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Encyclopedia > John A. Costello
John A. Costello
John A. Costello

In office
18 February 1948 – 13 June 1951
2 June 195420 March 1957
Deputy William Norton
Preceded by Éamon de Valera (twice)
Succeeded by Éamon de Valera (twice)

Born 20 June 1891
Dublin, Ireland
Died 5 January 1976
Dublin, Ireland
Political party Fine Gael
Profession Barrister

John Aloysius Costello (20 June 18915 January 1976), a successful barrister, was one of the main legal advisors to the government of the Irish Free State after independence, Attorney General of Ireland from 1926–1932 and Taoiseach from 1948–1951 and 1954–1957. Image File history File links John A. Costello File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Taoiseach ( or [1]) — plural: Taoisigh ( or [1]) — or, more formally, An Taoiseach[2], is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet, the rough equivalent of a prime minister under the Westminster System. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... William Norton (1900-1963), Irish politician, Labour Party leader (1932-1960). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... Fine Gael (IPA: , though often anglicized to (approximate English translation: Family of the Irish) and officially, Fine Gael - The United Ireland Party, is the second largest political party in Ireland, presently forming the largest opposition party in the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament), and claims a membership of over 34,000. ... English barrister A barrister is a lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions who employ a split profession (as opposed to a fused profession) in relation to legal representation. ... John Costelloe was an Irish politician who served for two years a member of the 10th Seanad Éireann. ... June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... English barrister A barrister is a lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions who employ a split profession (as opposed to a fused profession) in relation to legal representation. ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann... The Attorney General (Irish: An Ard-Aighne) is the official adviser to the Irish Government in matters of law. ... The Taoiseach ( or [1]) — plural: Taoisigh ( or [1]) — or, more formally, An Taoiseach[2], is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet, the rough equivalent of a prime minister under the Westminster System. ...

Contents

Early life

John A. Costello was born on 20 June 1891, in Dublin. Educated at the O'Connell Irish Christian Brothers School in North Dublin, and at University College Dublin, he graduated with a degree in modern languages and law. He studied at King's Inns to become a barrister, winning the Victoria Prize there in 1913 and 1914. June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... University College Dublin - National University of Ireland, Dublin - more commonly University College Dublin (UCD) or recently as UCD Dublin - is the Republic of Irelands largest university, with over 20,000 students. ... It has been suggested that Professional degree be merged into this article or section. ... The Kings Inns or formally the Honorable Society of Kings Inns (HSKI) is the institution which controls the entry of barristers-at-law into the justice system of the Republic of Ireland. ...


Costello was called to the bar in 1914 and began practising as a barrister. He worked as a barrister until 1922 when he joined the staff of the Attorney General in the newly established Irish Free State. Three years later Costello was called to the inner bar and the following year, 1926, he became Attorney-General to the Cumann na nGaedhael government, led by William T. Cosgrave. While serving in this position he represented Ireland at Imperial Conferences and League of Nations meetings. Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann... Cumann na nGaedhael (IPA: ; Society of the Gaels), sometimes spelt Cumann na nGaedheal,[1] was an Irish language name given to two Irish political parties, the second of which had the greater impact. ... William Thomas Cosgrave (Irish name Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair; 6 June 1880 – 16 November 1965), known generally as W.T. Cosgrave, was an Irish politician who succeeded Michael Collins as Chairman of the Irish Provisional Government from August to December 1922. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ...


He was also elected a Bencher of the Honourable Society of King's Inns. Costello lost his position as Attorney-General when Fianna Fáil came to power in 1932. The following year, however, he succeeded in getting elected to Dáil Éireann as a Cumann na nGaedhael, and later a Fine Gael TD. Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (IPA ; (mistranslated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though a literal translation is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland),¹ is currently the largest political party in Ireland with 55,000 members. ... The Dáil Chamber Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of Ireland. ... Cumann na nGaedhael (IPA: ; Society of the Gaels), sometimes spelt Cumann na nGaedheal,[1] was an Irish language name given to two Irish political parties, the second of which had the greater impact. ... Fine Gael (IPA: , though often anglicized to (approximate English translation: Family of the Irish) and officially, Fine Gael - The United Ireland Party, is the second largest political party in Ireland, presently forming the largest opposition party in the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament), and claims a membership of over 34,000. ... A Teachta Dála (Irish for Dáil Deputy, pronounced chock-ta dawla) is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower chamber of the Irish Oireachtas or National Parliament. ...


