "The invisible lady: Sir John A. Macdonald's first wife." In Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, pp. 91–97. See also Phenix, pp.71–72 & 77.
  48. ^ Creighton, p.112
  49. ^ Phenix gives a detailed account of the couple's arduous travels, pp.72–79.
  50. ^ Gwyn, p.83
  51. ^ Phenix, p.85.
  52. ^ Johnson, J.K. (1969) Affectionately Yours: The Letters of Sir John A. Macdonald and His Family. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, p.53.
  53. ^ Phenix, pp.93–94. Phenix writes: "According to Dr. Josephine Faveraux of the Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario, the rate of SIDS increases in infants and toddlers born to mothers addicted to opiates, especially if alcohol has also played a part in the equation."
  54. ^ Phenix, p.100.
  55. ^ Johnson, p.71.
  56. ^ Creighton, pp.147–149.
  57. ^ Creighton, pp.260–261.
  58. ^ Canadian Prime Ministers
  59. ^ Sir John A. Macdonald, Freemason
  60. ^ Top Ten Greatest Canadians
  61. ^ Sir John A. Macdonald: Architect of Modern Canada
  62. ^ Glenn Ford, Leading Man in Films and TV, Dies at 90

External links

Sir John A. Macdonald: Architect of Modern Canada

Political offices
Preceded by
Sir Allan Napier MacNab
Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada – Canada West
1856 – 1858
Succeeded by
George Brown
Preceded by
George Brown
Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada – Canada West
1858 – 1867
Succeeded by
himself as Prime Minister of Canada and Sir John Sandfield Macdonald as Premier of Ontario
Preceded by
None
Leader of the Conservative Party of Canada
1867 – 1891
Succeeded by
Sir John J.C. Abbott
Preceded by
None
Prime Minister of Canada
1867 – 1873
Succeeded by
Alexander Mackenzie
Preceded by
none
Minister of Justice and Attorney General
1867 – 1873
Succeeded by
Antoine Dorion
Preceded by
Alexander Mackenzie
Leader of the Opposition
1873 – 1878
Succeeded by
Alexander Mackenzie
Preceded by
Alexander Mackenzie
Prime Minister of Canada
1878 – 1891
Succeeded by
Sir John J.C. Abbott
Preceded by
David Mills
Minister of the Interior
1878 – 1888
Succeeded by
Edgar Dewdney
Preceded by
John Henry Pope
Minister of Railways and Canals
1889 – 1891
Succeeded by
Mackenzie Bowell (acting)
Parliament of Canada
Preceded by
none
Member of Parliament for Kingston
1867 – 1878
Succeeded by
Alexander Gunn
Preceded by
Francis James Roscoe
Member of Parliament for Victoria
1878 – 1882
Succeeded by
E.C. Baker
Preceded by
John Rochester
Member of Parliament for Carleton
1882 – 1887
Succeeded by
George Dickinson
Preceded by
Alexander Gunn
Member of Parliament for Kingston
1887 – 1891
Succeeded by
James H. Metcalfe
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Persondata
NAME Macdonald, John Alexander
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION 1st Prime Minister of Canada (1867–1973, 1878–1891)
DATE OF BIRTH January 11, 1815(1815-01-11)
PLACE OF BIRTH Glasgow, Scotland
DATE OF DEATH June 6, 1891
PLACE OF DEATH Ottawa
Sir Allan Napier MacNab (1798 - 1862) was a Canadian military and political leader. ... Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada were the leaders of the Province of Canada, from the 1841 unification of Upper Canada and Lower Canada until Confederation in 1867. ... George Brown George Brown (November 29, 1818 – May 9, 1880) was a Scottish-born Canadian journalist and politician. ... George Brown George Brown (November 29, 1818 – May 9, 1880) was a Scottish-born Canadian journalist and politician. ... Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada were the leaders of the Province of Canada, from the 1841 unification of Upper Canada and Lower Canada until Confederation in 1867. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... John Sandfield Macdonald John Sandfield Macdonald, QC (December 12, 1812 – June 1, 1872) was the first Premier of the Canadian province of Ontario after the province was created as a result of the confederation of Canada in 1867. ... The Premier of Ontario is the first minister for the Canadian province of Ontario. ... The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation. ... The Honourable Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott, PC , QC , KCMG , BCL , DCL (March 12, 1821 – October 30, 1893) was the third Prime Minister of Canada from June 16, 1891 to November 24, 1892. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... For other persons named Alexander Mackenzie, see Alexander Mackenzie (disambiguation). ... The Minister of Justice (French: Ministre de la Justice) is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who is responsible for the Department of Justice and is also Attorney General of Canada. ... The Honourable Sir Antoine-Aimé Dorion, PC (January 17, 1818 – May 31, 1891) was a Canadian politician and jurist. ... For other persons named Alexander Mackenzie, see Alexander Mackenzie (disambiguation). ... The Leader of the Opposition (French: Chef de lOpposition) in Canada is the Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ... For other persons named Alexander Mackenzie, see Alexander Mackenzie (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Alexander Mackenzie, see Alexander Mackenzie (disambiguation). ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... The Honourable Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott, PC , QC , KCMG , BCL , DCL (March 12, 1821 – October 30, 1893) was the third Prime Minister of Canada from June 16, 1891 to November 24, 1892. ... The Honourable Senator David Mills, PC (March 18, 1831 – May 8, 1903) was a Canadian politician, author and poet. ... The Minister of the Interior (Canada) was a cabinet post responsible for federal land management, indian affairs and natural resources extraction. ... Edgar Dewdney (1835 to August 8, 1916) was a Canadian politician originally born in Devonshire, England. ... John Henry Pope The Honourable John Henry Pope (December 19, 1824 – April 1, 1889) was a Canadian farmer, lumberman, railway entrepreneur, and politician. ... Canadian Ministers of Railways and Canals See other lists of incumbents Category: ... Sir Mackenzie Bowell, PC , KCMG (December 27, 1823 – December 10, 1917) was the fifth Prime Minister of Canada from December 21, 1894 to April 27, 1896. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Kingston was a former federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Ontario. ... Francis James Roscoe (1831 – December 20, 1878) was a Canadian entrepreneur and Member of Parliament. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... This page is for the federal electoral district in British Columbia. ... Edgar Crow Baker (September 16, 1845 – November 3, 1920) was a Canadian politician from British Columbia. ... John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester (April 1, 1647 - July 26, 1680) was an English nobleman, a friend of King Charles II, and the writer of much satirical and bawdy poetry. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Carleton (electoral district) can mean: Carleton (New Brunswick electoral district) (1867-1914) Carleton (Ontario electoral district) (1867-1966) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... George Ritchie Dickinson (11 March 1903 - 17 March 1978) played three tests for New Zealand. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Kingston was a former federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Ontario. ... James Henry Metcalfe (January 8, 1848 – January 1, 1925) was an Ontario businessman and political figure. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... For other persons named Alexander Mackenzie, see Alexander Mackenzie (disambiguation). ... The Hon. ... Sir John Sparrow David Thompson, KCMG, PC, QC, (November 10, 1845 – December 12, 1894) was a Canadian lawyer and judge who served as the fourth Prime Minister of Canada from December 5, 1892 to December 12, 1894 as well as Premier of Nova Scotia in 1882. ... Sir Mackenzie Bowell, PC , KCMG (December 27, 1823 – December 10, 1917) was the fifth Prime Minister of Canada from December 21, 1894 to April 27, 1896. ... Not to be confused with Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper who was Sir Charles Tuppers son. ... Laurier redirects here. ... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC, GCMG, KC (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Not to be confused with William Lyon Mackenzie, Mackenzie Kings grandfather. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Not to be confused with William Lyon Mackenzie, Mackenzie Kings grandfather. ... Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett, PC, KC (July 3, 1870 – June 26, 1947) was the eleventh Prime Minister of Canada from August 7, 1930 to October 23, 1935. ... Not to be confused with William Lyon Mackenzie, Mackenzie Kings grandfather. ... Louis Stephen St. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (18 September 1895 – 16 August 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... Mike Pearson redirects here. ... “Trudeau” redirects here. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... “Trudeau” redirects here. ... John Napier Wyndham Turner PC CC QC (born June 7, 1929) was the seventeenth Prime Minister of Canada from June 30, 1984 to September 17, 1984. ... Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... This article is about the former Canadian Prime Minster. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ... For other uses, see Paul Martin (disambiguation). ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... The Hon. ... Sir John Sparrow David Thompson, KCMG, PC, QC, (November 10, 1845 – December 12, 1894) was a Canadian lawyer and judge who served as the fourth Prime Minister of Canada from December 5, 1892 to December 12, 1894 as well as Premier of Nova Scotia in 1882. ... Sir Mackenzie Bowell, PC , KCMG (December 27, 1823 – December 10, 1917) was the fifth Prime Minister of Canada from December 21, 1894 to April 27, 1896. ... Not to be confused with Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper who was Sir Charles Tuppers son. ... