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Encyclopedia > Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg

Born c. 1400
Mainz, Germany
Died February 3, 1468
Mainz, Germany
Occupation Engraver, Inventor, and Printer
Movable metal type, and composing stick, descended from Gutenberg's invention
Movable metal type, and composing stick, descended from Gutenberg's invention

Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (c. 1400February 3, 1468) was a German goldsmith and printer, who is credited with inventing movable type printing in Europe (ca. 1450) and mechanical printing globally. His major work, the Gutenberg Bible, also known as the 42-line bible, has been acclaimed for its high aesthetic and technical quality. There are several possible meanings for Guttenberg, Guttenburg, Gutenburg or Gutenberg: // Guttenberg, Bavaria Guttenberg, New Jersey Guttenberg, Iowa Steve Guttenberg David Guttenberg Bob Guttenburg Guttenburg the sea vessel Gutenburg, Germany Gutenburg, Switzerland, Canton of Bern Gutenberg Category: ... There are several possible meanings for Gutenberg: Johannes Gutenberg (c. ... Public Domain image from http://www. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 26 - Baeda Maryam succeeds his father Zara Yaqob as Emperor of Ethiopia. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... An invention is an object, process, or technique which displays an element of novelty. ... The word printer is used to describe a company that provides commercial printing services, involving typesetting, printing and book-binding. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2288x1520, 1820 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2288x1520, 1820 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 26 - Baeda Maryam succeeds his father Zara Yaqob as Emperor of Ethiopia. ... A goldsmith creating a new ring A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with precious metals, usually to make jewelry. ... The word printer is used to describe a company that provides commercial printing services, involving typesetting, printing and book-binding. ... An invention is an object, process, or technique which displays an element of novelty. ... A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. ... For other uses, see Print. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... // March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... A copy of the Gutenberg Bible, this version owned by the U.S. Library of Congress The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, and as the Mazarin Bible) is a print of the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible that was printed by Johannes Gutenberg, in Mainz...


Among Gutenberg's specific contributions were the design of metal movable type, the invention of a process for making such type in quantity (mass production), the use of oil-based ink, and the use of a wooden printing press similar to the screw olive and wine presses of the period. His truly epochal invention was the combination of these elements into a practical system. Gutenberg may have been familiar with printing; it is claimed that he had worked on copper engravings with an artist known as the Master of the Playing Cards.[1] Gutenberg's method for making type is traditionally considered to have included a type metal alloy and a hand mould for casting type. The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... The 3 of Birds from the playing cards, a single-plate card The Master of the Playing Cards was the first major master in the history of printmaking. ... Type metal is an alloy (usually lead, antimony, and tin) that is used in typesetting. ...


The use of movable type was a marked improvement on the handwritten manuscript, which was the existing method of book production in Europe, and upon woodblock printing, and revolutionized European book-making. Gutenberg's printing technology spread rapidly throughout Europe and is considered a key factor in the European Renaissance. Gutenberg remains a towering figure in the popular image; in 1999, the A&E Network ranked Gutenberg #1 on their "People of the Millennium" countdown, and in 1997, Time–Life magazine picked Gutenberg's invention as the most important of the second millennium.[2] Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... The global spread of printing with movable type from its origins in Germany began with the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg, (c. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Biography is one of A&Es longest-running and most popular programs. ... Time-Life is a book, music, and video marketer, that since 2003 has been combined with catalog reseller Lillian Vernon as a subsidiary of Direct Holdings Worldwide, and is no longer owned by its former parent Time Warner. ...

Contents

Life

Sculpture commemorating Gutenberg as the inventor of modern printing on the occasion of 2006 World Cup in Germany
Sculpture commemorating Gutenberg as the inventor of modern printing on the occasion of 2006 World Cup in Germany

Gutenberg was born in the German city of Mainz, the youngest son of the upper-class merchant Friele Gensfleisch zur Laden, and his second wife Else Wyrich, who was the daughter of a shopkeeper. According to some accounts Friele was a goldsmith for the bishop at Mainz, but most likely he was involved in the cloth trade[3]. Gutenberg's year of birth is not known; it was certainly between 1394 and 1404, most likely around 1400. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (540x720, 67 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Book Friedrich Schiller Talk:Book Walk of Ideas Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (540x720, 67 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Book Friedrich Schiller Talk:Book Walk of Ideas Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... (Redirected from 2006 World Cup) The final stages of Football World Cup 2006 are scheduled to take place in Germany between 9 June and 9 July. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Between 780/82 AD and 1802 AD the Archbishop of Mainz, was an influential ecclesiastic and secular prince of the middle ages. ...


