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Encyclopedia > Johannes Vermeer
Jan Vermeer van Delft

Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the "Mona Lisa of the North"
Born baptized October 31, 1632
Delft, Netherlands
Died December 15, 1675
Delft, Netherlands
Nationality Dutch
Field Painting
Movement Baroque

Johannes Vermeer or Jan Vermeer (baptized October 31, 1632, died December 15, 1675) was a Dutch Baroque painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of ordinary life. His entire life was spent in the town of Delft. Vermeer was a moderately successful provincial painter in his lifetime. He seems to have never been particularly wealthy, perhaps due to the fact that he produced relatively few paintings, leaving his wife and eleven children in debt at his death. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2536x3071, 737 KB) Description: Title: nl: Het meisje met de parel de: Das Mädchen mit der Perle en: The Girl with a Pearl Earring Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 46,5 × 40 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande... For other uses, see Girl with a Pearl Earring (disambiguation). ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 24. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1675 (MDCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 24. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Vermeer may refer to Vermeer Company Vermeer Technologies Incorporated This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1675 (MDCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 24. ...


Virtually forgotten for nearly two hundred years, in 1866 the art critic Thoré Bürger published an essay attributing 66 pictures to him (only 35 paintings are firmly attributed to him today). Since that time Vermeer's reputation has grown, and he is now acknowledged as one of the greatest painters of the Dutch Golden Age, and is particularly renowned for his masterly treatment and use of light in his work. Thoré Bürger was an art critic of the 19th Century who discovered the work of Johannes Vermeer in 1866. ... Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Life

Relatively little is known about Vermeer's life. The only sources of information are some registers, a few official documents and comments by other artists; it was for this reason that Thoré Bürger named him "The Sphinx of Delft".[1]


Youth

Milkmaid (1658-1660)
Milkmaid (1658-1660)

Johannes Vermeer was born in 1632, in the city of Delft in the Netherlands. The precise date of his birth is unknown but it is known that he was baptised on October 31, 1632, in the Reformed Church in Delft. Download high resolution version (1576x1780, 313 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1576x1780, 313 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 24. ... Baptism is a water purification ritual practiced in certain religions such as Christianity, Mandaeanism, Sikhism, and some historic sects of Judaism. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ...


Vermeer's father, Reynier Vermeer[2], was a lower middle-class silk weaver and an art dealer. He married Johannes' mother, Digna, a woman from Antwerp, in 1615. The Vermeer family bought a large inn, the "Mechelen" named after the homonymous Belgian town, near the market square in Delft in 1641. Reynier Vermeer probably served as inn-keeper while also acting as a merchant of paintings. For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Mechelen: Grote Markt square, with St. ...


After his father's death in 1652, Johannes Vermeer inherited the Mechelen as well and replaced his father as a merchant of paintings.


Marriage and family

Despite the fact that he came from a Protestant family, he married a Catholic, named Catherina Bolnes, in April 1653. It was an unlikely marriage: in addition to the religious difference (due to the Dutch Revolt, partially a fight against Catholic suppression of the Reformation among others by the Spanish Inquisition, Catholicism was not a forbidden religion in the Dutch Republic, but strongly restrained), Bolnes' family was significantly wealthier than Vermeer's. Vermeer may have converted to Catholicism shortly before their marriage, a conversion suggested by the fact that his children were named after Catholic saints rather than his own parents, and one of his paintings, The Allegory of Faith, reflects Catholic belief in the Eucharist, though whether that is the artist's or that of a commissioning patron is unknown. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Milkmaid (1658-1660) Johannes Vermeer or Jan Vermeer (baptized October 31, 1632, died December 15, 1675) was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of ordinary bourgeois life. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Dutch Revolt, Eighty Years War or The Revolt of the Netherlands (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Low Countries against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Some time after their marriage, the couple left the Mechelen and moved in with Catherina's mother, Maria Thins, a well-off widow, in a house in the "Papist corner" of the town, where the Catholics lived in relative isolation. Vermeer would live in his mother-in-law's house with his wife and children for the rest of his life. Papist is a term, usually disparaging, referring to a member of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Maria apparently played an important role in their life, for they named their first daughter after her, and it is possible that she used her comfortable income to help support the struggling painter and his growing family. Maria Thins was a devotee of the Jesuit order in the Catholic Church, and this, too, seems to have influenced Johannes and Catherina, for they called their third son Ignatius, after the founding saint of the Jesuit Order.[3] The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Ignatius of Loyola Saint Ignatius of Loyola (December 24, 1491? – July 31, 1556), baptized Íñigo López de Loyola, was the founder of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order commonly known as the Jesuits that was established to strengthen the Church, initially against Protestantism. ...


