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Encyclopedia > Johannes Stark
Johannes Stark
Johannes Stark in 1919
Johannes Stark in 1919
Born April 15, 1874
Schickenhof, Bavaria, Germany
Died June 21, 1957
Traunstein, Germany
Residence Germany
Nationality German
Field Physicist
Institution University of Göttingen
Technische Hochschule, Hannover
Technische Hochschule, Aachen University of Greifswald
University of Würzburg
Alma mater University of Munich
Academic advisor Eugen von Lommel
Known for Stark effect
Notable prizes Nobel Prize (1919)

Johannes Stark (April 15, 1874June 21, 1957) was a prominent 20th century physicist, and a Physics Nobel Prize laureate. Image File history File links Johannes_Stark. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Cistercian Abbey of Zwettl A filiation of Heiligenkreuz, of the line of Morimond, situated in Lower Austria, in the Diocese of St. ... The Free State of Bavaria  (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Traunstein is a town in the south-eastern part of Bavaria, Germany and is the administrative center of a district by the same name. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... ... The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... For other uses or meanings of Unihan, see Unihan (disambiguation) The University of Hanover (German Universität Hannover) (also known as, UNIHAN) is a university located in Hanover, Germany. ... RWTH Aachen University is a large university located in Aachen (Germany). ... Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald is located in Greifswald, Germany, between the Islands Rügen and Usedom, and is the second oldest university in Northern Europe. ... [ recorded in this] The University of Würzburg is a university in Würzburg, Germany, founded in 1402. ... With approximately 48,000 students, the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München or LMU) is one of the largest universities in Germany. ... Eugen Cornelius Joseph von Lommel (* 19 March 1837 in Edenkoben in Pfalz; † 19 June 1899 in Munich) was a German Physicist. ... The Stark effect is the splitting of a spectral line into several components in the presence of an electric field. ... Image File history File links Nobel. ... Nobel Prize medal. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Physics (from the Greek, (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the science concerned with the discovery and understanding of the fundamental laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ...


Born in Schickenhof, Bavaria, (now Zwettl), Stark was educated at the Bayreuth Gymnasium (grammar school) and later in Regensburg. His collegiate education began at the University of Munich, where he studied physics, mathematics, chemistry, and crystallography. His tenure at that college began in 1894; he graduated in 1897, with his doctoral dissertation regarding some physics subjects of Isaac Newton. The Free State of Bavaria  (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... Cistercian Abbey of Zwettl A filiation of Heiligenkreuz, of the line of Morimond, situated in Lower Austria, in the Diocese of St. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 129,175 in 2005) in Bavaria, south-east Germany, located at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers, at the northernmost bend in the Danube. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... With approximately 48,000 students, the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München or LMU) is one of the largest universities in Germany. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, known today as the father of geometry; shown here in a detail of The School of Athens by Raphael. ... Chemistry (from Persian language کیمیا Kimia and Greek χημεία khemeia[1] meaning alchemy) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms, such as gases, molecules, crystals, and metals. ... Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Isaac Newton, (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, alchemist, and natural philosopher, regarded by many as the greatest figure in the history of science. ...


He worked in various positions at the Physics Institute of his alma mater until 1900, when he became an unsalaried lecturer at the University of Göttingen. He worked and researched at physics departments of several universities, including the University of Greifswald, until 1922. In 1919, however, he won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his "discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields" (the latter is known as the Stark effect). From 1933 until his retirement in 1939, Stark was elected President of the Physico-Technical Institute, while also President of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary. ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... A lecture on linear algebra at the Helsinki University of Technology A lecture is an oral presentation intended to teach people about a particular subject, for example by a university or college teacher. ... The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald is located in Greifswald, Germany, between the Islands Rügen and Usedom, and is the second oldest university in Northern Europe. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... A source of waves moving to the left. ... The Stark effect is the splitting of a spectral line into several components in the presence of an electric field. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (abbreviated DFG, German Research Foundation in English) is an important German research funding organization. ...


Stark published more than 300 papers, mainly regarding electricity and other such topics. He received various awards including the Nobel Prize, the Baumgartner Prize of the Vienna Academy of Sciences (1910), the Vahlbruch Prize of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences (1914), and the Matteucci Medal of the Rome Academy. He married Luise Uepler, and they had five children. Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... Nobel Prize medal. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Probably his best known contribution to the field of physics is the Stark effect, which he discovered in 1913. Physics (from the Greek, (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the science concerned with the discovery and understanding of the fundamental laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time. ... The Stark effect is the splitting of a spectral line into several components in the presence of an electric field. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...

  • spouse = Luise Uepler
  • children = Five children

Affiliation with National Socialism

The cover of a 1932 Danish translation of Stark's "Adolf Hitler: Aims and Personality"
The cover of a 1932 Danish translation of Stark's "Adolf Hitler: Aims and Personality"

During the Nazi regime, Stark attempted to become the Führer of German physics through the Deutsche Physik ("German physics") movement (along with Philipp Lenard) against the "Jewish physics" of Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg (who wasn't Jewish). After Werner Heisenberg defended Albert Einstein's theory of relativity Stark wrote an angry article in the SS newspaper Das Schwarze Korps, calling Heisenberg a "White Jew". Image File history File links AdolfHitlerMaalOgPersonlighed. ... Image File history File links AdolfHitlerMaalOgPersonlighed. ... National Socialism redirects here. ...   (Fuehrer when an umlaut is not used) is a proper noun meaning leader or guide in the German language. ... Deutsche Physik (literally: German Physics) or Aryan Physics was the name given to a nationalist movement in the German physics community in the early 1930s against the work of Albert Einstein, labeled Jewish Physics. ... Philipp Eduard Anton von Lénárd, (June 7, 1862 in Preßburg, Austria-Hungary (today Bratislava, Slovakia)–May 20, 1947 in Messelhausen, Germany) was a Hungarian-German physicist and the winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1905 for his research on cathode rays and the discovery of... Albert Einstein ( ) (March 14, 1879 – April 18, 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who is widely considered one of the greatest physicists of all time. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics, and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics, and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... Two-dimensional analogy of space-time distortion described in General Relativity. ... The double-Sig Rune SS insignia. ... Das Schwarze Korps (The Black Corps), the official SS newspaper. ...