Costello remained on the backbenches of the Dáil until 1948. While he was re-elected at all the general elections until then he wasn't a widely-known TD or a member of the Fine Gael hierarchy. This all changed following the 1948 General Election when a change of government was imminent. The Irish general election of 1948 was held on February 4, 1948. ...


Fianna Fáil had been in power for sixteen consecutive years and had been blamed for a downturn in the economy following World War II. The general election results still showed Fianna Fáil to be the largest party, with twice as many seats as the nearest party, Fine Gael. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian...


While it looked as if Fianna Fáil were heading for a seventh consecutive general election victory in a row all the other parties in the Dáil joined to form the first inter-party government in the history of the Irish state. The coalition consisted of Fine Gael, the Labour Party, the National Labour Party, Clann na Poblachta, Clann na Talmhan and several Independent TDs. The Labour Party (Irish: Páirtí an Lucht Oibre) is a social democratic political party in the Republic of Ireland. ... The National Labour Party was an Irish political party which was founded in 1944 as a split-off from the Irish Labour Party. ... Clann na Poblachta (literally meaning Family of the Republic) was an Irish republican political party founded by former IRA Chief of Staff Sean MacBride in 1946. ... Clann na Talmhan (literally meaning Party of the Land) was an Irish political party. ...


While it looked as if co-operation between these parties would be inconceivable a shared dislike of Fianna Fáil and Éamon de Valera overcame all other difficulties and the government was formed. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Taoiseach 1948–1951

Since Fine Gael was the largest party in the government it had the task of providing a suitable candidate for Taoiseach. Naturally it was assumed that its leader, Richard Mulcahy, would be offered the post, however, he was an unacceptable choice to Clann na Poblachta and its deeply republican leader, Seán MacBride. This was due to Mulcahy's record during the Civil War. Instead, Mulcahy unselfishly stepped aside and allowed Costello to become Taoiseach. Costello, who had never held a ministerial position and who had not sought the leadership was now the leader of a complex government. Much of its success would depend on his leadership skills. Richard Mulcahy General Richard James Mulcahy (10 May 1886 – 16 December 1971) was an Irish politician, leader of Fine Gael and Cabinet Minister. ... It has been suggested that Sean McBride be merged into this article or section. ... The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922 – May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and or2=Liam Lynch† Frank Aiken |commander1=Michael Collins† Richard Mulcahy |strength2= c. ...


Declaration of the Republic

During the campaign Clann na Poblachta had promised to repeal the External Relations Act of 1936, but did not make an issue of this when the government was being formed. However, Costello and his Tánaiste, William Norton of the Labour Party, also disliked the Act. During the summer of 1948 the Cabinet discussed repealing the Act however no firm decision was made. The Executive Authority (External Relations) Act, 1936 was an enactment of the Oireachtas (Irish parliament) in 1936. ... The Tánaiste[1] (plural: Tánaistithe), or, more formally, An Tánaiste, is the deputy prime minister of the Republic of Ireland. ... William Norton (1900-1963), Irish politician, Labour Party leader (1932-1960). ...


