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Encyclopedia > Johannes Hevelius
Johannes Hevelius, by Daniel Schultz
Johannes Hevelius, by Daniel Schultz
Peter Crüger's azimuthal quadrant, completed by Hevelius.
Peter Crüger's azimuthal quadrant, completed by Hevelius.
Hevelius' map of the moon.
Hevelius' map of the moon.

Johannes Hevelius (Latin), also called Johannes Hewel, Johann Hewelke, Johannes Höwelcke in German, or Jan Heweliusz (in Polish), (January 28, 1611January 28, 1687), was a Protestant councillor and mayor in Danzig (Gdańsk), (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.) As an astronomer he gained the reputation of "the founder of lunar topography". Family portrait, detail, 1654-1664. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x688, 73 KB) Summary llustration from Geschichte der Astron. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x688, 73 KB) Summary llustration from Geschichte der Astron. ... Crügers Azimuthal Quadrant, completed by Johannes Hevelius Peter Crüger or Peter Krüger (Polish: , 1580—1639) was a mathematician, astronomer and polymath who spend most of his life in Danzig, Prussia (now GdaÅ„sk, Poland). ... Azimuth is the horizontal component of a direction (compass direction), measured around the horizon, from the north toward the east (i. ... Look up Quadrant on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Quadrant can mean: HMS Quadrant (G11), a WW-II British/Australian warship. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (683x624, 446 KB) Subject : map of the moon Author : Johannes Hevelius Date : 1647 File links The following pages link to this file: Johannes Hevelius Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (683x624, 446 KB) Subject : map of the moon Author : Johannes Hevelius Date : 1647 File links The following pages link to this file: Johannes Hevelius Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... For other uses, see Map (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earths moon. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... This article is about the History of GdaÅ„sk (Danzig), a city located on the Baltic Sea. ... For alternative meanings of GdaÅ„sk and Danzig, see GdaÅ„sk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Galileo is often referred to as the Father of Modern Astronomy. ... Lunar may refer to: an adjective that means having to do with or pertaining to the Moon, or to moons in general. ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ...

Contents

Early life

Hevelius' father was Abraham Hewelke (1576-1649), his mother Kordula Hecker (1576-1655). They were a family of wealthy brewing merchants of Bohemian origin. Hevelius brewed the famous Jopenbier, which also gave its name to Danzig's Jopengasse, the street where St. Mary's church is located. Kettles in a modern Trappist brewery A brewery can be a building or place that produces beer, or a business (brewing company) whose trade is the production and sale of beer. ... A merchant making up the account by Shiatsus Hokusai Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... St Marys Church St. ...


After gymnasium, where he was taught by Peter Crüger, Hevelius in 1630 studied jurisprudence at Leiden, then traveled in England and France, meeting Pierre Gassendi, Marin Mersenne and Athanasius Kircher. In 1634 he settled in his native town, and on March 21, 1635, married Katharine Rebeschke, a neighbor two years younger who owned two adjacent houses. The following year, Hevelius became a member of the beer brewing guild, which he led from 1643 onwards. A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... Crügers Azimuthal Quadrant, completed by Johannes Hevelius Peter Crüger or Peter Krüger (Polish: , 1580—1639) was a mathematician, astronomer and polymath who spend most of his life in Danzig, Prussia (now GdaÅ„sk, Poland). ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... Leiden University, located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands[1]. It is a member of the Coimbra Group, the Europaeum and the League of European Research Universities. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Pierre Gassendi (January 22, 1592 – October 24, 1655) was a French philosopher, scientist and mathematician, best known for attempting to reconcile Epicurean atomism with Christianity and for publishing the first official observations of the Transit of Mercury in 1631. ... Marin Mersenne, Marin Mersennus or le Père Mersenne (September 8, 1588 – September 1, 1648) was a French theologian, philosopher, mathematician and music theorist. ... Athanasius Kircher ( ) (sometimes erroneously spelled Kirchner) was a 17th century German Jesuit scholar who published around 40 works, most notably in the fields of oriental studies, geology and medicine. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 10 - The Académie française in Paris is expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... This article is about beer. ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ...


Professional life

Throughout his life, Hevelius took a leading part in municipal administration, becoming Ratsherr (town councillor) in 1651 and later mayor of Danzig; but from 1639 onward his chief interest became centered in astronomy. In 1641 he built an observatory on the roofs of his three connected houses, equipping it with splendid instruments, including ultimately a tubeless telescope of 45 m (150 ft.) focal length, constructed by himself. A municipality or general-purpose district (compare with: special-purpose district) is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government. ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ... In the United Kingdom, town councils are civil parish councils, where the civil parish is a town. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... This article is about scientific observatories. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about focal length related to lenses and systems of lenses. ...


