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Encyclopedia > Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Goethe at age 69, painted in 1828 by Joseph Karl Stieler.
Born August 28, 1749(1749-08-28)
Free City of Frankfurt
Died March 22, 1832 (aged 82)
Weimar, Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Occupation Polymath
Nationality German
Writing period Romanticism
Spouse Christiane Vulpius
Influences Gellert, Hafez, Herder, Homer, Klopstock, Lessing, Rousseau, Shakespeare, Schelling, Schiller
Influenced Lamarck, Darwin, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Carlyle, Nietzsche, Nikola Tesla, Steiner, André Gide, Cassirer, Jung, Spengler, Wittgenstein, Grass

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , IPA: [joˈhan/ˈjoːhan ˈvɔlfgaŋ fɔn ˈgøːtə], (28 August 174922 March 1832) was a German writer. George Eliot called him "Germany's greatest man of letters... and the last true polymath to walk the earth."[1] Goethe's works span the fields of poetry, drama, literature, theology, humanism, science and painting. Goethe's magnum opus, lauded as one of the peaks of world literature, is the two-part dramatic poem Faust.[2] Goethe's other well-known literary works include his numerous poems, the Bildungsroman Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship and the epistolary novel The Sorrows of Young Werther. Goethe may refer to: Family of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (737x900, 106 KB) originally uploaded on nds. ... 1820 portrait of Ludwig van Beethoven by Joseph Karl Stieler. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Main Station Frankfurt Frankfurt International Airport For other articles with similar names, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Weimar (disambiguation). ... The Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Herzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was created in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741, when the Saxe-Eisenach line had died out. ... This article is about work. ... Leonardo da Vinci, a polymath, is seen as the epitome of the related term, Renaissance Man A polymath (Greek polymathÄ“s, πολυμαθής, having learned much)[1][2] is a person with encyclopedic, broad, or varied knowledge or learning. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Christiane Vulpius ( 1765-1816 ) was the mistress and wife of Goethe. ... Christian Fürchtegott Gellert (July 4, 1715 - December 13, 1769) was a German poet. ... Hafez, detail of an illumination in a Persian manuscript of the Divan of Hafez, 18th century. ... A herder is a worker who lives a semi-nomadic life, caring for various domestic animals, especially in places where these animals wander unfenced pasture lands. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (July 2, 1724 - March 14, 1803), German poet, was born at Quedlinburg, the eldest son of a lawyer, a man of sterling character and of a deeply religious mind. ... Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (January 22, 1729 - February 15, 1781), writer, philosopher, publicist, and art thinker, is the most outstanding German representative of the Enlightenment era. ... Rousseau is a French surname. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (January 27, 1775 – August 20, 1854), later von Schelling, was a German philosopher. ... Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (November 10, 1759 - May 9, 1805), usually known as Friedrich Schiller, was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and dramatist. ... Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (August 1, 1744 – December 18, 1829) was a French soldier, naturalist, academic and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation. ... The most familiar view of Carlyle is as the bearded sage with a penetrating gaze Thomas Carlyle (December 4, 1795 – February 5, 1881) was a Scottish essayist, satirist, and historian, whose work was hugely influential during the Victorian era. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ... Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ... Rudolf Steiner. ... Gide redirects here. ... Ernst Cassirer (July 28, 1874 – April 13, 1945) was a German-Jewish philosopher. ... Carl Gustav Jung Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875 – June 6, 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of the neopsychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (Blankenburg am Harz May 29, 1880 – May 8, 1936, Munich) was a German historian and philosopher, although his studies ranged throughout mathematics, science, philosophy, history, and art. ... Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ) (April 26, 1889 in Vienna, Austria – April 29, 1951 in Cambridge, England) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking ideas to philosophy, primarily in the foundations of logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mind. ... Günter Grass Günter Grass, Nobel Prize-winning German author, was born in Free City of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) on October 16, 1927. ... Image File history File links De-Johann_Wolfgang_von_Goethe. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Mary Ann (Marian) Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880), better known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist. ... Leonardo da Vinci, a polymath, is seen as the epitome of the related term, Renaissance Man A polymath (Greek polymathÄ“s, πολυμαθής, having learned much)[1][2] is a person with encyclopedic, broad, or varied knowledge or learning. ... This article is about the art form. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationality. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Magnum opus (sometimes Opus magnum, plural magna opera), from the Latin meaning great work,[1] refers to the best, most popular, or most renowned achievement of an author, artist, or composer, and most commonly one who has contributed a very large amount of material. ... Front cover of Faust, Leipzig 1832 Johann Wolfgang von Goethes Faust is a tragic play and the best known version of the Faust story. ... A Bildungsroman (IPA: /, German: novel of self-cultivation) is a novelistic form which concentrates on the spiritual, moral, psychological, or social development and growth of the protagonist usually from childhood to maturity. ... Wilhelm Meisters Apprenticeship (in German, Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre) is the second novel by Goethe, published in 1795. ... Titlepage of Aphra Behns Love-Letters (1684) An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents. ... The Sorrows of Young Werther (originally published as Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) is an epistolary and loosely autobiographical novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, first published in 1774. ...


