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Encyclopedia > Johannes Brahms
Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. Born in Hamburg, he eventually settled in Vienna, Austria. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... “Wien” redirects here. ...

Contents

Life

Brahms's father, Johann Jakob Brahms, came to Hamburg from Schleswig-Holstein, seeking a career as a town musician. He was proficient on several instruments, but found employment mostly playing the horn and double bass. He married Johanna Henrika Christiane Nissen, a seamstress, who was seventeen years older than he was. Initially, they lived near the city docks, in the Gängeviertel quarter of Hamburg, for six months before moving to a small house on the Dammtorwall, located on the northern perimeter of Hamburg in the Inner Alster. Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... The horn (popularly known also as the French horn) is a brass instrument decended from the natural horn that consists of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ...

House in Hamburg where Brahms was born

Johann Jakob gave his son his first musical training. He studied piano from the age of seven with Otto Friedrich Willibald Cossel. Brahms showed early promise (his younger brother Fritz also became a pianist) and helped to supplement the rather meager family income by playing the piano in restaurants and theaters, as well as by teaching. It is a long-told tale that Brahms was forced in his early teens to play the piano in bars that doubled as brothels; recently Brahms scholar Kurt Hoffman has suggested that this legend is false.[citation needed] Since Brahms himself clearly originated the story, however, some have questioned Hoffman's theory.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (928x1592, 670 KB) Published in Modern Music and Musicians, University Society, New York, 1918 This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (928x1592, 670 KB) Published in Modern Music and Musicians, University Society, New York, 1918 This image is in the public domain in the United States. ...


For a time, Brahms also learned the cello, although his progress was cut short when his teacher absconded with Brahms's instrument. After his early piano lessons with Otto Cossel, Brahms studied piano with Eduard Marxsen, who had studied in Vienna with Ignaz Seyfried (a pupil of Mozart) and Carl von Bocklet (a close friend of Schubert). The young Brahms gave a few public concerts in Hamburg, but did not become well known as a pianist until he made a concert tour at the age of nineteen. In later life, he frequently took part in the performance of his own works, whether as soloist, accompanist, or participant in chamber music. He was the soloist at the premieres of both his Piano Concerto No. 1 in 1859 and his Piano Concerto No. 2 in 1881. He conducted choirs from his early teens, and became a proficient choral and orchestral conductor. Eduard Marxsen (1806-1887), a former pupil of Ignaz Seyfried, was highly regarded in Hamburg both as pianist and composer. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... Bologna Mozart - Mozart age 21 in 1777, see also: face only Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ... Franz Schubert Franz Peter Schubert (January 31, 1797 – November 19, 1828) was an Austrian composer. ... Johannes Brahmss Piano Concerto No. ... The Piano Concerto No. ...


He began to compose quite early in life, but later destroyed most copies of his first works; for instance, Marxsen's memoirs report a piano sonata that Brahms had played or improvised at the age of 11.[citation needed] His compositions did not receive public acclaim until he went on a concert tour as accompanist to the Hungarian violinist Eduard Reményi in April and May of 1853. On this tour he met Joseph Joachim at Hanover, and went on to the Court of Weimar where he met Franz Liszt, Peter Cornelius, and Joachim Raff. According to several witnesses of Brahms's meeting with Liszt (at which Liszt performed Brahms's Scherzo, Op. 4 at sight), Reményi was offended by Brahms's failure to praise Liszt's Sonata in B minor wholeheartedly (Brahms fell asleep during a performance of the recently composed work), and they parted company shortly afterwards. An illustrious musical figure of the 19th century. ... Joseph Joachim Joseph Joachim (June 28, 1831 – August 15, 1907) (pronounced YO-a-chim) was a violinist, conductor, composer and teacher. ... , Hanover(i) (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... “Liszt” redirects here. ... Carl August Peter Cornelius (24 December 1824 – 26 October 1874) was a German composer, writer about music, poet and translator. ... Joseph Joachim Raff (May 27, 1822 - June 24 or June 25, 1882) was a composer, teacher and pianist. ... A scherzo (plural scherzi) is a name given to a piece of music or a movement from a larger piece such as a symphony. ... One of the pages from the original manuscript of the sonata. ...