In September 1948 Costello was on an official visit to Canada when a reporter asked him about the possibility of leaving the British Commonwealth. Costello seemed angry by the question and immediately declared publicly that the government was indeed going to repeal the Act and declare a republic. The news took the British Government, and even some of Costello's ministers, by surprise. The former had not been consulted, and following the declaration of the republic in 1948, the UK passed the Ireland Act in 1949. This guaranteed the position of Northern Ireland within the United Kingdom while at the same time granting certain rights to citizens of the Republic living in the United Kingdom. Finally on 18 April 1949 the twenty-six county Irish Free State left the Commonwealth and became the Republic of Ireland. The last constitutional links to Britain had finally been cut. Many nationalists now saw partition as the last obstacle on the road to total national independence. The Commonwealth of Nations (CN), usually known as the Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states, the majority of which are former colonies of the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... The Ireland Act 1949 is a UK Act of Parliament which was intended to deal with the consequences of the then recently passed Republic of Ireland Act 1948 as passed by the Irish parliament (Oireachtas). ... Motto:  (Latin for Who will separate us?)[1] Anthem: UK: God Save the Queen Regional: (de facto) Londonderry Air Capital Belfast Largest city Belfast Official language(s) English (de facto), Ulster Scots, Irish3, Northern Ireland Sign Language, Irish Sign Language Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... The Partition of Ireland took place in May 1921. ...


Mother and Child Scheme

In 1950 the independent-minded Minister for Health, Dr. Noel Browne, introduced the Mother and Child Scheme. The scheme would provide mothers with free maternity treatment and their children with free medical care up to the age of sixteen. However, the bill was opposed by doctors, who feared a loss of income, and Roman Catholic bishops, who feared the scheme could lead to birth control and abortion. The Cabinet was divided over the issue, many feeling that the state could not afford such a scheme. Costello and others in the Cabinet made it clear that in the face of such opposition they would not support the minister. Browne resigned from the government on 11 April 1951, and the scheme was dropped. He immediately published his correspondence with Costello and the bishops, something which had hitherto not been done. The Minister for Health and Children is the senior minister at the Department of Health and Children (An Roinn Sláinte agus Leanaí) in the Irish Government and is responsible for health care in the Republic of Ireland and related services. ... Dr. Noel Christopher Browne (20 December 1915-21 May 1997) was an Irish politician and doctor. ... Noel Browne (20 December 1915-21 May 1997) was an Irish politician and doctor. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus of Nazareth, with its traditions first established by the Twelve Apostles and... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ...


Coalition achievements

The Costello Government had a number of noteworthy achievements. A new record was set in house-building, the Industrial Development Authority and Córas Tráchtála were established, and the Minister for Health, Noel Browne, brought about a spectacular advance in the treatment of tuberculosis. Ireland also joined a number of organisations such as the Organisation for European Economic Co-Operation and the Council of Europe. However, the government refused to join NATO while the British remained in Northern Ireland. The scheme to supply electricity to even the remotest parts of Ireland was also accelerated. IDA Ireland is the agency responsible for industrial development in Ireland. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[1] (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ...


Election defeat

While the "Mother and Child" incident did destabilise the government to some extent, it did not lead to its collapse as is generally thought. The government continued, however prices were rising, a balance of payments crisis was looming, and two TDs withdrew their support for the government. These incidents added to the pressure on Costello and so he decided to call a general election for June of 1951. The result was inconclusive but Fianna Fáil returned to power. Costello resigned as Taoiseach. It was at this election that Costello's son, Declan, was elected to the Dáil. The Irish general election of 1951 was held on May 30, 1951. ... Declan Costello (born August 1, 1926) was an Irish politician from the Fine Gael Party, who served as a Teachta Dála (TD) for twenty years as as Attoney-General for four. ...


Over the next three years while Fianna Fáil was in power a dual-leadership role of Fine Gael was taking place. While Richard Mulcahy was the leader of the party, Costello, who had proved his skill as Taoiseach, remained as parliamentary leader of the party.


Taoiseach 1954–1957

In the general election in June 1954 Fianna Fáil lost power. A campaign dominated by economic issues resulted in a Fine Gael-Labour Party-Clann na Talmhan government coming to power. Costello was once again elected Taoiseach. Unfortunately the government could do little to change the ailing nature of Ireland's economy, with emigration and unemployment remaining high. Costello's government did have some success with Ireland becoming a member of the United Nations in 1955. See also: Government of the 15th Dáil Categories: Elections in Ireland | 1954 ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


Although the government had a comfortable majority and seemed set for a full term in office, a resumption of IRA activity in Northern Ireland and Britain caused internal strains (see Border Campaign (IRA)). The government took strong action against the republicans. The original Irish Republican Army fought a guerrilla war against British rule in Ireland in the Irish War of Independence 1919-1921. ... The Border Campaign (December 12, 1956 - February 26, 1962) was an operation (codenamed Operation Harvest) carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) against targets in Northern Ireland. ... Irish Republicanism is an ideology based on the Irish nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a united independent republic. ...