This private observatory was visited by Polish Queen Maria Gonzaga on 29 January 1660, and in 1678 by Polish King John III Sobieski. In May 1679, the young Englishman Edmund Halley visited him as emissary of the Royal Society. Hevelius had been a member (fellow) since 1664. M. Czerniakowska believes that Jan Heweliusz was the first Pole included. Ludwika Maria Gonzaga de Nevers - (born on 18 august 1611 in Paris- 10 may 1667 in Warsaw) - a Polish Queen was a consort of two Polish kings : WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw IV and Jan II Kazimierz. ... (Redirected from 29 January) January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... For other monarchs with similar names, please see John of Poland. ... Edmond Halley. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ...


Halley had been instructed by Robert Hooke and John Flamsteed to persuade Hevelius to use telescopes, yet Hevelius demonstrated that he could do well with only quadrant and alidade. He is thus considered the last astronomer to do major work without lenses.[1] Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 – March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ... John Flamsteed - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Simple lenses made from rock crystal have been known from before recorded history, and various descriptions exist of early experiments in optics. ... A quadrant is an instrument that is used to measure angles up to 90°. // There are several types of quadrants: Mural quadrants used for measuring the altitudes of astronomical objects. ... A simple alidade for use with a ceiling projector The Alhidade or alidade is the part of a theodolite that rotates around the vertical axis, and that bears the horizontal axis around which the telescope (or visor, in early telescope-less instruments) turns up or down. ...


Hevelius made observations of sunspots, 1642–1645, devoted four years to charting the lunar surface, discovered the Moon's libration in longitude, and published his results in Selenographia sive Lunae Descriptio (1647), a work which entitles him to be called "the founder of lunar topography." 400 year sunspot history A sunspot is a region on the Suns surface (photosphere) that is marked by a lower temperature than its surroundings, and intense magnetic activity. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Not to be confused with Liberation. ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ...


He discovered four comets, in 1652, 1661 (probably Ikeya-Zhang), 1672 and 1677. These discoveries led to his thesis that such bodies revolve around the Sun in parabolic paths. Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... Comet Ikeya-Zhang (Chinese, Japanese: 池谷-張彗星, officially designated 153P/Ikeya-Zhang) is a comet discovered independently by two astronomers from Japan and China in 2002. ... Sol redirects here. ...


A Halophänomen was observed by many in Danzig and described by Hevelius to pastor Georg Fehlau of St. Mary's church, titled Siebenfältiges Sonnenwunder oder sieben Nebensonnen, so in diesem 1661 Jahr den 20. Februar neuen Stils am Sonntage Sexagesima um 11 Uhr bis nach 12 am Himmel bei uns sind gesehen worden. It has been suggested that Moon dog be merged into this article or section. ...


Katharine, his first wife, died in 1662, and a year later Hevelius married Elisabeth Koopmann, the young daughter of a merchant family. The couple had four children. Elisabeth supported him, published two of his works after his death, and is considered the first female astronomer.


His observatory, instruments and books were maliciously destroyed by fire on September 26, 1679. The catastrophe is described in the preface to his Annus climactericus (1685). He promptly repaired the damage, so far as to enable him to observe the great comet of December 1680. He named the constellation Sextans in memory of these lost instruments. His health had suffered from the shock, and he died on his 76th birthday, January 28, 1687. Hevelius was buried in St. Catherine's Church in Danzig. is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 24 - King Charles II of England disbands Parliament August 7 - The brigantine Le Griffon, which was commissioned by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes. ... Events First Portuguese governor was appointed to Macau The Swedish city Karlskrona was founded as the Royal Swedish Navy relocated there. ... For the Ancient Roman coin denomination, see sextans (coin). ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ...


In late 1683, in commemoration of the victory of Christian forces led by King John III Sobieski at the Battle of Vienna, he had invented and named the constellation Scutum Sobiescianum (Sobieski's Shield), now called Scutum. // For siege of Vienna in 1529 see Siege of Vienna Combatants Holy League: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austria, Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria Ottoman Empire, Khanate of Crimea, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia Commanders John III Sobieski, Charles V of Lorraine Kara Mustafa Pasha Strength 70,000, (10,000 during siege) 138,000, (200... Scutum (Latin for shield) is a small constellation. ...


Hevelius had his book printed in his own house, at lavish expense, and himself engraved many of the printing plates. The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... For other uses, see Print. ...