Joachim had given Brahms a letter of introduction to Robert Schumann, and after a walking tour in the Rhineland Brahms took the train to Düsseldorf, and was welcomed into the Schumann family on arrival there. Schumann, amazed by the 20-year-old's talent, published an article "Neue Bahnen" (New Paths) in the journal Neue Zeitschrift für Musik alerting the public to the young man who he claimed was "destined to give ideal expression to the times". This pronouncement was received with some scepticism outside Schumann's immediate circle, and may have increased the naturally self-critical Brahms's need to perfect his works and technique. While he was in Düsseldorf, Brahms participated with Schumann and Albert Dietrich in writing a sonata for Joachim; this is known as the F-A-E Sonata. He became very attached to Schumann's wife, the composer and pianist Clara, fourteen years his senior, with whom he would carry on a lifelong, emotionally passionate, but probably platonic, relationship. Brahms never married, despite strong feelings for several women and despite entering into an engagement, soon broken off, with Agathe von Siebold in Göttingen in 1859. After Schumann's attempted suicide and subsequent confinement in a mental sanatorium near Bonn in February 1854, Brahms was the main go-between between Clara and her husband, and found himself virtually head of the household. For others with the same name see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Duesseldorf. ... Front page banner of NZM, issue of 30April 1850 Die Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (English - New Journal of Music) was a music magazine published in Leipzig, founded by Robert Schumann. ... Albert Hermann Dietrich (born 28 August 1829 at Golk, near Meissen; died 20 November 1908 in Berlin) was a German composer and conductor, remembered less for his own achievements than for his friendship with Johannes Brahms. ... The ‘F-A-E Sonata, a four-movement work for violin and piano, is an interesting example of a collaborative effort by three composers. ... Clara Schumann Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann (September 13, 1819 – May 20, 1896) was a German musician, one of the leading pianists of the Romantic era, as well as a composer, and wife of composer Robert Schumann. ... Göttingen marketplace with old city hall, Gänseliesel fountain and pedestrian zone Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. ...

Brahms's grave in the Zentralfriedhof (Central Cemetery), Vienna.

After Schumann’s death at the sanatorium in 1856, Brahms divided his time between Hamburg, where he formed and conducted a ladies’ choir, and the principality of Detmold, where he was court music-teacher and conductor. He first visited Vienna in 1862, staying there over the winter, and in 1863 was appointed conductor of the Vienna Singakademie. Though he resigned the position the following year and entertained the idea of taking up conducting posts elsewhere, he based himself increasingly in Vienna and soon made his home there. From 1872 to 1875 he was director of the concerts of the Vienna Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde; afterwards he accepted no formal position. He refused an honorary doctorate of music from University of Cambridge in 1877 (he was afraid of being lionized in England, where his music was already very popular) but accepted one from the University of Breslau in 1879, composing the Academic Festival Overture in response. Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 1216 KB) Grave of Johannes Brahms, composer, Zentralfriedhof (Central Cemetery), Vienna, Austria. ... Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 1216 KB) Grave of Johannes Brahms, composer, Zentralfriedhof (Central Cemetery), Vienna, Austria. ... Exterior of the Dr. Karl Lueger-Gedächtniskirche, Zentralfriedhof, Vienna. ... Detmold is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, with a population of about 80,000. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... The Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde (in English: Society for the Friends of Music) was founded in 1812 by Joseph von Sonnleithner, the Secretary for Court Theatre in Vienna. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... Wrocław. ... The Academic Festival Overture, Op. ...


He had been composing steadily throughout the 1850s and 60s, but his music had evoked divided critical responses and the Piano Concerto No. 1 had been badly received in some of its early performances. His works were labelled old-fashioned by the 'New German School' whose principal figures included Liszt and Richard Wagner. Brahms in fact admired some of Wagner's music and admired Liszt as a great pianist, but in 1860 he attempted to organize a public protest against some of the wilder excesses of their music.[citation needed] His manifesto, which was published prematurely with only three supporting signatures, was a failure and he never engaged in public polemics again. It was the premiere of Ein deutsches Requiem, his largest choral work, in Bremen in 1868 that confirmed Brahms's European reputation and led many to accept that he had fulfilled Schumann’s prophecy. This may have given him the confidence finally to complete a number of works that had been wrestled with over many years, such as the cantata Rinaldo, his first string quartet, third piano quartet, and most notably his first symphony. This appeared in 1876, though it had been begun (and a version of the first movement seen by some of his friends) in the early 1860s. The other three symphonies then followed in 1877, 1883, and 1885. From 1881 he was able to try out his new orchestral works with the court orchestra of the Duke of Meiningen, whose conductor was Hans von Bülow. Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ein deutsches Requiem For the short story by Jorge Luis Borges, see Ein deutsches Requiem (short story). ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Rinaldo, a cantata for tenor solo, four-part male chorus and orchestra, was begun by Johannes Brahms in 1863 as an entry for a choral competition announced in Aachen. ... Meiningen is a town in Germany - located in the Southern part of the state Thuringia in the district of Schmalkalden-Meiningen. ... Hans von Bülow. ...


