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Encyclopedia > Johannes Popitz
Johannes Popitz
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Johannes Popitz

Johannes Popitz (born 2 December 1884 in Leipzig; died 2 February 1945 in Berlin) was a Prussian finance minister and an opponent of the Third Reich. December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1884 is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar). ... Map of Germany showing Leipzig   Leipzig? [ˈlaiptsɪç] (Polish; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the federal state (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...   Berlin? (pronounced: , German ) is the capital of Germany and its largest city; down from 4. ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: PrÅ«sai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia and... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...

Contents


Life

As a pharmacist's son, Popitz studied political science and law in Dessau, Lausanne, Leipzig, Berlin and Halle. From 1907 to 1918 he acted as a junior government lawyer. Pharmacists are health professionals who practice pharmacy. ... The Elections and Parties Series Democracy Representative democracy History of democracy Referenda Liberal democracy Representation Voting Voting systems Ideology Elections Elections by country Elections by calender Electoral systems Politics Politics by country Political campaigns Political science Political philosophy Related topics Political parties Parties by country Parties by name Parties by... Aphorism Critical legal studies Jurisprudence Law (principle) Legal research Letter versus Spirit List of legal abbreviations Legal code Natural justice Natural law Philosophy of law Religious law External links Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Law Look up law on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of Germany showing Dessau Dessau is a town in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland (Federal State) of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Location within Switzerland Lausanne (46°31′10″ N 6°37′56″ E) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, situated on the shores of Lake Geneva (French: Lac Léman), and facing Évian-les-Bains (France). ... Map of Germany showing Leipzig   Leipzig? [ˈlaiptsɪç] (Polish; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the federal state (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ... Halle is the name of two cities in Germany, and both a municipality and a town in Belgium. ... 1907 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


In 1918, he married Cornalia Slot, with whom he had three children. 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


In 1919, after the election for the Weimar National Assembly, he became a Geheimrat in the finance ministry. 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The period of German history from 1919 to 1933 is known as the Weimar Republic IPA (German Weimarer Republik). ... Geheimrat was the title of the highest officials of a German royal or principal court. ...


From 1925 to 1929, Popitz acted as State Secretary in the German Ministry of Finance, where he sometimes worked under Finance Minister Rudolf Hilferding, with whom, in 1929, he was provisionally retired owing to political differences with the government. 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Rudolf Hilferding (1877 - 1941) was an Austrian Marxist economist and a popularizer of the economic reading of Karl Marx. ...


As an honorary professor of tax law and financial science at the Berliner Universität and the State Academy (Verwaltungsakademie) from 1922, Popitz was named to Kurt von Schleicher's cabinet as State Minister without Portfolio, and as commissary leader of the Prussian Finance Ministry. Alternative meaning: Humboldt State University, located in Arcata, California Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin The Humboldt University of Berlin (German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is Berlins oldest university, founded in 1810 as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Kurt von Schleicher (4 April 1882–30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the era of the Weimar Republic. ...


On 21 April 1933, Popitz took up the offices of Prussian State and Finance Minister, although up to this time, he was still not a member of the NSDAP. On 1 February 1937 (1939, according to some sources), the Völkischer Beobachter reported in its South German edition that Popitz had been offered the Nazi Party's golden insignia, which he had accepted. April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... One of the last editions of the Völkischer Beobachter (April 20, 1945) hails Adolf Hitler as man of the century on the occasion of his 56th birthday, ten days before his suicide. ...


After Kristallnacht (9 November 1938), Popitz protested the mass persecution of Jews by offering his resignation. His offer was refused. Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht (literally Imperial Crystal Night), Pogromnacht and in English as The Night of Broken Glass, was a massive nationwide pogrom in Germany and Austria on the night of November 9, 1938 (including early hours of the following day). ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


As a rightwing conservative and monarchist who would have loved to see Crown Prince Wilhelm, Kaiser Wilhelm II's eldest son, succeed Hitler, Popitz became very active in the resistance circles beginning in 1938, including the one around Carl Friedrich Goerdeler. As a member of another such circle, the Mittwochsgesellschaft ("Wednesday Company"), a small group of high officials and industrialists who had evolved from a debating club into a centre for conservative opposition to the National Socialist régime, he was drawn ever further into the centre of the conspiracy against Hitler. He even drew up a provisional post-Hitler constitution, the Vorläufiges Staatsgrundgesetz, whose general tendencies were quite authoritarian. In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the Right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... For an overview of Conservatism in the United States, see American Conservatism. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy. ... Crown Prince Wilhelm Crown Prince Wilhelm of Germany and Prussia (6 May 1882 - 20 July 1951), Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor August Ernst Kronprinz von Preussen, was born 6 May 1882 at Marmorpalais, Potsdam, Germany. ... Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern (January 27, 1859 - June 4, 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia from 1888 - 1918. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Carl Friedrich Goerdeler Carl Friedrich Goerdeler (July 31, 1884 _ February 2, 1945) was a conservative German politician and opponent of the Nazi regime. ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ...


In the summer of 1943, Popitz conducted secret talks with Heinrich Himmler, whose support he sought to win for a coup d'état, and whom he tried to convince to take part in attempts to negotiate with the Western Powers for an acceptable peace deal. 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... Heinrich Himmler   Heinrich Himmler? (October 7, 1900 – May 23, 1945) was the commander of the German Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. ... A coup détat (pronounced /ku de ta/), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ...


Already in the autumn of that same year, Popitz was being watched by the Gestapo, and indeed, he was arrested in Berlin on 21 July 1944, the day after Claus von Stauffenberg's attempt on Hitler's life at the Wolf's Lair in East Prussia. On 3 October, he was sentenced to death at the Volksgerichtshof by Roland Freisler. At first, in the hopes that the contacts with the Allies that he and Popitz had discussed might still develop, Himmler saw to it that Popitz was not put to death. However, as it became apparent that no such talks would be forthcoming, Popitz's fate was sealed. He was hanged on 2 February 1945 at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin. The Deaths Head emblem, often used as the insignia of the Gestapo The   Gestapo? (acronym of Geheime Staatspolizei; secret state police) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Image:Claus-von-stauffenberg. ... The July 20 Plot was a failed coup détat which involved an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler. ... One of larger bunkers in Wolfsschanze complex. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in Leap years). ... The Volksgerichtshof (German for Peoples Court) was a court established by Hitler after the Reichstag fire to handle those accused of political criminal offences, such as treason. ... Roland Freisler (October 30, 1893 - February 3, 1945) was a prominent Nazi. ... Hanging is a form of execution, or a method for suicide. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Plötzensee is a lake in Berlin with an area of 7. ...


Works by Popitz

  • Finanzausgleichsprobleme. - Berlin : Dt. Kommunal-Verl., 1927
  • Der künftige Finanzausgleich zwischen Reich, Ländern und Gemeinden. - Kiel : Bibl. d. Inst. d. Weltwirtschaft, 1955 <Repr. d. Ausg. Berlin 1932>

Works about Popitz

  • Lutz-Arwed Benthin: Johannes Popitz und Carl Schmitt : zur wirtschaftlichen Theorie des totalen Staates in Deutschland. - München : Beck, 1972. - (Münchener Studien zur Politik; 19) - ISBN 3-406-02799-7
  • Hildemarie Dieckmann: Johannes Popitz : Entwicklung und Wirksamkeit in der Zeit der Weimarer Zeit. - Berlin : Colloquium Verl., 1960

Sources

  • Largely translated from linked German article.
  • Additional information

 
 

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