At the time, patricians in Mainz were often named after the houses they owned, and around 1427, the name zu Gutenberg, after the family house in Mainz, is documented for the first time.[3] This house had previously been known as "Judenberg," Jewish Hill. According to historian John Man, "In the 1282 pogrom, fifty-four Jewish properties were abandoned and were grabbed by the rich and powerful. It seems that the Gutenberg house fell to the archbishop's treasurers. It was later acquired by the great-great-grandfather of our inventor and stayed in the family."[4] Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ...


In 1411, there was an uprising in Mainz against the patricians, and more than a hundred families were forced to leave. The Gutenbergs may have moved to Eltville am Rhein (Alta Villa), where his mother had an inherited estate. He may have studied at the University of Erfurt, where there is a record of a student in 1419 named Johannes de Alta villa. Following his father's death in 1419, he is mentioned in the inheritance proceedings. Eltville am Rhein (Eltville on the Rhine river) is a town in the Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis, Hesse, Germany. ... The University of Erfurt is one of the oldest universities in Germany. ... Events January 19 – Hundred Years War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England which brings Normandy under the control of England. ...


Nothing is known of Gutenberg's life for the next fifteen years, but in March 1434, a letter by him indicates that he was living in Strasbourg, where he had some relatives on his mother's side. He also appears to have been a goldsmith member enrolled in the Strasbourg militia. In 1437, there is evidence that he was instructing a wealthy tradesman on polishing gems, but where he had acquired this knowledge is unknown. In 1436/37 his name also comes up in court in connection with a broken promise of marriage to a woman from Strasbourg, Ennelin.[5] Whether the marriage actually took place is not recorded. City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Alsace Department Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ...


Printing press

Around 1439, Gutenberg was involved in a financial misadventure making polished metal mirrors (which were believed to capture holy light from religious relics) for sale to pilgrims to Aachen: in 1439 the city was planning to exhibit its collection of relics from Emperor Charlemagne but the event was delayed by one year and the capital already spent could not be repaid. When the question of satisfying the investors came up, Gutenberg is said to have promised to share a "secret". It has been widely speculated that this secret may have been the idea of printing with movable type.[6] Legend has it that the idea came to him "like a ray of light"[7] Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... Charlemagne and Pippin the Hunchback. ...


At least up to 1444, he lived in Strasbourg, most likely in the St. Arbogast suburb. It is not clear what work he was engaged in, or whether some early trials with printing from movable type may have been conducted there. After this, there is a gap of four years in the record. In 1448, he was back in Mainz, where he took out a loan from his brother-in-law Arnold Gelthus, presumably for a printing press. Events January 5/ 6 - Christopher of Bavaria, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden dies with no designated heir leaving all three kingdoms with vacant thrones. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ...


By 1450, the press was most likely in operation, and a German poem had been printed, possibly the first item to be printed there. Gutenberg was able to convince the wealthy moneylender Johann Fust for a loan of 800 guilders. Peter Schoeffer, who became Fust's son-in-law, also joined the enterprise. Shoeffer had worked as a scribe in Paris and designed some of the first typefaces. Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... Johann Fust ( died 1466) was an early German printer. ... The guilder (Dutch gulden), represented by the symbol ƒ, was the name of the currency used in the Netherlands from the 15th century until 1999, when it was replaced by the euro (coins and notes were not introduced until 2002). ... Peter Schoeffer (1452-1502), was the principal workman of Johannes Gutenberg. ... It has been suggested that List of visitor attractions in Paris be merged into this article or section. ... “Font” redirects here. ...


Gutenberg's workshop was set up at Hof Humbrecht, a property belonging to a distant relative. It is not clear when Gutenberg conceived the Bible project, but for this he borrowed another 800 guilders from Fust, and work commenced in 1452. At the same time, the press was also printing other, more lucrative texts (possibly Latin grammars). There is also some speculation that there may have been two presses, one for the pedestrian texts, and one for the Bible. One of the profitmaking enterprises of the new press was the printing of thousands of indulgences for the church, documented from 1454–55. In the theology of Roman Catholicism, an indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to God for a Christians sins. ...