Brahms frequently traveled, for both business (concert tours) and pleasure. From 1878 onwards he often visited Italy in the springtime, and usually sought out a pleasant rural location in which to compose during the summer. He was a great walker and especially enjoyed spending time in the open air, where he felt that he could think more clearly.


In 1889, one Theo Wangemann, a representative of American inventor Thomas Edison visited the composer in Vienna and invited him to make an experimental recording. He played an abbreviated version of his first Hungarian dance on the piano. The recording was later issued on an LP of early piano performances (compiled by Gregor Benko); while the spoken introduction to the short piece of music is quite clear, the piano playing is largely inaudible due to heavy surface noise. Nevertheless, this remains the earliest recording made by a major composer. Analysts and scholars remain divided, however, as to whether the voice that introduces the piece is that of Wangemann or of Brahms. Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph and a long lasting light bulb. ...


In 1890, the 57-year-old Brahms resolved to give up composing. However, as it turned out, he was unable to abide by his decision, and in the years before his death he produced a number of acknowledged masterpieces. His admiration for Richard Mühlfeld, clarinettist with the Meiningen orchestra, moved him to compose the Clarinet Trio Op. 114, Clarinet Quintet Op. 115 (1891), and the two Clarinet Sonatas Op. 120 (1894). He also wrote several cycles of piano pieces, Opp. 116-119, and the Four Serious Songs (Vier ernste Gesänge), Op. 121 (1896). The clarinet sonatas, Op. ...


While completing the Op. 121 songs, Brahms developed cancer (sources differ on whether this was of the liver or pancreas). His condition gradually worsened and he died on April 3, 1897. Brahms is buried in the Zentralfriedhof in Vienna. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called hepatoma) is a primary malignancy (cancer) of the liver. ... Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumour within the pancreatic gland. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Exterior of the Dr. Karl Lueger-Gedächtniskirche, Zentralfriedhof, Vienna. ...


Although many listeners may regard Brahms as one of the last bastions of the Romantic Period, he was not a mainstream Romantic, but rather maintained a Classical sense of form and order within his works – in contrast to the opulence and excesses of many of his contemporaries. Thus many admirers (though not necessarily Brahms himself) saw him as the champion of traditional forms and "pure music," as opposed to the New German embrace of program music. With the possible exception of Anton Bruckner, Brahms was arguably unmatched as a symphonist in the late 19th century. His symphonies helped revive a virtually moribund genre, and inspired such composers as Gustav Mahler and Jean Sibelius. The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... “Bruckner” redirects here. ... “Mahler” redirects here. ... Johan Julius Christian Jean / Janne Sibelius ( ; December 8, 1865 – September 20, 1957) was a Finnish composer of classical music and one of the most notable composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ...


Though he was viewed as diametrically opposed to Wagner during his lifetime, it is incorrect to characterize Brahms as a reactionary. His point of view looked both backward and forward; his output was often bold in harmony and expression, prompting Arnold Schoenberg to write his 1933 essay "Brahms the Progressive", which paved the way for the re-evaluation of Brahms's reputation in the 20th century. Only in recent decades have scholars begun to examine Brahms's remarkably original rhythmic conceptions, which include 5- and 7-beat meters.[citation needed] Schoenberg redirects here. ...


Brahms himself had considered giving up composition at a time when all notions of tonality were being stretched to their limit and that further expansion would seemingly only result in the rules of tonality being broken altogether. But he offered substantial encouragement to Schoenberg's teacher Alexander Zemlinsky, and was apparently much impressed by two movements of Schoenberg's early Quartet in D major which Zemlinsky showed him. Tonality is a system of writing music according to certain hierarchical pitch relationships around a key center or tonic. ... Alexander von Zemlinsky or Alexander Zemlinsky, (October 14, 1871 - March 15, 1942) was an Austrian composer of classical music, a conductor and a teacher. ... The Austrian composer Arnold Schönberg published four string quartets, distributed over his lifetime. ...


Works

See also: List of compositions by Johannes Brahms and Category:Compositions by Johannes Brahms

Brahms wrote a number of major works for orchestra, including two serenades, four symphonies, two piano concertos (See First Piano Concerto; Second Piano Concerto), a Violin Concerto, a Double Concerto for violin and cello, and a pair of orchestral overtures, the Academic Festival Overture and the Tragic Overture. The following is a list of compositions by the composer Johannes Brahms. ... In music, a Serenade (or sometimes Serenata) is, in its most general sense, a musical composition, and/or performance, in someones honor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A piano concerto is a concerto for solo piano and orchestra. ... Johannes Brahmss Piano Concerto No. ... The Piano Concerto No. ... The Violin Concerto in D major by Johannes Brahms, his opus 77, is one of the best-known of all violin concertos. ... The Double Concerto in A minor, Op. ... The Academic Festival Overture, Op. ... The Tragic Overture, op. ...