Johannes and Catherina had fourteen children in total, three of whom predeceased Vermeer.


Career

The Girl with a Wine Glass, 1660
The Girl with a Wine Glass, 1660

Vermeer was apprenticed as a painter, but it is not certain where he studied, nor with whom. It is generally believed that he studied in Delft and that his teacher was either Carel Fabritius (1622 - 1654) or Leonaert Bramer (1596 - 1674).[4] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x1137, 97 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Johannes Vermeer ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x1137, 97 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Johannes Vermeer ... Self-portrait by Fabritius(1654) Carel Fabritius (1622-1654) was a Dutch painter and one of Rembrandts most gifted pupils. ... Leonaert Bramer (1596 - 1674) was one of the teachers of Johannes Vermeer. ...


On the 29th of December 1653, Vermeer became a member of the Guild of Saint Luke, a trade association for painters. The guild's records, which indicate that he could not initially pay the admission fee, hint that Vermeer had financial difficulties. Jan Gossaert, , c. ...


In later years he might have got a patron in the local art collector Pieter van Ruijven. This is assumed as van Ruijven's son in law Jacob Dissius had 21 Vermeer paintings listed in his heritage in 1695. If he indeed completed only a small number of paintings, his income probably[citation needed] relied largely on his business as an art dealer. In 1662 he was elected head of the guild and was reelected in 1663, 1670, and 1671, evidence that he was considered an established craftsman among his peers, and a respectable middle-class citizen.


However, a severe economic downturn struck the Netherlands after 1672 (the "Rampjaar"), when the French invaded the Dutch Republic in what was later known as the Franco-Dutch War. This led to a collapse in demand for luxury items such as paintings, and consequently damaged Vermeer's business both as a painter and an art dealer. With a large family to support, Vermeer was forced to borrow money. The rampjaar (disaster year) was the year 1672 in Dutch history. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... The Dutch War (1672–1678) was a war fought between France and a quadruple alliance consisting of Brandenburg, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and the United Provinces. ...


When Johannes Vermeer died in 1675, he left Catherina and their children with very little money and several debts. In a written document his wife attributed her husband's death to the stress of financial pressures. Catherina asked the city council to take over the estate, including paintings, in order to pay off the debts. The Dutch microscopist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, who worked for the city council, was appointed trustee for the estate in 1676. Nineteen of Vermeer's paintings were bequeathed to Catherina and Maria; Catherina sold some of these paintings to pay creditors. Anton von Leeuwenhoek Anton van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 _ August 26, 1723) was a tradesman and scientist from Delft, in the Netherlands. ... The word trustee is a legal term that refers to a holder of property on behalf of a beneficiary. ...


In Delft, Vermeer had been a respected artist, but he was almost unknown outside his home town, and the fact that a local patron, van Ruijven, purchased much of his output reduced the possibility of his fame spreading. Vermeer's relatively short life, the demands of separate careers, and his extraordinary precision as a painter all help to explain his limited output.