In spite of supporting the government from the backbenches, Seán MacBride, the leader of Clann na Poblachta, tabled a motion of no confidence, based on the weakening state of the economy. Fianna Fáil also tabled its own motion of no confidence, and, rather than face almost certain defeat, Costello again asked President Sean T. O'Kelly to dissolve the Oireachtas. The general election which followed in 1957 gave Fianna Fáil an overall majority and started another sixteen years of unbroken rule for the party. Official Seal of the President of Ireland Mary McAleese, the current President of Ireland. ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Irish name: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced ) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... The Oireachtas is the National Parliament of the Republic of Ireland. ... The Irish general election of 1957 was held on March 5, 1957, just over three weeks after the dissolution of the Dáil on February 4. ...


Retirement

Following the defeat Costello returned to the bar and for the second time overcame the tradition that a practice could not be built up again after years of absence. In 1959, when Richard Mulcahy resigned the leadership of Fine Gael to James Dillon, Costello retired to the backbenches. He remained on as a TD until 1969 when he retired from politics, being succeeded by Garret FitzGerald as Fine Gael Deputy for Dublin South East. This article is about the politician James Dillon. ...


During his career he was presented with a number of awards from many universities in the United States. He was also a member of the Royal Irish Academy from 1948. In March 1975 he was made a freeman of the city of Dublin, along with his old political opponent Éamon de Valera. He practised at the bar up to a short time before his death in Dublin on 5 January 1976, at the age of 84. The Royal Irish Academy (RIA) is one of Irelands premier learned societies and cultural institutions. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Governments

The following governments were led by Costello:

The 13th Dáil was elected on February 4, 1957 and first met on February 18 when the 5th Government of Ireland was appointed. ... The 15th Dáil was elected on May 18, 1954 and first met on June 2 when the 7th Government of Ireland was appointed. ...

Political career

Preceded by
John O'Byrne
Attorney General of Ireland
1926–1932
Succeeded by
Conor Maguire
Preceded by
Richard Mulcahy
Parliamentary Leader of Fine Gael
1948–1959
Succeeded by
James Dillon
Preceded by
Éamon de Valera
Taoiseach
1948–1951
Succeeded by
Éamon de Valera
Preceded by
Noel Browne
Minister for Health
(acting)

April 1951–June 1951
Succeeded by
James Ryan
Preceded by
Éamon de Valera
Leader of the Opposition
1951–1954
Succeeded by
Éamon de Valera
Taoiseach
1954–1957
Preceded by
Éamon de Valera
Leader of the Opposition
1957–1959
Succeeded by
James Dillon
Prime Ministers of Ireland
Taoisigh na hÉireann
Government of Ireland