His large choral work Ein deutsches Requiem ("A German Requiem") is not a traditional, liturgical requiem (Missa pro defunctis), but a setting of texts which Brahms selected from the Lutheran Bible. The work was composed in three major periods of his life. An earlier version of the second movement was first composed in 1854, not long after Robert Schumann's attempted suicide, and was later finished and used in his first piano concerto. The majority of the Requiem was composed after his mother's death in 1865. The fifth movement was later added after the official premiere in 1868. The complete work was then published in 1869. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ein deutsches Requiem For the short story by Jorge Luis Borges, see Ein deutsches Requiem (short story). ... Luthers 1534 bible The Luther Bible is a German Bible translation by Martin Luther, first printed with both testaments in 1534. ... For others with the same name see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ...


Brahms's works in variation form include the Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel and the Paganini Variations, both for solo piano, and the Variations on a Theme by Joseph Haydn in versions for two pianos and for orchestra. The final movement of the Fourth Symphony (Op. 98) is also formally a set of variations. In music, variation is a formal technique where material is altered during repetition; reiteration with changes. ... The Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel, Op. ... The Paganini Variations are a set of theme and variations, written by Johannes Brahms (Op. ... The Variations on a Theme by Joseph Haydn, consisting of a theme, eight variations and a finale, were composed in 1873 by Johannes Brahms. ... The Symphony No. ...

His chamber works include three string quartets, two string quintets and two string sextets, as well as a clarinet quintet, a clarinet trio, a horn trio, a piano quintet, three piano quartets and three piano trios. He composed several instrumental sonatas with piano, including three for violin, two for cello and two for clarinet (which were subsequently arranged for viola by the composer). His solo piano works range from his early piano sonatas and ballades to his late sets of character pieces. Brahms also wrote about 200 songs and is considered among the greatest of Lieder composers (with Schubert and Schumann). His chorale preludes for organ, which he wrote shortly before his death, have become an important part of the organist's repertoire. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ... The viola (French, alto; German Bratsche) is a bowed string instrument. ... A short grand piano, with the top up. ... A piano sonata is a sonata written for unaccompanied piano. ... A ballade refers to a one-movement musical piece with lyrical and dramatic narrative qualities. ... Lied (plural Lieder) is a German word, literally meaning song; among English speakers, however, it is used primarily as a term for European classical music songs, also known as art songs. ... In music, a chorale prelude is a short liturgical composition for organ using a chorale tune as its basis. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ...


Brahms never wrote an opera, nor did he ever write in the characteristic late-19th-century form of the tone poem, strongly preferring to compose absolute music that does not refer to an explicit scene or narrative. The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music, in one movement, in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ... Absolute music, less often abstract music, is a term used within the classical music field to describe music that is not explicitly about anything, non-representational or non-objective. ...


Despite his reputation as a serious composer of large, complex musical designs, some of Brahms's most widely known and commercially successful compositions during his life were aimed at the thriving contemporary market for domestic music-making, and are small-scale and popular in intention. These included his arrangements of popular dances, in Hungarian Dances, the Waltzes Op. 39 for piano duet, the Liebeslieder Waltzes for vocal quartet and piano, and some of his many songs, notably the Wiegenlied, Op. 49 No. 4 (published in 1868). This last item was written (to a folk text) to celebrate the birth of a son to Brahms's friend Bertha Faber, and is universally known as Brahms' Lullaby. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Influences on Brahms

Brahms venerated Beethoven, perhaps even more than other Romantic composers did. In the composer's home, a marble bust of Beethoven looked down on the spot where he composed. His works contain a number of apparent imitations of Beethoven. Thus, the beginning of Brahms's First Piano Sonata is very close to the opening of Beethoven's Hammerklavier sonata; and the main theme of the finale of Brahms's First Symphony is reminiscent of the main theme of the finale of Beethoven's Ninth. (When the latter resemblance was pointed out to Brahms, he replied that any ass – jeder Esel – could see that.) A portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler, 1820 Ludwig van Beethoven (IPA: ), (baptized December 17, 1770[1] – March 26, 1827) was a German composer and one of the pillars of European classical music. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Sonata No. ... The in C minor, Op. ... Composer Ludwig van Beethoven The Symphony No. ...