Technique

Vermeer produced transparent colours by applying paint onto the canvas in loosely granular layers, a technique called pointillé (not to be confused with pointillism). No drawings have been securely attributed to Vermeer, and his paintings offer few clues to preparatory methods. David Hockney, among other historians and advocates of the Hockney-Falco thesis, has speculated that Vermeer used a camera obscura to achieve precise positioning in his compositions, and this view seems to be supported by certain light and perspective effects which would result from the use of such lenses and not the naked eye alone; however, the extent of Vermeer's dependence upon the camera obscura is disputed by historians. Pointillé is a style of finishing consisting of dotted lines and curves on the covers of a book. ... Detail from Seurats La Parade (1889), showing the contrasting dots of paint used in pointillism. ... We Two Boys Together Clinging, 1961. ... A diagram of the camera obscura from 1772. ... The camera obscura (Lat. ... Look up perspective in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


There is no other seventeenth century artist who from very early on in his career employed, in the most lavish way, the exorbitantly expensive pigment lapis lazuli, natural ultramarine. Not only used in elements that are intended to be shown as appearance: the earth colours umber and ochre should be understood as warm light from the strongly-lit interior, reflecting its multiple colours back onto the wall. A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... Natural ultramarine. ... Raw umber Umber is a natural brown clay pigment which contains iron and manganese oxides. ... This article is about the color. ...


This working method most probably was inspired by Vermeer’s understanding of Leonardo’s observations that the surface of every object partakes of the colour of the adjacent object.[5] This means that no object is ever seen entirely in its natural colour. “Da Vinci” redirects here. ...


A comparable but even more remarkable yet effectual use of natural ultramarine is in The Girl with a Wineglass (Braunschweig). The shadows of the red satin dress are underpainted in natural ultramarine, and due to this underlying blue paint layer, the red lake and vermilion mixture applied over it acquires a slightly purple, cool and crisp appearance that is most powerful. In art, an underpainting is an initial layer of paint applied to a ground, which serves as a base for subsequent layers of paint. ... Vermilion, also spelled vermillion, when found naturally-occurring, is an opaque reddish orange pigment, used since antiquity, originally derived from the powdered mineral cinnabar. ...


Even after Vermeer’s supposed financial breakdown following the so-called rampjaar (year of disaster) in 1672, he continued to employ natural ultramarine most generously, such as in the above-mentioned "Lady Seated at a Virginal." This could suggest that Vermeer was supplied with materials by a collector, and would coincide with John Michael Montias’ theory of Pieter Claesz. van Ruijven being Vermeer’s patron.

Officer and a Laughing Girl, 1657-59
Officer and a Laughing Girl, 1657-59

Download high resolution version (2536x2821, 1006 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2536x2821, 1006 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Themes

Vermeer painted mostly domestic interior scenes. His works are largely genre pieces and portraits, with the exception of two cityscapes. Genre works, also called genre scenes or genre views, are pictorial representations in any of various media that represent scenes or events from everyday life, such as markets, domestic settings, interiors, parties, inn scenes, and street scenes. ...


His subjects offer a cross-section of seventeenth century Dutch society, ranging from the portrayal of a simple milkmaid at work, to the luxury and splendour of rich notables and merchantmen in their roomy houses. Religious and scientific connotations can be found in his works.


Influence of other painters

  • Carel Fabritius (1622–1654) who spent his final years in Delft. Vermeer's ideas about perspective, and his tendency to paint everyday themes were possibly influenced by Fabritius.
  • Italian painter Caravaggio (1573–1610), indirectly through Dutch followers.
  • Leonaert Bramer, another painter from Delft, and witness to his marriage.
  • Vermeer owned a Dirck van Baburen painting, which appears in two of Vermeer's paintings.

Self-portrait by Fabritius(1654) Carel Fabritius (1622-1654) was a Dutch painter and one of Rembrandts most gifted pupils. ... Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (September 28, 1573 – July 18, 1610), usually called Caravaggio after his hometown near Milan, was an Italian Baroque painter, whose large religious works portrayed saints and other biblical figures as ordinary people. ... Leonaert Bramer (1596 - 1674) was one of the teachers of Johannes Vermeer. ... Prometheus Being Chained by Vulcan by Dirck van Baburen (1623) Oil on canvas, 202 x 184 cm. ...