In 1455 Gutenberg published his 42-line Bible, commonly known as the Gutenberg Bible. About 180 were printed, most on paper and some on vellum. ... no changes . ... The Gutenberg bible owned by the US Library of Congress The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, and as the Mazarin Bible) is a print of the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible that was printed by its namesake, Johann Gutenberg, in Mainz, Germany. ... A copy of the Gutenberg Bible, this version owned by the U.S. Library of Congress The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, and as the Mazarin Bible) is a print of the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible that was printed by Johannes Gutenberg, in Mainz... Vellum (from the Old French Vélin, for calfskin[1]) is a sort of parchment, a material for the pages of a book or codex, characterized by its thin, smooth, durable properties. ...


Court case

Sometime in 1455, there was a dispute between Gutenberg and Fust, and Fust demanded his money back, accusing Gutenberg of embezzling funds. Meanwhile the expenses of the Bible project had proliferated, and Gutenberg's debt now exceeded 2,000 guilders. Fust sued at the archbishop's court. A November 1455 legal document records that there was a partnership for a "project of the books," the funds for which Gutenberg had used for other purposes, according to Fust. The court decided in favour of Fust, giving him control over the Bible printing workshop and half of all printed Bibles. ... no changes . ...


Thus Gutenberg was effectively bankrupt, but it appears he retained (or re-started) a small printing shop, and participated in the printing of a bible in the town of Bamberg around 1459, for which he at least supplied the type. But since his printed books never carry his name or a date, it is difficult to be certain, and there is consequently a considerable scholarly literature. It is also possible that the large Catholicon dictionary, 300 copies of 744 pages, printed in Mainz in 1460, may have been executed in his workshop. Bamberg is a town in Bavaria, Germany. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Meanwhile, the Fust–Schoeffer shop were the first to bring out a book with the printer's name and date, the Mainz Psalter of August 1457, and while proudly proclaiming the mechanical process by which it had been produced, it made no mention of Gutenberg. Events University of Freiburg founded. ...


Later life

In 1462, during a conflict between two archbishops, Mainz was sacked by archbishop Adolph von Nassau, and Gutenberg was exiled. An old man by now, he moved to Eltville where he may have initiated and supervised a new printing press belonging to the brothers Bechtermünze. Adolph II (or III) of Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein (German: Adolf II. von Nassau-Wisebaden-Idstein) (c. ...


In January 1465, Gutenberg's achievements were recognized and he was given the title Hofmann (gentleman of the court) by von Nassau. This honour included a stipend, an annual court outfit, as well as 2180 liters of grain and 2000 liters of wine tax-free. It is believed he may have moved back to Mainz around this time, but this is not certain. A stipend is a form of payment or salary, such as for an internship or apprenticeship. ...


Gutenberg died in 1468 and was buried in the Franciscan church at Mainz, his contributions largely unknown. This church and the cemetery were later destroyed, and Gutenberg's grave is lost.


In 1504, he was mentioned as the inventor of typography in a book by Professor Ivo Wittig. It was not until 1567 that the first portrait of Gutenberg, almost certainly an imaginary reconstruction, appeared in Heinrich Pantaleon's biography of famous Germans.


Gutenberg's printed books

Main article: Gutenberg Bible

Between 1450 and 1455, Gutenberg printed several texts, but details are not known; his texts did not bear the printer's name or date, so attribution is possible only through external references. Certainly several church documents including a papal letter and two indulgences were printed. Some printed editions of Ars Minor, a schoolbook on Latin grammar by Aelius Donatus may have been printed by Gutenberg; these have been dated either 1451–52 or 1455. A copy of the Gutenberg Bible, this version owned by the U.S. Library of Congress The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, and as the Mazarin Bible) is a print of the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible that was printed by Johannes Gutenberg, in Mainz... Aelius Donatus (fl. ...


In 1455 (possibly starting 1454), Gutenberg brought out copies of a beautifully executed folio Bible (Biblia Sacra), with 42 lines on each page. The pages of the books were not bound, and the date 1455 is documented on the spine by the binder for a copy bound in Paris. ... no changes . ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


The Bible sold for 30 florins each,[8] which was roughly three years' wages for an average clerk. Nonetheless, it was significantly cheaper than a handwritten Bible that could take a single scribe over a year to prepare. After printing the text portions, each book was hand illustrated in the same elegant way as manuscript Bibles from the same period written by scribes. Florin is The first gold coin minted in Europe. ...