His work Ein deutsches Requiem was partially inspired by his mother's death in 1865, but also incorporates material from the Symphony he had started in 1854 but later abandoned following Schumann's suicide attempt. He once wrote that the Requiem "belonged to Schumann". (The first movement of this abandoned Symphony was re-worked as the first movement of the First Piano Concerto). Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ein deutsches Requiem For the short story by Jorge Luis Borges, see Ein deutsches Requiem (short story). ... Johannes Brahmss Piano Concerto No. ...


Brahms also loved the Classical composers Mozart and Haydn. He collected first editions and autographs of their works, and edited performing editions. Even more remarkable than this was his deep learning and study of the pre-classical composers including Gabrieli, Hasse, Schütz and especially Bach, among others. He had many friends among the leading musicologists of his day and he edited works by composers such as Rameau and Francois Couperin. He was well ahead of his time in his creative interest in this "Early Music" as composer, performer and scholar and particularly looked to such older music for inspiration in the arts of strict counterpoint. In fact, many of the themes to his better-known works are modelled on Baroque sources, such as Bach's The Art of Fugue in the fugal finale of Cello Sonata No.1, or the same composer's Cantata No. 150 in the passacaglia theme of the Fourth Symphony. Bologna Mozart - Mozart age 21 in 1777, see also: face only Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ... “Haydn” redirects here. ... Giovanni Gabrieli Giovanni Gabrieli (c. ... Johann Adolph Hasse. ... Heinrich Schütz. ... In music, the BACH motif is the sequence of notes B flat, A, C, B natural. ... Jean-Philippe Rameau, by Jacques André Joseph Aved, 1728 Jean-Philippe Rameau (French IPA: ) (September 25, 1683 - September 12, 1764) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. ... François Couperin (born Paris November 10, 1668 – September 12, 1733 in Paris) was an esteemed French composer in the Baroque style. ... In music, counterpoint is the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and rhythm, and interdependent in harmony. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... A portrait which may show Bach in 1750 The Art of Fugue or The Art of the Fugue (original German: Die Kunst der Fuge), BWV 1080, is an unfinished work by the German composer Johann Sebastian Bach. ... In music a passacaglia (French: passacaille, Spanish: pasacalle, German: passacalia; Italian: passacaglio, passagallo, passacagli, passacaglie) is a musical form and the corresponding court dance. ... The Symphony No. ...


Brahms's affection for the Classical period may also be reflected in his choice of genres: he favored the Classical forms of the sonata, symphony, and concerto, and frequently composed movements in sonata form. Although Brahms is often labeled as the most "Classical" Romantic composer, this label does not reflect all of his works. It was his public divide between the musical schools of Richard Wagner and himself that gained him this label, though this divide was polemicised more by their followers than the composers themselves. Although Wagner became fiercely critical of Brahms as the latter grew in stature and popularity, he was enthusiastically receptive of the early Variations on a Theme by Handel; Brahms himself, according to many sources (Swafford, 1999), deeply admired Wagner's music, confining his ambivalence only to the dramaturgical precepts of Wagner's theory. This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ...


The early Romantic composers also had a major influence on Brahms. Particularly influential was Schumann, who also helped pave Brahms's career as a young composer. Brahms met frequently with Robert and Clara Schumann, meetings in which they performed music of both great composers. During his journey to Vienna in 1862-3, Brahms became particularly interested in the music of Schubert[1]. The latter's influence may be identified in works by Brahms dating from the period, such as the two piano quartets Op. 25, and the Piano Quintet (the latter alluding to Schubert's String Quintet and Grand Duo for piano in four hands)[2][1]. There is less evidence for influence of Chopin and Mendelssohn on Brahms, although occasionally one can find in his works what seems to be an allusion to one of their works (for example, Brahms's Scherzo Op. 4 alludes to Chopin's Scherzo in B-flat minor[3]; the scherzo movement in Brahms's piano sonata in F minor, Op. 5 alludes to the finale of Mendelssohn's piano trio in C minor[4]). The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... For others with the same name see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Clara Schumann Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann (September 13, 1819 – May 20, 1896) was a German musician, one of the leading pianists of the Romantic era, as well as a composer, and wife of composer Robert Schumann. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... Franz Schubert Franz Peter Schubert (January 31, 1797 – November 19, 1828) was an Austrian composer. ... The Piano Quintet in F minor, opus 34, by Johannes Brahms was completed in 1864. ... The String Quintet in C major, D. 956, op. ... The Sonata in C major by Franz Schubert, D 812, for piano four hands (two players at one piano) was composed in the spring of 1824 at Zseliz on the Esterházy estate, probably for the two countesses he was tutoring at the time. ... Frédéric-François Chopin as portrayed by Eugène Delacroix in 1838. ... Felix Mendelssohn wrote his first symphony at the young age of fifteen. ... The Piano Sonata No. ...