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC, GCMG, KC (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett, PC, KC (July 3, 1870 – June 26, 1947) was the eleventh Prime Minister of Canada from August 7, 1930 to October 23, 1935. ... Robert James Manion (November 19, 1881 Pembroke, Ontario - July 2, 1943 Ottawa, Ontario) was a physician and Canadian politician. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... The Honourable Professor John Bracken, PC (June 22, 1883-March 18, 1969) was an agronomist, Premier of Manitoba (1922-1943) and leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (1942-1948). ... For his grandfather, see George Alexander Drew (Liberal-Conservative MP). ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (18 September 1895 – 16 August 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... Robert Lorne Stanfield, PC, QC (April 11, 1914–December 16, 2003) was Premier of Nova Scotia and leader of the federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Ernest Preston Manning (born June 10, 1942, in Edmonton, Alberta), is a right-wing populist Canadian politician. ... This article is about the former Canadian Prime Minster. ... John James Charest, PC, LL.B., MNA, known as Jean Charest IPA: (born June 24, 1958) is a Canadian lawyer and politician from the province of Quebec. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... Stockwell Burt Day Jr. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... Peter Gordon MacKay, Conservative, QC, MP (born September 27, 1965) serves as the member of Parliament (MP) for Central Nova, Nova Scotia, Canadas Minister of National Defence and Minister for the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... The Minister of Justice (French: Ministre de la Justice) is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who is responsible for the Department of Justice and is also Attorney General of Canada. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Honourable Sir Antoine-Aimé Dorion, PC (January 17, 1818 – May 31, 1891) was a Canadian politician and jurist. ... Albert James Smith, April 1868 the Honourable Sir Albert James Smith, PC (March 12, 1822 – June 30, 1883) was a New Brunswick politician and opponent of Canadian confederation. ... The Honourable Télesphore Fournier (August 5, 1823 – May 10, 1896) was a Canadian politician and jurist. ... Dominick Edward Blake, PC, QC (October 13, 1833 – March 1, 1912), (known as Edward Blake) was Premier of Ontario, Canada, from 1871 to 1872 and leader of the Liberal Party of Canada from 1880 to 1887. ... Rodolphe Laflamme Toussaint-Antoine-Rodolphe Laflamme (15 May 1827 – 7 December 1893), was a French-Canadian lawyer, professor of law and politician. ... Sir Alexander Campbell The Honourable Sir Alexander Campbell, PC (March 9, 1822 – 24 May 1892) was an English-born, in Hedon, Canadian statesman and politician, and a father of Canadian Confederation. ... Sir John Sparrow David Thompson, KCMG, PC, QC, (November 10, 1845 – December 12, 1894) was a Canadian lawyer and judge who served as the fourth Prime Minister of Canada from December 5, 1892 to December 12, 1894 as well as Premier of Nova Scotia in 1882. ... Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper (August 3, 1855 – March 30, 1927) was a Canadian politician. ... Thomas Mayne Daly Source: Library and Archives Canada Thomas Mayne Daly, PC (August 16, 1852 – June 24, 1911) was a Canadian politician. ... The Hon. ... The Honourable Sir Oliver Mowat, QC (July 22, 1820 – 19 April 1903) was a Canadian politician, and premier of Ontario from 1872 to 1896. ... The Honourable Senator David Mills, PC (March 18, 1831 – May 8, 1903) was a Canadian politician, author and poet. ... The Right Honourable Charles Fitzpatrick Sir Charles Fitzpatrick, GCMG , PC (December 19, 1853 - June 17, 1942) was a Canadian lawyer and politician. ... Hon. ... The Right Honourable Charles Joseph Doherty (May 11, 1855 - July 28, 1931) was a Canadian politician and jurist. ... Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett, PC, KC (July 3, 1870 – June 26, 1947) was the eleventh Prime Minister of Canada from August 7, 1930 to October 23, 1935. ... Lomer Gouin The Honourable Sir Jean Lomer Gouin (March 19, 1861 - March 28, 1929) was born in Grondines, Quebec. ... The Right Honourable Ernest Lapointe, PC (October 6, 1876 - November 26, 1941) was a Canadian politician. ... Hugh Guthrie Hugh Guthrie (13 August 1866 – 3 November 1939) was a Canadian politician and Cabinet minister in the governments of Sir Robert Borden, Arthur Meighen and R. B. Bennett. ... The Honourable Esioff-Léon Patenaude, P.C., K.C., often called E.L. Patenaude (February 12, 1875 to February 7, 1963) was a Canadian politician and statesman who served as Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec. ... The Right Honourable Ernest Lapointe, PC (October 6, 1876 - November 26, 1941) was a Canadian politician. ... Hugh Guthrie Hugh Guthrie (13 August 1866 – 3 November 1939) was a Canadian politician and Cabinet minister in the governments of Sir Robert Borden, Arthur Meighen and R. B. Bennett. ... George Reginald Geary, mayor of Toronto, Ontario, Canada from 1910 to 1912. ... The Right Honourable Ernest Lapointe, PC (October 6, 1876 - November 26, 1941) was a Canadian politician. ... Joseph-Enoil Michaud, PC (September 26, 1888 – May 23, 1967) was a Canadian politician. ... Louis Stephen St. ... The Right Honourable James Lorimer Ilsley, PC (January 3, 1894 - January 14, 1967) was a Canadian politician and jurist. ... Louis Stephen St. ... The Honourable Stuart Sinclair Garson, PC , CC (December 1, 1898-May 5, 1977) was a Canadian politician and lawyer. ... Edmund Davie Fulton, PC , OC , LL.B , LL.D , QC (March 10, 1916- May 22, 2000) was a Canadian politician and judge. ... Donald Methuen Fleming, PC (May 23, 1905-December 31, 1987) was a Canadian parliamentarian. ... The Honourable Lionel Chevier, PC , CC (April 2, 1903 - July 8, 1987) was a Canadian Member of Parliament and cabinet minister. ... The Honourable Guy Favreau, PC , QC , BA , LL.B (May 20, 1917 – July 11, 1967) was a Canadian lawyer, politician and judge. ... The Honourable George James McIlraith, PC (July 29, 1908 - August 19, 1992) was a lawyer and Canadian parliamentarian. ... Louis Joseph Lucien Cardin (March 1, 1919 – June 13, 1988), P.C., Q.C., B.A., LL.B., was a Canadian lawyer, judge, and politician. ... “Trudeau” redirects here. ... John Napier Wyndham Turner PC CC QC (born June 7, 1929) was the seventeenth Prime Minister of Canada from June 30, 1984 to September 17, 1984. ... Otto Emil Lang, PC , OC , QC , LL.D, BCL , LL.B , BA (born May 14, 1932) is a Canadian politician. ... The Honourable Stanley Ronald (Ron) Basford, PC (April 22, 1932 - January 31, 2005) was a long-time Canadian Cabinet minister in the Liberal government of Pierre Trudeau. ... Otto Emil Lang, PC , OC , QC , LL.D, BCL , LL.B , BA (born May 14, 1932) is a Canadian politician. ... The Honourable Marc Lalonde, PC , OC, QC, LLL, MA (born July 26, 1929) is a retired Canadian politician and Cabinet minister. ... Jacques Flynn (August 22, 1915 - September 21, 2000) was a Canadian politician and Senator. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ... Mark Rudolph MacGuigan (February 17, 1931, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island - January 12, 1998) was a Canadian academic and politician. ... Donald James Johnston (born 1936) was first elected to the Canadian House of Commons in a 1978 by-election representing Westmount in Montreal. ... Hon. ... MP Ray Hnatyshyn & Gilles Lamontagne Minister of National Defence attend a reception following a parade at #107 Spitfire Royal Canadian Air Cadet Squadron in Saskatoon, SK - circa 1980 Ramon John Ray Hnatyshyn, PC, CC, CMM, CD, BA, LL.B, QC, FRHSC (hon) (anglicized pronunciation ) (March 16, 1934 – December 18, 2002... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... Douglas Grinslade (Doug) Lewis, PC (born April 17, 1938) is a former Canadian politician. ... This article is about the former Canadian Prime Minster. ... The Honourable Pierre Blais, PC (born December 30, 1948) is a Canadian jurist and former politician and Cabinet minister. ... This article is about the Canadian statesman. ... A. Anne McLellan, P.C. , M.P. , LL.M. , LL.B. , B.A. (born August 31, 1950, in Hants County, Nova Scotia) was the Deputy Prime Minister of Canada under Paul Martin. ... The Honourable Martin Cauchon, PC , LL.B , LL.M (born August 23rd 1962) is a Canadian politician and former Liberal Party of Canada cabinet minister. ... Irwin Cotler, PC , MP , OC , BA , BCL , LL.D , Ph. ... Victor Vic Toews, PC, MP [teıvz] (born September 10, 1952) is a Canadian politician. ... For the musician, better known as Blasko, see Rob Nicholson (musician). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Secretary of State for the Provinces was an office in the Cabinet of Canada, active from 1867 to 1873. ... Adams George Archibald The Honourable Sir Adams George Archibald, KCB , PC (May 3, 1814 – December 14, 1892) was a Canadian lawyer and politician, and a father of Confederation. ... Joseph Howe, PC (December 13, 1804 – June 1, 1873) was a ship builder and born the son of John Howe and Mary Edes at Halifax, Nova Scotia. ... The Honourable James Cox Aikins, PC (born March 30, 1823; died August 8, 1904) was a prominent Canadian politician in the 19th century. ... The Honourable Thomas Nicholson Gibbs (March 11, 1821 – April 7, 1883) was a Canadian parliamentarian. ... The Minister of the Interior (Canada) was a cabinet post responsible for