48 substantially complete copies are known to exist, including two at the British Library that can be viewed and compared online.[9] The text lacks modern features such as pagination, indentations, and paragraph breaks. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 541 pixel Image in higher resolution (925 × 625 pixel, file size: 90 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of a copy of the en:Gutenberg Bible owned by the US Library of Congress Taken by Mark Pellegrini on August 12... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 541 pixel Image in higher resolution (925 × 625 pixel, file size: 90 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of a copy of the en:Gutenberg Bible owned by the US Library of Congress Taken by Mark Pellegrini on August 12... The Library of Congress is the de facto national library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ...


Another, 36-line edition of the Bible was also printed, some years after the first edition, and in large part set from a copy of it, thus disproving earlier speculation that this may have been the first Bible of the two.[10]


Gutenberg's method of printing with movable type

Gutenberg's early printing process, and what tests he may have made with movable type, are not known in great detail. His later Bibles were printed six pages at a time, and would have required 100,000 pieces of type—making the type alone would take two man years. [11] Setting each page would take at least half a day, and considering all the work in loading the press, inking the type, hanging up the sheets, etc., it is thought that the Gutenberg–Fust shop might have employed about 25 craftsmen. A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. ...


Gutenberg's technique of making movable type remains unclear. In the following decades, punches and copper matrices became standardized in the rapidly disseminating printing presses across Europe. Whether Gutenberg used this sophisticated technique or a somewhat primitive version has been the subject of considerable debate.


In the standard process of making type, a hard metal punch (with the letter carved back to front) is hammered into the soft metal copper, creating a mould or matrix. This is then placed into a holder, and cast by filling with hot type-metal, which cooled down to create a piece of type. The matrix can now be reused to create hundreds of identical letters, so that the same type appearing anywhere in the book will appear similar, giving rise to the growth of fonts. Subsequently, these letters are placed on a rack and inked; using a press, many hundred copies can be made. The letters can be reused in any combination, earning the process the name of 'movable type'. (For details, see Typography). A font can mean: A member of a typeface family; or digital font - file format that encapsulates a typeface family in a database. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Was the type produced by punches and copper matrices?

Such is the process that has been widely attributed to have been Gutenberg's invention, but it appears from recent evidence that Gutenberg's actual process was somewhat different. If he used the punch and matrix approach, all his letters should have been identical, within some variation possibly due to inking. However, the type used in Gutenberg's printed Bibles were quite irregular.


In 2001, the physicist Blaise Aguera y Arcas and Princeton librarian Paul Needham, used digital scans of the Gutenberg Bible in the Scheide Library, Princeton, to carefully compare the same letters (types) appearing in different parts of the Gutenberg 42-line Bible [12] [13]. The irregularities in Gutenberg's type, particularly in simple characters such as the hyphen, made it clear that the variations couldn't have come from either ink smear or from wear and damage on the pieces of metal on the types themselves. While some identical types are clearly used on other pages, other variations, subjected to detailed image analysis, made for only one conclusion: that they could not have been produced from the same matrix. They hypothesized that the method used involved using the punch to make a mould, but that the process of taking the type out would disturb the mould, resulting in non-identical type. Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ...


Thus, they feel that "the decisive factor for the birth of typography", the use of reusable moulds for casting type, might have been a more progressive process than was previously thought (also see Adams 91 [14] Chapter 4). They suggest that the additional step of using the punch to create a mould that could be reused many times was not taken until 20 years later, in the 1470s.


Other hypotheses about European origins

The 19th c. printer and typefounder Fournier Le Jeune suggested that Gutenberg might not have been using type cast with a reusable matrix, but possibly wooden types that were carved individually. However, this appears unlikely given the uniformity of the bulk of the type he used.


It has also been questioned whether Gutenberg used movable types at all. In 2004, Italian professor Bruno Fabbiani claimed that examination of the 42-line Bible revealed an overlapping of letters, suggesting that Gutenberg did not in fact use movable type (individual cast characters) but rather used whole plates made from a system somewhat like a modern typewriter, whereby the letters were stamped successively into the plate and then printed. However, most specialists regard the occasional overlapping of type as caused by paper movement over pieces of type of slightly unequal height.