A memorial plaque where he held office, reads DEM ANDENKEN DES JOHANNES HEVELIUS ASTRONOM V RATSHERR DER ALTSTADT GEBOREN AM 28 JAN 1611 - GEST. AM 28 JAN 1687.


Works

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Johannes Hevelius
  • Historiola Mirae (1662), in which he named the periodic variable star Omicron Ceti "Mira", or "the Wonderful"
  • Prodromus cometicus (1665)
  • Cometographia (1668)
  • Machina coelestis (first part, 1673), containing a description of his instruments; the second part (1679) is extremely rare, nearly the whole issue having perished in the conflagration of 1679
  • Annus climactericus (1685), describes the fire of 1679, and includes observations made by Hevelius on the variable star Mira
  • Prodromus astronomiae (1690), his posthumously published catalog of 1564 stars. Its value was much impaired by his preference of the antique pinnules to telescopic sights on quadrants. This led to an acrimonious controversy with Robert Hooke
  • Firmamentum Sobiescianum (1690), an atlas of 56 sheets, corresponding to his catalogue, contains seven new constellations delineated by him which are still in use (plus some now considered obsolete)

Cetus (pronounced , latinized form of Ancient Greek κῆτος - kētos, “whale, any sea-monster or huge fish”) is a constellation of the northern winter sky, in the region known as the Water, near other watery constellations like Aquarius, Pisces, and Eridanus. ... For other uses, see Mira (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mira (disambiguation). ... Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 – March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ... A Star Atlas is a variant of the traditional geographic atlas, ie. ...

See also

ORP Heweliusz is a survey ship of the Polish Navy of the Projekt 874 class, known as modified Finik class in NATO code. ... The M/S Jan Heweliusz was a Polish ferry named after the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (Polish: ). Built in Norway in 1977, the ferry served on the route Ystad-Świnoujście until 1993. ...

References

  1. ^ Daintith, John, Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists, CRC Books, 1994, ISBN 0750302879 at Google Books

External links

  • Galileo Project on Hevelius
  • Electronic facsimile-editions of the rare book collection at the Vienna Insitute of Astronomy
  • (Polish) Jan Heweliusz - Gdańszczanin Tysiąclecia
  • Cyfrowa Biblioteka Narodowa: Prodromus Astronomiæ
This article is about the star grouping. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... Canes Venatici (Latin for Hunting dogs) is a small northern constellation that was introduced by Johannes Hevelius in the 17th century. ... Lacerta, being Latin for Lizard, is one of the 88 official constellations acknowledged by the International Astronomical Union. ... Leo Minor (Latin for Small Lion) is a rather dim constellation that can barely be recognized as a triangle and lies between the easily discerned constellations Ursa Major and Leo. ... Lynx (IPA: ) is a constellation of the northern hemisphere, introduced in the 17th century by Johannes Hevelius. ... Scutum (Latin for shield) is a small constellation. ... For the Ancient Roman coin denomination, see sextans (coin). ... Vulpecula (IPA: , Latin: ) is a faint northern constellation located in the middle of the Summer Triangle, an asterism consisting of the bright stars Deneb, Vega and Altair. ... The former constellation Argo Navis Former constellations are constellations that are no longer recognized by the International Astronomical Union for various reasons. ... Cerberus was a constellation created by Hevelius. ... Mons Maenalus (the Mountain) was a constellation created by Johannes Hevelius. ... Triangulum Minor or Triangulum Minus (Latin for lesser triangle) was a constellation created by Hevelius. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hevelius, Johannes (1611-1687) (426 words)
Hevelius (Hewelke) studied Law at Leiden in 1630, then spent the years 1632-1643 traveling to Switzerland, London, and Paris, where he came in contact with various astronomers, including Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655).
Between 1642 and 1645, Hevelius deduced a fairly accurate value for the solar rotation period and gave the first description of the bright markings in the neighborhood of sunspots, calling them “faculae,” a name still used.
Hevelius planned a new star catalogue of the northern hemisphere to supercede that of Tycho Brahe.
Johannes Hevelius - Works (421 words)
Johannes Hevelius (Latin), also called Johann Hewelke, Johannes Höwelcke or Johannes Hewel (in German), or Jan Heweliusz (in Polish), (born January 28, 1611 – died January 28, 1687), was a councillor and mayor in Danzig (Gdańsk).
Hevelius was born in Danzig in a time when the city was part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Hevelius made observations of sunspots, 1642–1645, devoted four years to charting the lunar surface, discovered the Moon's libration in longitude, and published his results in Selenographia sive Lunae Descriptio (1647), a work which entitles him to be called the founder of lunar topography.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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