In his 1934 book Nationalsozialismus und Wissenschaft (English: "National Socialism and Science") Stark maintained that the priority of the scientist was to serve the nation -- thus, the important fields of research were those that could help German arms production and industry. He attacked theoretical physics as "Jewish" and stressed that scientific positions in Nazi Germany should only be held by pure-blooded Germans. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Stark also maintained that Jewish scientists lacked "the aptitude for true creative activity in the natural sciences." [1]


In 1947, following the defeat of Germany in World War II, Stark was classified as a "Major Offender" and received a sentence of four years imprisonment by a denazification court. Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military dead: 8,000,000 Civilian dead: 4,000,000 Total dead 12,000,000 World War II (abbreviated WWII), or the Second World War, was a worldwide conflict... Denazification (German: Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary and politics of any remnants of the Nazi regime. ...


Publications

  • Die Entladung der Elektricität von galvanisch glühender Kohle in verdünntes Gas. (Sonderabdruck aus 'Annalen der Physik und Chemie', Neue Folge, Band 68). Leipzig, 1899
  • Der elektrische Strom zwischen galvanisch glühender Kohle und einem Metall durch verdünntes Gas. (Sonderabdruck aus 'Annalen der Physik und Chemie', Neue Folge, Band 68). Leipzig, 1899
  • Aenderung der Leitfähigkeit von Gasen durch einen stetigen elektrischen Strom. (Sonderabdruck aus 'Annalen der Physik', 4. Folge, Band 2). Leipzig, 1900
  • Ueber den Einfluss der Erhitzung auf das elektrische Leuchten eines verdünnten Gases. (Sonderabdruck aus 'Annalen der Physik', 4. Folge, Band 1). Leipzig, 1900
  • Ueber elektrostatische Wirkungen bei der Entladung der Elektricität in verdünnten Gasen. (Sonderabdruck aus 'Annalen der Physik', 4. Folge, Band 1). Leipzig, 1900
  • Kritische Bemerkungen zu der Mitteilung der Herren Austin und Starke über Kathodenstrahlreflexion. Sonderabdruck aus 'Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft', Jahrgang 4, Nr. 8). Braunschweig, 1902
  • Prinzipien der Atomdynamik. 1. Teil. Die elektrischen Quanten., 1910
  • Schwierigkeiten für die Lichtquantenhypothese im Falle der Emission von Serienlinien. (Sonderabdruck aus 'Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft', Jg. XVI, Nr 6). Braunschweig, 1914
  • Bemerkung zum Bogen - und Funkenspektrum des Heliums. (Sonderabdruck aus 'Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft.', Jg. XVI, Nr. 10). Braunschweig, 1914
  • Folgerungen aus einer Valenzhypothese. III. Natürliche Drehung der Schwingungsebene des Lichtes. (Sonderabdruck aus `Jahrbuch der Radioaktivität und Elektronik', Heft 2, Mai 1914), Leipzig, 1914
  • Methode zur gleichzeitigen Zerlegung einer Linie durch das elektrische und das magnetische Feld. (Sonderabdruck aus 'Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft.', Jg. XVI, Nr. 7). Braunschweig, 1914
  • Die gegenwärtige Krise der deutschen Physik, ("The Thoroughgoing Crisis in German Physics") 1922
  • Natur der chemischen Valenzkräfte, 1922
  • Hitlergeist und Wissenschaft, 1924 zusammen mit Philipp Lenard
  • Die Axialität der Lichtemission und Atomstruktur, Berlin 1927
  • Atomstrukturelle Grundlagen der Stickstoffchemie., Leipzig, 1931
  • Nationalsozialismus und Katholische Kirche, ("National Socialism and the Catholic Church") 1931
  • Nationalsozialismus und Katholische Kirche. II. Teil: Antwort auf Kundgebungen der deutschen Bischöfe., 1931
  • Nationale Erziehung, 1932
  • Nationalsozialismus und Wissenschaft ("National Socialism and Science") 1934
  • Physik der Atomoberfläche, 1940
  • Jüdische und deutsche Physik, ("Jewish and German Physics") with Wilhelm Müller, written at the University of Munich in 1941
  • Nationale Erziehung, Zentrumsherrschaft und Jesuitenpolitik, undated
  • Hitlers Ziele und Persönlichkeit ("Hitler's Aims and Personality"), undated

With approximately 48,000 students, the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München or LMU) is one of the largest universities in Germany. ...

External links

  • Nobel Biography
  • Pictures of a 1932 Danish version of Stark's "Hitler's Aims and Personality"

  Results from FactBites:
 
Johannes Stark - Biography (505 words)
Johannes Stark was born on April 15, 1874 in Schickenhof, Bavaria; his father was a landed proprietor.
In 1919 Stark was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for his "discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields".
Johannes Stark was a corresponding member of the Academies in Göttingen, Rome, Leyden, Vienna and Calcutta, and was awarded the Baumgartner Prize of the Vienna Academy of Sciences in 1910 and the Vahlbruch Prize of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences in 1914, and also the Matteucci Medal of the Rome Academy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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