Éamon de ValeraJohn A. CostelloSeán LemassJack LynchLiam CosgraveCharles HaugheyGarret FitzGeraldAlbert ReynoldsJohn BrutonBertie Ahern John OByrne (1884- January 14, 1954) was the second Attorney-General of Ireland, serving between June 7, 1924 and January 9, 1926. ... The Attorney General (Irish: An Ard-Aighne) is the official adviser to the Irish Government in matters of law. ... Richard Mulcahy General Richard James Mulcahy (10 May 1886 – 16 December 1971) was an Irish politician, leader of Fine Gael and Cabinet Minister. ... Fine Gael (IPA: , though often anglicized to (approximate English translation: Family of the Irish) and officially, Fine Gael - The United Ireland Party, is the second largest political party in Ireland, presently forming the largest opposition party in the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament), and claims a membership of over 34,000. ... James Dillon (26 September 1902 - 10 February 1986) was an Irish politician and leader of Fine Gael from 1959 to 1965. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Taoiseach ( or [1]) — plural: Taoisigh ( or [1]) — or, more formally, An Taoiseach[2], is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet, the rough equivalent of a prime minister under the Westminster System. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Dr. Noel Christopher Browne (20 December 1915-21 May 1997) was an Irish politician and doctor. ... The Minister for Health and Children is the senior minister at the Department of Health and Children (An Roinn Sláinte agus Leanaí) in the Irish Government and is responsible for health care in the Republic of Ireland and related services. ... Dr. James Ryan (December 6, 1891 - September 25, 1970), was a senior Irish politician. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Leader of the Opposition (Ir Ceannaire an Fhreasúra) in the Republic of Ireland is the politician who, at least in theory, leads the Parliamentary Opposition bloc in the lower house of the Irish Parliament, Dáil Éireann. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Taoiseach ( or [1]) — plural: Taoisigh ( or [1]) — or, more formally, An Taoiseach[2], is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet, the rough equivalent of a prime minister under the Westminster System. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Leader of the Opposition (Ir Ceannaire an Fhreasúra) in the Republic of Ireland is the politician who, at least in theory, leads the Parliamentary Opposition bloc in the lower house of the Irish Parliament, Dáil Éireann. ... James Dillon (26 September 1902 - 10 February 1986) was an Irish politician and leader of Fine Gael from 1959 to 1965. ... The Taoiseach ( or [1]) — plural: Taoisigh ( or [1]) — or, more formally, An Taoiseach[2], is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet, the rough equivalent of a prime minister under the Westminster System. ... Image File history File links COA_IRELAND.PNG Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... John (Jack) Mary Lynch (15 August 1917—20 October 1999), was the fourth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, serving two terms in office; 1966 to 1973 and 1977 to 1979. ... Liam Cosgrave (Irish name Liam Mac Cosgair) (born 13 April 1920), served as the fifth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland between 1973 and 1977. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Dr. Garret FitzGerald (Irish name: Gearóid MacGearailt) (born February 9, 1926) was the seventh Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, serving two terms in office; July 1981 to February 1982, and December 1982 to March 1987. ... Albert Reynolds (born November 3, 1932), was the eighth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, serving one term in office from 1992 until 1994. ... John Gerard Bruton (born May 18, 1947) was the ninth Taoiseach (Prime Minister) of the Republic of Ireland. ... Patrick Bartholomew Ahern (known as Bertie Ahern, Irish name: Pádraig Parthalán Ó hEachthairn; born 12 September 1951) is an Irish politician. ...


Previous prime ministerial offices under earlier constitutions

Príomh Aire (1919–1921) Cathal Brugha | Éamon de Valera
President of the Irish Republic (1921–1922) Éamon de Valera | Arthur Griffith
Chairman of the Provisional Government (1922) Michael Collins | W.T. Cosgrave
President of the Executive Council (1922–1937) W.T. Cosgrave | Éamon de Valera
The head of government under the Dáil Constitution adopted by the First Dáil of the Irish Republic in January 1919. ... Cathal Brugha Cathal Brugha (born Charles William St. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the president of the 1919-1922 Irish Republic Republic of Ireland see: President of Ireland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Chairman of the Provisional Government of Southern Ireland was a transitional post established in January 1922, lasting until the creation of the Irish Free State in December 1922. ... Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: Mícheál Seán Ó Coileáin; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, as Chairman of... William Thomas Cosgrave (Irish name Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair; 6 June 1880 – 16 November 1965), known generally as W.T. Cosgrave, was an Irish politician who succeeded Michael Collins as Chairman of the Irish Provisional Government from August to December 1922. ... The President of the Executive Council (Irish: Uachtaráin na hArd-Chomhairle) was the head of government or prime minister of the 1922-1937 Irish Free State, and the leader of the Executive Council (cabinet). ... William Thomas Cosgrave (Irish name Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair; 6 June 1880 – 16 November 1965), known generally as W.T. Cosgrave, was an Irish politician who succeeded Michael Collins as Chairman of the Irish Provisional Government from August to December 1922. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

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