Works

View of Delft, 1660-61
View of Delft, 1660-61
The Little Street, 1657/58
The Little Street, 1657/58

Only three paintings are dated: The Procuress (1656, Dresden, Gemäldegalerie), The Astronomer (1668, Paris, Louvre), and The Geographer (1669, Frankfurt, Städelsches Kunstinstitut). Two pictures are generally accepted as earlier than The Procuress; both are history paintings, painted in a warm palette and in a relatively large format for Vermeer — Christ in the House of Mary and Martha (Edinburgh, National Gallery) and Diana and her Companions (The Hague, Mauritshuis). Download high resolution version (2024x1724, 326 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2024x1724, 326 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1576x1881, 323 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1576x1881, 323 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


After The Procuress almost all of Vermeer's paintings are of contemporary subjects in a smaller format, with a cooler palette dominated by blues, yellows and greys. It is to this period that practically all of his surviving works belong. They are usually domestic interiors with one or two figures lit by a window on the left. They are characterized by a serene sense of compositional balance and spatial order, unified by an almost pearly light. Mundane domestic or recreational activities become thereby imbued with a poetic timelessness (e.g. Woman Reading a Letter at an Open Window, Dresden, Gemäldegalerie). To this period also have been allocated Vermeer's two townscapes, View of Delft (The Hague, Mauritshuis) and A Street in Delft (Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum). Snowcovered Blaauwbrug 1991 Amsterdam cityscape Frans Koppelaar One seconde in Paris 2006 Paris cityscape Gilles Esnault A cityscape is the urban equivalent of a landscape. ...


A few of his paintings show a certain hardening of manner and these are generally thought to represent his late works. From this period come The Allegory of Faith (c 1670, New York, Metropolitan Museum) and The Letter (c 1670, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum).


The often-discussed sparkling pearly highlights in Vermeer's paintings have been linked to his possible use of a camera obscura, the primitive lens of which would produce halation and, even more noticeably, exaggerated perspective. Such effects can be seen in Lady at the Virginals with a Gentleman (London, Royal Collection). Vermeer's interest in optics is also attested in this work by the accurately observed mirror reflection above the lady at the virginals. The camera obscura (Lat. ... Shaped by the personal tastes of kings and queens over more than 500 years, the Royal Collection includes paintings, drawings and watercolours, furniture, ceramics, clocks, silver, sculpture, jewellery, books, manuscripts, prints and maps, arms and armour, fans, and textiles. ...


Today, 35 paintings are clearly attributed to Vermeer, although in 1866, Thoré Burger attributed a list of 66 pictures to him. The known paintings are:

  1. Christ in the House of Martha and Mary (1654-1655) - Oil on canvas, 160 x 142 cm, National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh
  2. Diana and Her Companions (1655-1656) - Oil on canvas, 98,5 x 105 cm, Mauritshuis, The Hague
  3. The Procuress (1656) - Oil on canvas, 143 x 130 cm, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden
  4. Girl reading a Letter at an Open Window (1657) - Oil on canvas, 83 x 64,5 cm, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden
  5. A Girl Asleep (1657) - Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  6. The Little Street (1657/58) - Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
  7. Officer with a Laughing Girl (c. 1657) - Oil on canvas, 50,5 x 46 cm, Frick Collection, New York
  8. The Milkmaid (c. 1658) - Oil on canvas, 45,5 x 41 cm, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
  9. A Lady Drinking and a Gentleman (1658-1660) - Oil on canvas, 39,4 x 44,5 cm,Gemäldegalerie, Berlin
  10. The Girl with the Wineglass (c. 1659) - Oil on canvas, Herzog Anton-Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig
  11. View of Delft (1659-1660) - Oil on canvas, 98,5 x 117,5 cm, Mauritshuis, The Hague
  12. Girl Interrupted at her Music (1660-1661) - Oil on canvas, 39,4 x 44,5 cm, Frick Collection, New York
  13. Woman in Blue Reading a Letter (1663-1664) - Oil on canvas, 46,6 x 39,1 cm, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
  14. The Music Lesson or A Lady at the Virginals with a Gentleman (1662/5) - Oil on canvas, 73,3 x 64,5 cm, Queen's Gallery, London
  15. Woman with a Lute near a Window (c. 1663) - Oil on canvas, 51,4 x 45,7 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  16. Woman with a Pearl Necklace (1662-1664) - Oil on canvas, 55 x 45 cm, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin
  17. Woman with a Water Jug (1660-1662) - Oil on canvas, 45,7 x 40,6 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  18. A Woman Holding a Balance (1662-1663) - Oil on canvas, 42,5 x 38 cm, National Gallery of Art, Washington
  19. A Lady Writing a Letter (1665-1666) - Oil on canvas, 45 x 40 cm, National Gallery of Art, Washington
  20. Girl with a Pearl Earring (a.k.a. Girl In A Turban, Head Of Girl In A Turban, The Young Girl With Turban) (c. 1665) - Oil on canvas, 46,5 x 40 cm, Mauritshuis, The Hague
  21. The Concert (1665-1666) - Oil on canvas, 69 x 63 cm, stolen in March 1990 from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston[6]
  22. Portrait of a Young Woman (1666-1667) - Oil on canvas, 44,5 x 40 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  23. The Allegory of Painting or The Art of Painting (1666/67) - Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
  24. Mistress and Maid (1667/68) - Frick Collection, New York
  25. Girl with a Red Hat (1668) - National Gallery of Art, Washington
  26. The Astronomer (1668) - Louvre, Paris
  27. The Geographer (1668/69) - Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt am Main
  28. The Lacemaker (1669/70) - Louvre, Paris
  29. The Love Letter (1669/70) - Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
  30. Lady writing a Letter with her Maid (1670) - Oil on canvas, 71,1 x 58,4 cm, National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin
  31. The Allegory of Faith (1671/74) - Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  32. The Guitar Player (1672) - Iveagh Bequest Kenwood House, London
  33. Lady Standing at a Virginal (1673/75) - National Gallery, London
  34. Lady Seated at a Virginal (1673/75) - National Gallery, London

Disputed works

Saint Praxidis is an oil painting sometimes attributed to Johannes Vermeer van Delft. ... The West building of the National Gallery of Art with the East building visible behind and to to the left The National Gallery of Art is an art museum, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The museum was established in 1937 by the Congress, with funds for... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Wynn Las Vegas Resort and Country Club is a AAA five diamond/Mobil five-star casino resort located on the Las Vegas Strip, in Las Vegas, Nevada. ... For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ...

Forgeries

Han van Meegeren was a Dutch painter who worked in the classic tradition. Initially seeking to prove that critics had underestimated his abilities as a painter, he decided to paint a fake Vermeer. Later, he forged more Vermeers and works of other painters to make money. Van Meegeren fooled the art establishment, and was only taken seriously after demonstrating his skills in front of police witnesses. His aptitude at forgery shocked the art world and complicated efforts to assess the authenticity of works attributed to Vermeer. After Van Meegeren's exposure in 1945 a wave of self-criticism surged through the world of art-museums and many so-called Old Masters disappeared from their walls. Examples are given in the Van Meegeren biography A New Vermeer, see references below. Han van Meegeren (10 October 1889 in Deventer in the Netherlands province of Overijssel – 30 December 1947 in Amsterdam), born Henricus Antonius van Meegeren, was a Dutch painter, art-restorer, and art forger. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Vermeer in other works