federal land management, indian affairs and natural resources extraction. ... Sir Alexander Campbell The Honourable Sir Alexander Campbell, PC (March 9, 1822 – 24 May 1892) was an English-born, in Hedon, Canadian statesman and politician, and a father of Canadian Confederation. ... The Hon. ... The Honourable Sir Richard William Scott, PC , KC The Honourable Sir Richard William Scott, PC , KC (February 24, 1825 – April 23, 1913) was a Canadian politician and cabinet minister. ... The Honourable Senator David Mills, PC (March 18, 1831 – May 8, 1903) was a Canadian politician, author and poet. ... The Hon. ... Edgar Dewdney (1835 to August 8, 1916) was a Canadian politician originally born in Devonshire, England. ... Thomas Mayne Daly Source: Library and Archives Canada Thomas Mayne Daly, PC (August 16, 1852 – June 24, 1911) was a Canadian politician. ... Sir Hugh John Macdonald, PC , BA (March 13, 1850 – March 29, 1929) was the only surviving son of Sir John A. Macdonald, a Prime Minister of Canada, and was a politician in his own right, serving as a member of the Canadian House of Commons and a federal cabinet minister... The Honourable Sir Richard William Scott, PC , KC The Honourable Sir Richard William Scott, PC , KC (February 24, 1825 – April 23, 1913) was a Canadian politician and cabinet minister. ... Sir Clifford Sifton, PC (March 10, 1861 – April 17, 1929) was a Canadian politician best known for being Minister of the Interior under Sir Wilfrid Laurier. ... Laurier redirects here. ... For other persons of the same name, see Frank Oliver. ... Robert Rogers, PC (March 2, 1864 - July 21, 1936) was a Canadian merchant and politician. ... Hon. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Sir James Alexander Lougheed, KCMG , PC (1 September 1854 – 2 November 1925) a businessman and politician from Alberta, Canada. ... Charles Stewart (August 26, 1868 - December 6, 1946) was a Canadian politician who was Premier of Alberta from 1917 to 1921. ... Henry Herbert Stevens (December 8, 1878-June 14, 1973) was a Canadian politician and businessman. ... Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett, PC, KC (July 3, 1870 – June 26, 1947) was the eleventh Prime Minister of Canada from August 7, 1930 to October 23, 1935. ... Charles Stewart (August 26, 1868 - December 6, 1946) was a Canadian politician who was Premier of Alberta from 1917 to 1921. ... Thomas Gerow Murphy (October 29, 1883 – April 7, 1971) was a Canadian politician. ... Thomas Alexander Crerar (June 17, 1876-April 11, 1975) was a western Canadian politician and a leader of the short lived Progressive Party of Canada. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The portfolio of Minister of Railways and Canals was created by Statute 42 Victoria, c. ... Not to be confused with Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper who was Sir Charles Tuppers son. ... John Henry Pope The Honourable John Henry Pope (December 19, 1824 – April 1, 1889) was a Canadian farmer, lumberman, railway entrepreneur, and politician. ... Sir Mackenzie Bowell, PC , KCMG (December 27, 1823 – December 10, 1917) was the fifth Prime Minister of Canada from December 21, 1894 to April 27, 1896. ... John Graham Haggart (14 November 1836 – 13 March 1913) was a Canadian politician. ... Joseph-Aldéric Ouimet The Honourable Joseph-Aldric Ouimet, PC (baptised Aldric) (May 20, 1848 – May 12, 1916) was a Canadian parliamentarian. ... John Graham Haggart (14 November 1836 – 13 March 1913) was a Canadian politician. ... Andrew George Blair (March 7, 1844_January 25, 1907) was a New Brunswick politician. ... William Fielding The Right Honourable William Stevens Fielding, PC (November 24, 1848-June 23, 1929) was a Canadian journalist, politician, and Premier of Nova Scotia. ... Henry Robert Emmerson (September 25, 1853-July 9, 1914) was a New Brunswick politician and businessman. ... William Fielding The Right Honourable William Stevens Fielding, PC (November 24, 1848-June 23, 1929) was a Canadian journalist, politician, and Premier of Nova Scotia. ... George Perry Graham (1859-1943) was a journalist and editor in his early career. ... Francis Cochrane (November 18, 1852 – September 22, 1919) was a Canadian politician. ... John Dowsley Reid John Dowsley Reid (1 January 1859 – 26 August 1929) was a Canadian businessman, physician, and parliamentarian. ... John Alexander Stewart (1867 – October 7, 1922) was a Canadian politician. ... William Costello Kennedy (August 27, 1868 – January 17, 1923) was a Canadian politician. ... George Perry Graham (1859-1943) was a journalist and editor in his early career. ... Charles Avery Dunning The Honourable Charles Avery Dunning, PC (July 31, 1885 – October 2, 1958) was born in Croft, Leicestershire, England. ... The Honourable Sir Henry Lumley Drayton, PC (April 27, 1869 – August 28, 1950) was a Canadian politician. ... William Anderson Black, PC (October 9, 1847 – September 1, 1934) was