A quite different influence on Brahms was folk music. Brahms wrote settings for piano and voice of 144 German folk songs, and many of his lieder reflect folk themes or depict scenes of rural life. His Hungarian dances were among his most profitable compositions, and in orchestrated versions remain well known today. Folk music can have a number of different meanings, including: Traditional music: The original meaning of the term folk music was synonymous with the term Traditional music, also often including World Music and Roots music; the term Traditional music was given its more specific meaning to distinguish it from the... The Hungarian Dances (German: Ungarische Tänze) by Johannes Brahms (WoO 1), are a set of 21 lively dance tunes based mostly on Hungarian themes. ...


Brahms was almost certainly influenced by the technological development of the piano, which reached essentially its modern form during his lifetime. Much of Brahms's piano music and many of his lieder make use of the deep bass notes and the pedal to obtain a very rich and powerful sound. A short grand piano, with the top up. ... Lied (plural Lieder) is a German word, literally meaning song; among English speakers, however, it is used primarily as a term for European classical music songs, also known as art songs. ...


Although it is not entirely clear what Brahms' religious views were, one of his greatest influences was the Bible. He loved reading the Bible, especially Luther's translation. His "Requiem" employs biblical texts to convey a humanist message, with a focus on the living rather than the dead. Author Walter Niemann declares, "The fact that Brahms began his creative activity with the German folk song and closed with the Bible reveals...the true religious creed of this great man of the people." Others see Brahms as more of a cultural Lutheran who embraces the cultural aspects of his upbringing but may or may not actually hold to the religious beliefs.[5] This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


Brahms's personality

Like Beethoven, Brahms was fond of nature and often went walking in the woods around Vienna. He often brought penny candy with him to hand out to children. To adults Brahms was often brusque and sarcastic, and he sometimes alienated other people. His pupil Gustav Jenner wrote, "Brahms has acquired, not without reason, the reputation for being a grump, even though few could also be as lovable as he.[1]" He also had predictable habits which were noted by the Viennese press such as his daily visit to his favourite "Red Hedgehog" tavern in Vienna and the press also particularly took into account his style of walking with his hands firmly behind his back complete with a caricature of him in this pose walking alongside a red hedgehog. Those who remained his friends were very loyal to him, however, and he reciprocated with equal loyalty and generosity. Gustav Uwe Jenner, born 3 December 1865 in Keitum on the island of Sylt, died August 1920 in Marburg, was a German composer, conductor and musical scholar whose chief claim to fame is that he was the only formal composition pupil of Johannes Brahms. ... “Wien” redirects here. ...

Johann Strauss (L) and Johannes Brahms photographed in Vienna
Johann Strauss (L) and Johannes Brahms photographed in Vienna

He was a lifelong friend with Johann Strauss II though they were very different as composers. Brahms even struggled to get to the Theater an der Wien in Vienna for the premiere of Strauss's operetta Die Göttin der Vernunft in 1897 before his death. Perhaps the greatest tribute that Brahms could pay to Strauss was his remark that he would have given anything to have written The Blue Danube waltz. An anecdote dating around the time Brahms became acquainted with Strauss is that when Strauss's wife Adele asked Brahms to autograph her fan, he wrote a few notes from the "Blue Danube" waltz, and then cheekily inscribed the words "Alas, not by Brahms!" Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1072x1803, 836 KB) Summary Published in Modern Music and Musicians, University Society, 1918 Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1072x1803, 836 KB) Summary Published in Modern Music and Musicians, University Society, 1918 Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Johann Strauss II The Waltz King coming to life in the Stadtpark, Vienna Johann Strauss II (in German: Johann Strauß (Sohn), Johann Strauss (son); in English also Johann Strauss the Younger, Johann Strauss Jr. ... The Theater an der Wien is a historic theatre in Vienna. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Blue Danube is the common English title of An der schönen blauen Donau op. ... A waltz (German: , Italian: , French: , Spanish: , Catalan: ) is a ballroom and folk dance in   time, done primarily in closed position. ...


Starting in the 1860s, when his works sold widely, Brahms was financially quite successful. He preferred a modest life style, however, living in a simple three-room apartment with a housekeeper. He gave away much of his money to relatives, and anonymously helped support a number of young musicians.