A 1568 history by Hadrianus Junius of Holland claims that the basic idea of the movable type came to Gutenberg from Laurens Janszoon Coster via Fust, who was apprenticed to Coster in the 1430s and may have brought some of his equipment from Haarlem to Mainz. While Coster appears to have experimented with moulds and cast-able metal type, there is no evidence that he had actually printed anything with this technology. He was an inventor and a goldsmith. However, there is one support for the claim that Coster might be the inventor. In the Kölner Chronik of 1499 Ulrich Zell, the first printer of Cologne, mentions that printing was performed in Mainz of 1450, but that before already some type of printing of lower quality occurred in The Netherlands. The name of Coster is not however mentioned in that chronicle. [10] Statue of Laurens Janszoon Coster on the Grote Markt in Haarlem, where he was born. ... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province North Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 32. ... This article needs to be updated. ... , For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ...


Hypotheses about East Asian origins

Since the use of printing from movable type arose in East Asia well before it did in Europe, it is relevant to ask whether Gutenberg may have been influenced, directly or indirectly, by the Chinese or Korean discoveries of movable type printing, or their earlier discoveries of block printing. For the article on the development of printing in Europe, see History of western typography. ...


There are no historical documents which single out that Gutenberg was aware of existing Asian printing techniques. Nonetheless, several historians have drawn inferences. The earliest woodblocks used for printing in Europe, in the fourteenth century, using exactly the same technique as Chinese woodblocks, led some early writers on Asian subjects to speculate about a connection: "the process of printing them must have been copied from ancient Chinese specimens, brought from that country by some early travelers, whose names have not been handed down to our times" (Robert Curzon, 1810-1873).[citation needed] Since the 13th century, with the expansion of the Mongol Empire to the door of Europe, numerous travelers bridged the distance between Europe and China, such as Marco Polo or the Mongol Chinese Rabban Bar Sauma, and numerous direct contacts occurred in attempts at creating a Franco-Mongol alliance, giving ample opportunity for the transmission of printing technology from China. This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Another picture of Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, literally meaning Greater Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] (12 million square miles) at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 – January 8, 1324) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... Rabban Bar Sauma (fl. ... Among the Christian states in the Levant (in yellow) Little Armenia and the northern Frank kingdom of Antioch were the most regular allies of the Mongols. ...


However, European woodblock printing shows a clear progression from patterns to images, both printed on cloth, then to images printed on paper, when it became widely available in Europe in about 1400.[15] In particular, text and images printed together only appear in about 1460, some sixty years later than images alone, and after Gutenberg's invention of metal movable type[16].


Joseph Needham's Science and Civilization in China has a chapter that suggests that "European block printers must not only have seen Chinese samples, but perhaps had been taught by missionaries or others who had learned these un-European methods from Chinese printers during their residence in China."[17] [page # needed]


But historians of the Western prints themselves see no need for such a direct and late connection. Rather, they assume that European woodcut appeared "spontaneously and presumably as a result of the use of paper as it had been observed that paper was better suited than rough-surfaced parchment for making the impressions from wood-reliefs".[18] Also, Hyatt Mayor:

A little before 1400 Europeans had enough paper to begin making holy images and playing cards in woodcut. They need not have learned woodcut from the Chinese, because they had been using woodblocks for about 1,000 years to stamp designs on linen.[19]

Whatever the facts regarding Asian influences in this invention, there can be no doubt about Gutenberg's genius in putting together the technologies that eventually went on to fuel the European Renaissance.[4] The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ...


Legacy

Gutenberg statue by Bertel Thorvaldsen in Mainz, Germany

Although Gutenberg was financially unsuccessful in his lifetime, the printing technologies spread quickly, and news and books began to travel across Europe much faster than before. It fed the growing Renaissance, and since it greatly facilitated scientific publishing, it was a major catalyst for the later scientific revolution. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (550x800, 306 KB)[edit] Summary This picture was taken by my Grandfather, who forfeits all rights to them. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (550x800, 306 KB)[edit] Summary This picture was taken by my Grandfather, who forfeits all rights to them. ... Bertel Thorvaldsen. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... The event which many historians of science call the scientific revolution can be dated roughly as having begun in 1543, the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) and Andreas Vesalius published his De humani corporis fabrica (On the...


The capital of printing in Europe shifted to Venice, where visionary printers like Aldus Manutius ensured widespread availability of the major Greek and Latin texts. The claims of an Italian origin for movable type have also focused on this rapid rise of Italy in movable-type printing. This may perhaps be explained by the prior eminence of Italy in the paper and printing trade. Additionally, Italy's economy was growing rapidly at the time, facilitating the spread of literacy. Finally, the city of Mainz was sacked in 1462, driving many (including a number of printers and punch cutters) into exile. For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Aldus Manutius (1449/50 - February 6, 1515), the Latin form of Aldo Manuzio (born Teobaldo Mannucci) was the founder of the Aldine Press. ...