a Canadian politician. ... Charles Avery Dunning The Honourable Charles Avery Dunning, PC (July 31, 1885 – October 2, 1958) was born in Croft, Leicestershire, England. ... Thomas Alexander Crerar (June 17, 1876-April 11, 1975) was a western Canadian politician and a leader of the short lived Progressive Party of Canada. ... Robert James Manion (November 19, 1881 Pembroke, Ontario - July 2, 1943 Ottawa, Ontario) was a physician and Canadian politician. ... The Right Honourable Clarence Decatur Howe (January 15, 1886 - December 31, 1960) was a leading Canadian politician. ... The Minister of Transport (French: Ministre des Transports) is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who is responsible for overseeing the federal governments transportation regulatory and development department, Transport Canada. ... The Right Honourable Clarence Decatur Howe (January 15, 1886 - December 31, 1960) was a leading Canadian politician. ... Pierre Joseph Arthur Cardin (June 28, 1879 – October 20, 1946) was a Canadian politician. ... The Right Honourable Clarence Decatur Howe (January 15, 1886 - December 31, 1960) was a leading Canadian politician. ... Joseph-Enoil Michaud, PC (September 26, 1888 – May 23, 1967) was a Canadian politician. ... The Honourable Lionel Chevier, PC , CC (April 2, 1903 - July 8, 1987) was a Canadian Member of Parliament and cabinet minister. ... George Carlyle Marler (September 14, 1901 - April 10, 1981) served as Liberal leader of the Opposition in the Legislative Assembly of Quebec from 1948 to 1953, after Liberal leader Adélard Godbout lost the 1948 Quebec election and also narrowly lost his own seat. ... Hees visiting Eskimos in Frobisher Bay, Northwest Territories, 1958 George Harris Hees, PC , OC (June 17, 1910 - June 11, 1996) was a Canadian politician. ... Léon Balcer (October 13, 1917 – March 22, 1991) was a Canadian politician. ... The Honourable George James McIlraith, PC (July 29, 1908 - August 19, 1992) was a lawyer and Canadian parliamentarian. ... The Right Honourable John Whitney (Jack) Pickersgill, PC , CC , MA , LL.D (June 23, 1905 - November 14, 1997) was a Canadian civil servant and politician. ... The Honourable Paul Theodore Hellyer, PC (born August 6, 1923 in Waterford, Ontario) is a Canadian politician and commentator who has had a long and varied career. ... The Honourable James Armstrong Richardson, PC (born March 28, 1922 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, died May 17, 2004) was a Canadian Cabinet minister under Pierre Trudeau, and a Winnipeg businessman. ... Donald Campbell Jamieson, PC (April 30, 1921 – November 19, 1986) was a Canadian politician, diplomat and broadcaster. ... The Honourable Senator Jean Marchand, PC (December 20, 1918 - August 28, 1988) was a well known French Canadian public figure, trade unionist and politician in Quebec, Canada. ... Otto Emil Lang, PC , OC , QC , LL.D, BCL , LL.B , BA (born May 14, 1932) is a Canadian politician. ... Donald Frank Mazankowski, PC, OC, AOE (born July 27, 1935, in Viking, Alberta) was a Canadian politician who served as a cabinet minister under Prime Ministers Joe Clark and Brian Mulroney. ... The Right Honourable Jean-Luc Pépin (November 1, 1924 - September 30, 1995) was a Canadian academic, politician and Cabinet minister. ... Lloyd Norman Axworthy, PC, OC, OM, Ph. ... Donald Frank Mazankowski, PC, OC, AOE (born July 27, 1935, in Viking, Alberta) was a Canadian politician who served as a cabinet minister under Prime Ministers Joe Clark and Brian Mulroney. ... Hon. ... Benoît Bouchard, PC (born April 16, 1940) is a Canadian public official and former politician. ... Douglas Grinslade (Doug) Lewis, PC (born April 17, 1938) is a former Canadian politician. ... The Honourable Jean Corbeil (January 7, 1934 – June 25, 2002) was a Canadian politician. ... The Honourable Meredith Douglas Doug Young, PC (born September 20, 1940) is a Canadian politician. ... For other persons named David Anderson, see David Anderson (disambiguation). ... David Michael Collenette, PC, MA, BA (born June 24, 1946 in London) was a Canadian politician representing the Liberal Party of Canada from 1974 to 2004. ... -1... Hon. ... Hon. ... In the Cabinet of Canada, The Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development really heads two different departments. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Sir Hector-Louis Langevin The Honourable Sir Hector-Louis Langevin, PC , QC , KCB (August 25, 1826 – June 11, 1906) was a Canadian lawyer and politician. ... Joseph Howe, PC (December 13, 1804 – June 1, 1873) was a ship builder and born the son of John Howe and Mary Edes at Halifax, Nova Scotia. ... The Honourable James Cox Aikins, PC (born March 30, 1823; died August 8, 1904) was a prominent Canadian politician in the 19th century. ... The Honourable Thomas Nicholson Gibbs (March 11, 1821 – April 7, 1883) was a Canadian parliamentarian. ... Sir Alexander Campbell The Honourable Sir Alexander Campbell, PC (March 9, 1822 – 24 May 1892) was an English-born, in Hedon, Canadian statesman and politician, and a father of Canadian Confederation. ... The Hon. ... The Honourable Sir Richard William Scott, PC , KC The Honourable Sir Richard William Scott, PC , KC (February 24, 1825 – April 23, 1913) was a Canadian politician and cabinet minister. ... The Honourable Senator David Mills, PC (March 18, 1831 – May 8, 1903) was a Canadian politician, author and poet. ... The Hon. ... Edgar Dewdney (1835 to August 8, 1916) was a Canadian politician originally born in Devonshire, England. ... Thomas Mayne Daly Source: Library and Archives Canada Thomas Mayne Daly, PC (August 16, 1852 – June 24, 1911) was a Canadian politician. ... Sir Hugh John Macdonald, PC , BA (March 13, 1850 – March 29, 1929) was the only surviving son of Sir John A. Macdonald, a Prime Minister of Canada, and was a politician in his own right, serving as a member of the Canadian House of Commons and a federal cabinet minister... The Honourable Sir Richard William Scott, PC , KC The Honourable Sir Richard William Scott, PC , KC (February 24, 1825 – April 23, 1913) was a Canadian politician and cabinet minister. ... Sir Clifford Sifton, PC (March 10, 1861 – April 17, 1929) was a Canadian politician best known for being Minister of the Interior under Sir Wilfrid Laurier. ... Laurier redirects here. ... For other persons of the same name, see Frank Oliver. ... Robert Rogers, PC (March 2, 1864 - July 21, 1936) was a Canadian merchant and politician. ... Hon. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Sir James Alexander Lougheed, KCMG , PC (1 September 1854 – 2 November 1925) a businessman and politician from Alberta, Canada. ... Charles Stewart (August 26, 1868 - December 6, 1946) was a Canadian politician who was Premier of Alberta from 1917 to 1921. ... Henry Herbert Stevens (December 8, 1878-June 14, 1973) was a Canadian politician and businessman. ... Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett, PC, KC (July 3, 1870 – June 26, 1947) was the eleventh Prime Minister of Canada from August 7, 1930 to October 23, 1935. ... Charles Stewart (August 26, 1868 - December 6, 1946) was a Canadian politician who was Premier of Alberta from 1917 to 1921. ... The Right Honourable Ian Alistair Mackenzie (July 27, 1890 - September 2, 1949) was a Canadian parliamentarian. ... Thomas Gerow Murphy (October 29, 1883 – April 7, 1971) was a Canadian politician. ... Thomas Alexander Crerar (June 17, 1876-April 11, 1975) was a western Canadian politician and a leader of the short lived Progressive Party of Canada. ... In the Canadian cabinet the President of The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: President du Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is nominally in charge of the Privy Council Office. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Honourable Adam Johnston Fergusson Blair Adam Johnston Fergusson Blair, PC known prior to 1862 as Adam Johnston Fergusson (4 November 1815 – 30 December 1867) was Canadian lawyer and politician. ... Joseph Howe, PC (December 13, 1804 – June 1, 1873) was a ship builder and born the son of John Howe and Mary Edes at Halifax, Nova Scotia. ... Sir Edward Kenny PC (July 1, 1800 – May 16, 1891) was a Canadian politician. ... Not to be confused with Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper who was Sir Charles Tuppers son. ... John OConnor, PC (January 1, 1824 – November 3, 1887) was a Canadian politician and cabinet minister. ... The Honourable Hugh Macdonald, PC was a member of the First Canadian Parliament, representing the Antigonish riding of Nova Scotia, along with William Hallett Ray, initially as an Anti-Confederate and later as a Liberal-Conservative. ... Lucius Seth Huntington Source: Library and Archives Canada Lucius Seth Huntington (May 26, 1827-May 19, 1886) was a Quebec lawyer, journalist and political figure. ... The Hon. ... Dominick Edward Blake, PC, QC (October 13, 1833 – March 1, 1912), (known as Edward Blake) was Premier of Ontario, Canada, from 1871 to 1872 and leader of the Liberal Party of Canada from 1880 to 1887. ... John OConnor, PC (January 1, 1824 – November 3, 1887) was a Canadian politician and cabinet minister. ... Louis-Rodrigue Masson Source: Library and Archives Canada Louis-Rodrigue Masson (baptized Louis-François-Roderick Masson) (6 November 1833 – 8 November 1903) was a Canadian Member of Parliament, senator, and Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec. ... Joseph-Alfred Mousseau The Honourable Joseph-Alfred Mousseau, PC (July 18, 1838 – March 30, 1886), was a French Canadian politician. ... Archibald McLelan The Honourable Senator Archibald Woodbury McLelan, PC (20 December 1824 – 26 June 1890) was a Canadian shipbuilder and politician. ... Charles Carroll Colby Source: Library and Archives Canada Charles Carroll Colby (December 10, 1827 – December 10, 1907) was a Canadian lawyer, businessman and politician. ... The Hon. ... William Bullock Ives (17 November 1841 – 15 July 1899) was a Canadian politician. ... Sir Mackenzie Bowell, PC , KCMG (December 27, 1823 – December 10, 1917) was the fifth Prime Minister of Canada from December 21, 1894 to April 27, 1896. ... Sir Auguste-Réal Angers (1837 – 14 April 1919) was a Canadian judge and parliamentarian, holding seats both as a Member of the Canadian House of Commons, and as a Senator. ... Laurier redirects here. ... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC, GCMG, KC (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... Newton Wesley Rowell (November 1, 1867-November 22, 1941) was a Canadian lawyer and politician and leading lay figure in the Methodist church. ... James Alexander Calder, PC, BA, (September 17, 1868 – July 20, 1956) was a Canadian politician. ... Louis-Philippe Normand (September 21, 1863 – June 27, 1928) was a Canadian physician and politician. ... Not to be confused with William Lyon Mackenzie, Mackenzie Kings grandfather. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Not to be confused with William Lyon Mackenzie, Mackenzie Kings grandfather. ... Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett, PC, KC (July 3, 1870 – June 26, 1947) was the eleventh Prime Minister of Canada from August 7, 1930 to October 23, 1935. ... Not to be confused with William Lyon Mackenzie, Mackenzie Kings grandfather. ... Louis Stephen St. ... The Honourable Lionel Chevier, PC , CC (April 2, 1903 - July 8, 1987) was a Canadian Member of Parliament and cabinet minister. ... Noël Dorion (July 24, 1904 - March 9, 1980) was a law professor, lawyer and Canadian politician. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (18 September 1895 – 16 August 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... Maurice Lamontagne (September 7, 1917 – June 12, 1983) was a Canadian economist and politician. ... The Honourable George James McIlraith, PC (July 29, 1908 - August 19, 1992) was a lawyer and Canadian parliamentarian. ... The Honourable Guy Favreau, PC , QC , BA , LL.B (May 20, 1917 – July 11, 1967) was a Canadian lawyer, politician and judge. ... Hon. ... “Trudeau” redirects here. ... Allan MacEachen Allan Joseph MacEachen, PC (born July 6, 1921) is one of Canadas elder statesmen and was the first Deputy Prime Minister of Canada. ... Donald Stovel Macdonald, PC, CC (born March 1, 1932) is a former Canadian Liberal politician and Cabinet minister. ... Allan MacEachen Allan Joseph MacEachen, PC (born July 6, 1921) is one of Canadas elder statesmen and was the first Deputy Prime Minister of Canada. ... Mitchell William Sharp,PC,CC (May 11, 1911–March 19, 2004), a Canadian politician and a Companion of the Order of Canada, was most noted for his service as a Liberal Cabinet minister. ... Allan MacEachen Allan Joseph MacEachen, PC (born July 6, 1921) is one of Canadas elder statesmen and was the first Deputy Prime Minister of Canada. ... Walter David Baker, P.C. August 22, 1930 - November 13, 1983) was a Canadian parliamentarian and lawyer. ... Yvon Pinard (born October 10, 1940) is a judge and former Canadian politician. ... André Ouellet (born April 6, 1939) is the former president of Canada Post, and a long time Liberal politician in Canada. ... Erik Hersholt Nielsen, P.C., D.F.C., Q.C., LL.B., (born February 24, 1924) is a former Canadian politician and longtime Progressive Conservative Member of Parliament for Yukon. ... MP Ray Hnatyshyn & Gilles Lamontagne Minister of National Defence attend a reception following a parade at #107 Spitfire Royal Canadian Air Cadet Squadron in Saskatoon, SK - circa 1980 Ramon John Ray Hnatyshyn, PC, CC, CMM, CD, BA, LL.B, QC, FRHSC (hon) (anglicized pronunciation ) (March 16, 1934 – December 18, 2002... Donald Frank Mazankowski, PC, OC, AOE (born July 27, 1935, in Viking, Alberta) was a Canadian politician who served as a cabinet minister under Prime Ministers Joe Clark and Brian Mulroney. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... The Honourable Pierre Blais, PC (born December 30, 1948) is a Canadian jurist and former politician and Cabinet minister. ... The Honourable Marcel Massé, PC , OC , QC , BA , LL.B , B.Phil (born June 23, 1940) is a former Canadian politician and civil servant. ... Stéphane Maurice Dion, PC, MP, Ph. ... Denis Coderre (born July 25, 1963) is a Canadian politician. ... The Honourable Lucienne Robillard, PC, MP (born June 16, 1945) is a Canadian politician and Cabinet minister. ... Hon. ... Peter Van Loan, PC, MP (born April 18, 1963) (sometimes referred to as PVL) is a Canadian politician. ... Ronalee Rona Ambrose, PC, BA, MA, MP (born March 15, 1969 in Valleyview, Alberta) is Canadas current Minister of the Environment. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... -1...

 
 

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