Brahms was an extreme perfectionist. He destroyed many early works - including a Violin Sonata he performed with Reményi and violinist Ferdinand David - and once claimed to have destroyed 20 string quartets before he issued his official First in 1873. Over the course of several years, he changed an original project for a Symphony in D minor into a piano concerto, his first. In another instance of devotion to detail, he labored over the official First Symphony for almost fifteen years, from about 1861 to 1876. Even after its first few performances, Brahms destroyed the original slow movement and substituted another before the score was published. (A conjectural restoration of the original slow movement has been published by Robert Pascall.) Another factor that contributed to Brahms's perfectionism was that Schumann had announced early on that Brahms was to become the next great composer like Beethoven, a prediction that Brahms was determined to live up to. This prediction hardly added to the composer's self-confidence, and may have contributed to the delay in producing the First Symphony. However, Clara Schumann noted before that Brahms's First Symphony was a product that was not reflective of Brahms's real nature. She felt that the final exuberant movement was "too brilliant," as she was encouraged by the dark and tempestuous opening movement she had seen in an early draft. However, she recanted in accepting the Second Symphony, which has often been seen in modern times as one of his sunniest works. Other contemporaries, however, found the first movement especially dark, and Reinhold Brinkmann, in a study of Symphony No.2 in relation to 19th century ideas of melancholy, has published a revealing letter from Brahms to the composer and conductor Vinzenz Lachner in which Brahms confesses to the melancholic side of his nature and comments on specific features of the movement that reflect this. Ferdinand David (born January 20, 1810 in Hamburg; died July 19, 1871 in Klosters) was a German virtuoso violinist and composer. ... This list of symphonies by key is a list of famous symphonies sorted by key. ... For others with the same name see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Clara Schumann Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann (September 13, 1819 – May 20, 1896) was a German musician, one of the leading pianists of the Romantic era, as well as a composer, and wife of composer Robert Schumann. ... Melancholia (Greek μελαγχολια) was described as a distinct disease as early as the fifth and fourth centuries BC in the Hippocratic writings. ... Vinzenz Lachner (born 18 July 1811 in Rain am Lech; died 22 January 1893 in Karlsruhe) was a significant Austrian composer and conductor. ...


Brahms' place in musical history, which so concerned him, has placed him among the three great "Bs" of German composers: Bach, Beethoven and Brahms.


Legacy

Lovers of his music consider Brahms on a par with the likes of Bach, Mozart, and Beethoven. His greatest music achieves a synthesis of the visceral quality of Wagner with the gracefulness and classical harmony of Mozart. He is equally distinguished as a composer of symphonic and chamber music. While Brahms has often been characterized as a "classicizing" Romantic composer who worked in old traditions and had no followers among the succeeding generations of composers, and who summed up and brought the classical tradition to an end, this is not true. His harmonic experiments are sometimes almost as daring as Wagner's, and his frequent use of odd, angular rhythmic themes anticipated the works of 20th century compositional innovators such as Arnold Schoenberg, who expressed deep admiration for him. Schoenberg redirects here. ...


As one of the central composers of the classical music tradition, Brahms and his music have appeared widely in film and other works of popular culture.


Brahms was also honoured by the German Hall of Fame, the Walhalla temple. On 14 September 2000 he was introduced there as 126th "rühmlich ausgezeichneter Teutscher" and 13th composer among them, by a bust of sculptor Milan Knobloch. [2] View of the Walhalla from the Danube View of the Walhalla main hall The Walhalla, Hall of Fame and Honor is a hall of fame located on the Danube River 10 km from Regensburg, in Bavaria, Germany. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


Lacking the flamboyant personality of a Mozart or the signature romantic elan of Beethoven, Brahms has never achieved the same level of popular appeal, deservedly or undeservedly. No popular films have attempted to represent his life, which, it should be said, was somewhat uneventful. Brahms was above all a man who consecrated his life to his art.


Writing in The New Oxford Companion to Music, Denis Arnold concludes:- '...His appeal to musicians lies in the quality of his craftsmanship. His wider appeal surely lies in the essential conflict between the depth of emotion so often evident yet hidden behind his natural reserve. ...' The Oxford Companion to Music is a popular music reference book produced by the Oxford University Press. ... Denis Midgley Arnold (15th December 1926-1986) was a British musicologist, He was born in Sheffield. ...