Printing was also a factor in the Reformation: Martin Luther found that the 95 Theses, which he posted on the door of his church, were printed and circulated widely; subsequently he also issued broadsheets outlining his anti-indulgences position (ironically, indulgences were one of the first items Gutenberg had printed). The broadsheet evolved into newspapers and defined the mass media we know today. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The 95 Theses. ... Newspaper sizes in August 2005. ... In the theology of Roman Catholicism, an indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to God for a Christians sins. ... It has been suggested that Mass wire media be merged into this article or section. ...


In the decades after Gutenberg, many conservative patrons looked down on cheap printed books; books produced by hand were considered more desirable. At one point the papal court debated a policy of requiring printing presses to obtain a license, but this could not be decreed. The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Roman Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ...


Today there is a large antique market for the earliest printed objects. Books printed prior to 1500 are known as incunabula. ... A page from a rare Blackletter Bible (1497) printed in Strassburg by J.R.Grueninger. ...


There are many statues of Gutenberg in Germany, including the famous one by Bertel Thorvaldsen (1837) in Mainz, home to the Gutenberg Museum and the eponymous Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz. The Gutenberg Galaxy and Project Gutenberg also commemorate Gutenberg's name. Matthew Skelton's book Endymion Spring explores a controversial theory about Johann Gutenberg and his partner Fust. Bertel Thorvaldsen. ... The Gutenberg Museum is one of the oldest museums of printing in the world, located opposite the cathedral in the old part of Mainz, Germany. ... Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz (Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz) is a university in the city of Mainz, Germany. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In 1961 the Canadian philosopher and scholar Marshall McLuhan entitled his pioneering study in the fields of print culture, cultural studies, and media ecology, The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man “McLuhan” redirects here. ... The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (University of Toronto Press) is a 1962 book by Marshall McLuhan. ...


Johann Gutenberg has been ranked #8 in Michael H. Hart's controversial book, The 100: A Ranking Of The Most Influential Persons In History. Michael H. Hart (born April 28, 1932 in New York City) is an American astrophysicist turned author and activist. ... The cover of the 1992 edition. ...


In 2006, Gutenberg! The Musical!, a musical about two people who wrote a musical about Johann Gutenberg inventing the printing press, began its Off-Broadway run in New York City. Gutenberg! The Musical! is a musical written by Scott Brown and Anthony King. ... Off-Broadway plays or musicals are performed in New York City in smaller theatres than Broadway, but larger than Off-Off-Broadway, productions. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


See also

For other uses, see Print. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... The global spread of printing with movable type from its origins in Germany began with the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg, (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A page from a rare Blackletter Bible (1497) printed in Strasbourg by J.R. Grueninger. ... The history of the book is the story of a suite of technological innovations that improved the quality of text conservation, the access to information, portability, and the cost of production. ... A copy of the Gutenberg Bible, this version owned by the U.S. Library of Congress The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, and as the Mazarin Bible) is a print of the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible that was printed by Johannes Gutenberg, in Mainz...