  • Vermeer's View of Delft features in a pivotal sequence of Marcel Proust's The Captive.
  • The book Girl with a Pearl Earring and the film of the same name are named after the painting; they present a fictional account of its creation by Vermeer and his relationship with the model.
  • The book Girl in Hyacinth Blue is about a fictional Vermeer painting of the same name, and the 2003 made-for-TV film Brush with Fate is based on the book.
  • The liqueur Vermeer Dutch Chocolate Cream Liqueur was inspired by and named after Vermeer and its bottle is embossed with his signature and has a logo incorporating the Girl with a Pearl Earring.
  • Salvador Dalí, with great admiration for Vermeer, painted his own version of The Lacemaker and pitted large copies of the original against a rhinoceros in some now-famous surrealist experiments. Dali also immortalized the Dutch Master in The Ghost of Vermeer of Delft Which Can Be Used As a Table, 1934.
  • The 2003 children's novel Chasing Vermeer by Blue Balliett describes the theft of A Lady Writing and has the authenticity of Vermeer's paintings as a central theme. Also, in the sequel to the book, The Wright 3.
  • Dutch composer Louis Andriessen based his opera, Writing to Vermeer (1997-98, libretto by Peter Greenaway), on the domestic life of Vermeer.
  • Greenaway's own film A Zed & Two Noughts (1985) contains a plot line about an orthopedic surgeon named Van Meegeren who stages highly exact scenes from Vermeer paintings in order to paint copies of them.
  • "Brush with Fate" was a made-for-TV film debuted on February 2, 2003, on CBS. It followed the life of an imaginary painting by Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer as it passes through the hands of various people.
  • The book and film Girl, Interrupted take their title from the painting Girl Interrupted at her Music.
  • Jan Vermeer is the title of a song on Bob Walkenhorst's solo album, The Beginner (lyrics here, song #6). Walkenhorst is the guitarist and principal songwriter for The Rainmakers.
  • All the Vermeers in New York, a film by Jon Jost

Proust redirects here. ... In Search of Lost Time or Remembrance of Things Past (French: À la recherche du temps perdu) is a semi-autobiographical novel in seven volumes by Marcel Proust. ... Girl with a Pearl Earring is a novel by Tracy Chevalier published in 1999. ... Girl with a Pearl Earring is a 2003 United Kingdom/Luxembourg drama film directed by Peter Webber. ... Brush with Fate was a made-for-TV film debuted on February 2, 2003, on CBS. It followed the life of an imaginary painting by Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer as it passes through the hands of various people. ... Bottles of strawberry liqueur A liqueur is a sweet alcoholic beverage, often flavoured with fruits, herbs, spices, flowers, seeds, roots, plants, barks, and sometimes cream. ... Vermeer Dutch Chocolate Cream Liqueur is a sweet tasting liqueur made of Dutch chocolate, cream and vodka. ... For other uses, see Girl with a Pearl Earring (disambiguation). ... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter of Catalan descent born in Figueres, Catalonia (Spain). ... Dutch Masters are a brand of cigar. ... The Ghost of Vermeer of Delft Which Can Be Used As a Table (1934) is a painting by the Spanish surrealist Salvador Dalí. ... Chasing Vermeer is a childrens book by Blue Balliett and illustrated by Brett Helquist, illustrator of A Series of Unfortunate Events. ... Elizabeth Blue Balliett Klein (1955-) is an American author, best known for her award-winning novel for children, Chasing Vermeer. ... The Wright 3 is the sequel to Chasing Vermeer, by Blue Balliett and illustrated by Brett Helquist. ... Louis Andriessen (born June 6, 1939) is a Dutch composer, son of the composer Hendrik Andriessen (1892-1981) and brother of composer Jurriaan Andriessen (1925-1996). ... A Zed & Two Noughts (A.K.A. Zoo) is a 1985 film written and directed by Peter Greenaway. ... Brush with Fate was a made-for-TV film debuted on February 2, 2003, on CBS. It followed the life of an imaginary painting by Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer as it passes through the hands of various people. ... This article is about the book. ... Perhaps the most popular aspect of Cinequests program has been its annual Maverick Spirit Tribute section wherein the following artists have visited Cinequest to be honored for their personal and visionary work: Jon Jost, Michael Pilz, Lena Stolze, Paul Bartel, Peter McCarthy, Werner Herzog, Russ Meyer, John Waters, Gus...