Books

  • Johannes Brahms: Life and Letters, ISBN 0-19-816234-0 by Brahms himself, edited by Styra Avins, translated by Josef Eisinger (1998). A biography by way of comprehensive footnotes to a comprehensive collection of Brahms's letters (some translated into English for the first time). Elucidates some previously contentious matters, such as Brahms's reasons for declining the Cambridge invitation.
  • Brahms, His Life and Work, by Karl Geiringer, photographs by Irene Geiringer (1987, ISBN 0-306-80223-6). A bio and discussion of his musical output, supplemented by and cross-referenced with the body of correspondence sent to Brahms.
  • Charles Rosen discusses a number of Brahms's imitations of Beethoven in Chapter 9 of his Critical Entertainments: Music Old and New (2000; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-17730-4).
  • Brahms by Malcolm MacDonald is a biography and also discussion of virtually everything Brahms composed, along with chapters examining his position in Romantic music, his devotion to Early Music, and his influence on later composers. (Dent 'Master Musicians' series, 1990; 2nd edition Oxford, 2001, ISBN 0-19-816484-X
  • Johannes Brahms: A Biography, by Jan Swafford. A comprehensive (752 pages) look at the life and works of Brahms. (1999; Vintage, ISBN 0-679-74582-3)
  • Late Idyll: The Second Symphony of Johannes Brahms, by Reinhold Brinkmann, translated by Peter Palmer. An analysis of Symphony No.2 and meditation of its position in Brahms's career and in relation to 19th century ideas of melancholy. (1995, Harvard, ISBN 0-674-51175-1)

(The Letters and the three biographical works listed above mutually support the statements in the biographical section of this article.) Charles Rosen (born May 5, 1927) is an American pianist and music theorist. ... Malcolm MacDonald (also known by the alias Calum MacDonald) is a British author, mainly writing about music. ... Jan Swafford (b. ...

The German National Library (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek) was established in 1990 during the German reunification by merging the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig (founded 1912, later the national library of East Germany) and the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt (founded 1947, later the national library of West Germany). ...

Notes and references

  • 1 Kurt Hoffman, Johannes Brahms und Hamburg (Reinbek, 1986) (in German: includes detailed refutation of the traditional story of Brahms playing piano in brothels, using the writings of those who knew the young Brahms, as well as evidence of the Hamburg's close regulation of those places, preventing the employment of children)
  1. ^ a b James Webster, "Schubert's sonata form and Brahms's first maturity (II)", 19th-Century Music 3(1) (1979), pp. 52-71.
  2. ^ Donald Francis Tovey, "Franz Schubert" (1927), rpt. in Essays and Lectures on Music (London, 1949), p. 123. Cf. his similar remarks in "Tonality in Schubert" (1928), rpt. ibid., p. 151.
  3. ^ Charles Rosen, "Influence: plagiarism and inspiration", 19th-Century Music 4(2) (1980), pp. 87-100.
  4. ^ H. V. Spanner, "What is originality?", The Musical Times 93(1313) (1952), pp. 310-311.
  5. ^ Beller-McKenna, Daniel. Brahms and the German Spirit. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. 2004, ISBN 0-674-01318-2

James Webster is a musicologist, specializing in the music of Joseph Haydn and other composers of the classical era. ... Wikisource has original works written by or about: Donald Francis Tovey Sir Donald Francis Tovey (July 17, 1875 – July 10, 1940) was a British musical analyst, musicologist, writer on music, composer and pianist. ... Charles Rosen (born May 5, 1927) is an American pianist and music theorist. ...

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Image File history File links Gabrilobrahms119_4. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Ossip Gabrilowitsch ca. ... M. Welte & Sons, Freiburg and New York From 1832 until 1932, the firm produced mechanical musical Instruments of highest quality. ... Image File history File links Brahms_nikisch_hd6. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Arthur Nikisch (or Nikitsch) (October 12, 1855 – January 23, 1922) was a Hungarian conductor who performed mainly in Germany. ... Image File history File links Brahms_Intermezzo_116-4. ... 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Sheet music

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Recordings

Persondata
NAME Brahms, Johannes
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Composer, Conductor, Pianist
DATE OF BIRTH May 7, 1833(1833-05-07)
PLACE OF BIRTH Hamburg, Germany
DATE OF DEATH April 3, 1897
PLACE OF DEATH Vienna, Austria

  Results from FactBites:
 
Johannes Brahms - MSN Encarta (661 words)
Johannes Brahms (1833-1897), German composer, one of the major composers of the 19th century, whose works combine the best of the classical and romantic schools.
Many biographers contend that Brahms was deeply in love with Clara, but he did not propose to her after Schumann's death in 1856, and he never married.
Although Brahms revived a tradition to which no important composer since Ludwig van Beethoven had adhered, he was not wholly isolated from his own milieu, and the fiery emotional range of the romantic spirit permeates his music.
Johannes Brahms - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3564 words)
Brahms' grave in the Zentralfriedhof (Central Cemetery), Vienna.
Brahms is buried in the Zentralfriedhof in Vienna.
Brahms was also a prolific composer in the theme and variation form, having notably composed the Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel, Paganini Variations, and Variations on a Theme by Joseph Haydn, along with other lesser known sets of variations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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