References

  1. ^ Lehmann-Haupt, Hellmut. Gutenberg and the Master of the Playing Cards. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966.
  2. ^ See also 1,000 Years, 1,000 People: Ranking The Men and Women Who Shaped The Millennium which was composed by four prominent US journalists in 1998.
  3. ^ a b Eva-Maria Hanebutt-Benz, director Gutenberg Museum. Gutenberg and Mainz. Retrieved on 2006-11-24.This is a meticulous biography, carefully pruning things down to only that which is known.
  4. ^ a b Man, John, Gutenberg: How One Man Remade the World with Word (2002) pp.166-7, Wiley, ISBN 0-471-21823-5.
  5. ^ Gutenberg und seine Zeit in Daten (Gutenberg and his times; Timeline). Gutenberg Museum, Mainz. Retrieved on 2006-11-24.
  6. ^ Burke, James (1978). Connections. London: Macmillan, p101. ISBN 0-333-24827-9. 
  7. ^ Burke, James (1985). The Day the Universe Changed. Boston, Toronto: Little, Brown and Co. 
  8. ^ Lesley B. Cormack and Andrew Ede, A History of Science in Society: From Philosophy to Utility, Broadview Press Ltd., 2004 ISBN 1-55111-332-5
  9. ^ Treasures in Full: Gutenberg Bible. British Library. Retrieved on 2006-10-19.
  10. ^ a b Kapr, Albert (1996). Johannes Gutenberg: the Man and His Invention. Scolar Press, 322. ISBN 1-85928-114-1. 
  11. ^ C. Singer, E. Holmyard, A. Hall and T. Williams (1958). A History of Technology, vol.3. Oxford University Press. 
  12. ^ Agüera y Arcas, Blaise; Paul Needham (November 2002). "Computational analytical bibliography". Proceedings Bibliopolis Conference The future history of the book', The Hague (Netherlands): Koninklijke Bibliotheek. 
  13. ^ What Did Gutenberg Invent? - Discovery. BBC / Open University (2006). Retrieved on 2006-10-25.
  14. ^ James L. Adams (1991). Flying Buttresses, Entropy and O-Rings: the World of an Engineer. Harvard University Press. 
  15. ^ An Introduction to a History of Woodcut, Arthur M. Hind,p 64-127 , Houghton Mifflin Co. 1935 (in USA), reprinted Dover Publications, 1963 ISBN 0-486-20952-0
  16. ^ Master E.S., cat nos 4-15, Alan Shestack, Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1967
  17. ^ Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin (1985). "part one, vol.5", in Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China,: Paper and Printing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  18. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved April 8, 2007, from Encyclopaedia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite DVD – entry 'printing'
  19. ^ A. Hyatt Mayor, "A Historical Survey of Printmaking", Art Education, Vol. 17, No. 4. (Apr., 1964), pp. 4-9 (4)

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gutenberg Museum is one of the oldest museums of printing in the world, located opposite the cathedral in the old part of Mainz, Germany. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Burke James Burke (born November 22, 1936) is a British science historian, author and television producer best known for his documentary television series called Connections, focusing on the history of science and technology leavened with a sense of humour. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Eric John Holmyard (1891-1959) was an English science teacher at Clifton College[1], and historian of science and technology. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

Further reading

Standard biographic works on Gutenberg Michael H. Hart (born April 28, 1932 in New York City) is an American astrophysicist turned author and activist. ... The cover of the 1992 edition. ...

  • Albert Kapr, Johann Gutenberg: the Man and his Invention.Translated from the German by Douglas Martin, Scolar Press, 1996. "Third ed., revised by the author for ... the English translation.

On the effects of Gutenberg's printing

  • Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change, Cambridge University Press, September 1980, Paperback, 832 pages, ISBN 0-521-29955-1
  • Marshall McLuhan, The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (1962) Univ. of Toronto Press (1st ed.); reissued by Routledge & Kegan Paul ISBN 0-7100-1818-5.

“McLuhan” redirects here. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Johannes Gutenberg
Persondata
NAME Gutenberg, Johannes
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Gutenberg, Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum
SHORT DESCRIPTION German inventor who invented movable type
DATE OF BIRTH c. 1398
PLACE OF BIRTH Mainz, Germany
DATE OF DEATH 3 February 1468
PLACE OF DEATH Mainz, Germany

  Results from FactBites:
 
Johann Gutenberg - LoveToKnow 1911 (0 words)
In 1438 another partnership was arranged between Gutenberg, Andreas Dritzehn, and Andreas and Anton Heilmann, and that this had in view the art of printing has been inferred from the word "drucken" used by one of the witnesses in the law proceedings which soon after followed.
Gutenberg's work, whatever it may have been, was not a commercial success, and in 1452 Fust had to come forward with another 800 guilders to prevent a collapse.
Gutenberg seems to have died at Mainz at the beginning of 1468, and was, according to tradition, buried in the Franciscan church in that city.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Johann Gutenberg (0 words)
Gutenberg was the son of Friele (Friedrich) Gänsfleisch and Else Wyrich.
Of Johann Gutenberg's father, Friele Gänsfleisch, we know only that he was married in 1386 to Else Wyrich, daughter of a burgher of Mainz, Werner Wyrich zum steinern Krame (at the sign of the pottery shop), and that he died in 1419, his wife dying in 1433.
In 1450 Gutenberg formed a partnership with the wealthy burgher, Johann Fust of Mainz, for the purpose of completing his contrivance and of printing the so-called "42-line Bible", a task which was finished in the years 1453-1455 at the Hof zum Humbrecht (today Schustergasse, 18, 20).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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