References and notes

Specific references:

  1. ^ Vermeer:A View of Delft The Economist. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
  2. ^ Reynier Vermeer's name actually was Reynier Vos (Fox), but he used the name Van der Meer.
  3. ^ Their first son was named Johannes, the second Franciscus, also reflecting the family's Catholicism. Bailey, Anthony, Vermeer: A View of Delft, p. 63. Macmillan, 2002. ISBN 0805069305
  4. ^ Vermeer biography, National Gallery of Art Retrieved July 13, 2007.
  5. ^ B. Broos, A. Blankert, J. Wadum, A.K. Wheelock Jr. (1995) Johannes Vermeer, Waanders Publishers, Zwolle
  6. ^ Stolen, a documentary about the theft of The Concert, from the PBS website
  7. ^ In-depth discussion of "Woman Holding a Balance" from the National Gallery of Art website

General references: The West building of the National Gallery of Art with the East building visible behind and to to the left The National Gallery of Art is an art museum, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The museum was established in 1937 by the Congress, with funds for... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... The West building of the National Gallery of Art with the East building visible behind and to to the left The National Gallery of Art is an art museum, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The museum was established in 1937 by the Congress, with funds for...

  • Sheldon, Libby and Nicola Costaros (2005), Johannes Vermeer’s ‘Young woman seated at a virginal’, THE BURLINGTON MAGAZINE, February 2006, Number 1235, Volume CXLVIII.
  • Schneider, Nobert (1993), Vermeer, Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH, Köln.
  • Wadum, J., “Contours of Vermeer”, in Vermeer Studies. Studies in the History of Art, 55. Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, Symposium Papers XXXIII, eds. I. Gaskel and M. Jonker. Washington/New Haven (1998), pp. 201-223.
  • Vermeer, Johannes. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved July 13, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: [1].
  • Frederik H. Kreuger (2007) A New Vermeer, Life and Work of Han van Meegeren (ISBN 978-90-5959-047-2). Pages 54, 218 and 220 give examples of Van Meegeren fakes (or possible Van Meegeren fakes) that were removed from their museum walls. Pages 220/221 give an example of a non-Van Meegeren fake attributed to him: *[2]
  • Arthur K. Wheelock, Jr. (1981,1988) Jan Vermeer (ISBN 0-8109-1737-8). Contains history and color plates, or photographs, of nearly/all works along with commentary and history of them. Also includes background information on Vermeer and his time.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Jan Vermeer van Delft

Köln may refer to: Cologne (German: Köln), the fourth largest city in Germany and largest city of the North Rhine-Westphalia state German Cruiser Köln that served from 1930-1945 mostly for the Kriegsmarine German Frigate Köln (1961-1982), a F120 Köln class frigate of...

External links

  • Vermeercentrum, housed at the site of the former St. Lucas Guild in Delft. (This reference states that the Vermeercentrum has been closed, in the mean time it has been reopened again: December 2007).
  • Essential Vermeer, in-depth coverage of Vermeer's life and works.
  • Virtual Vermeer, Biography, Paintings.

Jan Gossaert, , c. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Johannes Vermeer: The techniques of Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer (283 words)
Johannes Vermeer or Jan Vermeer (1632-1675), best known for his painting “Girl with a Pearl Earring,” was a Dutch painter who loved to paint domestic interiors, portraits and city views.
Possibly trained by Leonaert Bramer or Carel Fabritius, Vermeer was a Master in the Delft painters' guild from 1653, and was conidered a very fine painter in his lifetime, though his skill was nearly forgotten until 1866 when art critic Thoré Burger published an essay attributing 66 pictures to him.
Today Vermeer is considered to be one of the great Dutch master painters even though it has never been proven that he sold even one of his paintings.
About Johannes Vermeer (573 words)
Also in 1653 Vermeer joined the Guild of Saint Luke as a master painter -- an important step in his career as a painter, it meant he had completed his apprenticeship and was ready to work professionally as an artist.
Vermeer was also an art dealer, but his primary source of income was his mother-in-law.
Vermeer's death in 1675, probably from a stroke or heart attack at age 43, was stress-related, according to his wife.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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