Goethe was one of the key figures of German literature and the movement of Weimar Classicism in the late 18th and early 19th centuries; this movement coincides with Enlightenment, Sentimentality ("Empfindsamkeit"), Sturm und Drang, and Romanticism. The author of the scientific text Theory of Colours, he influenced Darwin[3] with his focus on plant morphology.[4] German literature comprises those literary texts originating within Germany proper and written in the German language. ... Weimar Classicism is, as many historians and scholars argue, a disputed literary movement that took place in Germany and Continental Europe. ... The Enlightenment, also known as The Age of Enlightenment French: ; German: ; Spanish: ;Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... Sturm und Drang (literally: storm and stress) was a Germany literary movement that developed during the latter half of the 18th century. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Theory of Colours (original German title, Zur Farbenlehre) is a book published by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in 1810. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ...

Contents

Overview

Goethe was a German poet, novelist, dramatist, theorist, painter, natural scientist and long-serving Privy Councilor ("Geheimrat") of the duchy of Weimar. He was born Johann Wolfgang Goethe; in 1782 he was ennobled, becoming von Goethe.[5] The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... A dramatist is an author of dramatic compositions, usually plays. ... In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... Geheimrat was the title of the highest officials of a German royal or principal court. ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... For other uses, see Weimar (disambiguation). ...


Goethe is also the originator of the concept of Weltliteratur ("world literature"), having taken great interest in the literatures of England, France, Italy, classical Greece, Persia, Arabic literature, amongst others. His influence on German philosophy is virtually immeasurable, having major impact especially on the generation of Hegel and Schelling, although Goethe himself expressly and decidedly refrained from practicing philosophy in the rarefied sense. World literature refers to literature from all over the world, including American literature, European literature, Latin American literature, Asian literature, African literature, Arabic literature and so on. ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in the Greek language until the 4th century AD. // Wikisource has original text related to this article: an essay on the transition to written literature in Greece This period of Greek literature stretches from Homer until the 4th century BC and the rise... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... Arabic literature (Arabic ,الأدب العربي ) Al-Adab Al-Arabi, is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ... German philosophy, here taken to mean philosophy in German language, has been extremely diverse, and central to both the analytic and continental traditions in philosophy for centuries, from Leibniz through Kant and Hegel to contemporary philosophers such as Jürgen Habermas. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Notable people with the last name of Schelling include: Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, German philosopher Thomas Schelling, American economist and Nobel laureate Category: ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


Goethe was one of the key figures of German literature, with a career spanning Enlightenment ("Aufklärung"), Sentimentality ("Empfindsamkeit"), Sturm und Drang, Weimar Classicism and Romanticism. His scientific ideas influenced Darwin[6] with his focus on plant morphology.[7] Goethe's influence spread across Europe, and for the next century his works were a primary source of inspiration in music, drama, poetry and philosophy. Goethe is widely considered to be one of the most important thinkers in Western culture and is generally acknowledged as the most important writer in the German language. Early in his career, however, he wondered whether painting might not be his true vocation; late in his life, he expressed the expectation that he would ultimately be remembered above all for his work in optics. German literature comprises those literary texts originating within Germany proper and written in the German language. ... The Enlightenment, also known as The Age of Enlightenment French: ; German: ; Spanish: ;Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... Sentimentality is on one hand a literary device that is used to induce an emotional response disproportionate to the situation, and thus to substitute heightened and generally uncritical feeling for normal ethical and intellectual judgments, and on the other it is a heightened reader response that is willing to invest... Sturm und Drang (literally: storm and stress) was a Germany literary movement that developed during the latter half of the 18th century. ... Weimar Classicism is, as many historians and scholars argue, a disputed literary movement that took place in Germany and Continental Europe. ... Romantics redirects here. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... This article is about the art form. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... Theory of Colours (original German title, Zur Farbenlehre) is a book published by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in 1810. ...


Life

Early life (1749–1765)

Goethe's birthplace in Frankfurt, Germany (Großer Hirschgraben)
Goethe's birthplace in Frankfurt, Germany (Großer Hirschgraben)

Goethe's father, Johann Caspar Goethe (Frankfurt-am-Main, Hessen, 29 July 1710Frankfurt-am-Main, Hessen, 25 May 1782), lived with his family in a large house in Frankfurt am Main, then part of the Holy Roman Empire. Goethe's mother, Catharina Elisabeth Textor (Frankfurt-am-Main, Hessen, 19 February 1731Frankfurt-am-Main, Hessen, 15 September 1808), the daughter of the Mayor of Frankfurt Johann Wolfgang Textor (Frankfurt-am-Main, Hessen, 11 December 1693Frankfurt-am-Main, Hessen, 6 February 1771) and wife (married at Wetzlar, 2 February 1726) Anna Margaretha Lindheimer (Wetzlar, 23 July 1711Frankfurt-am-Main, Hessen, 18 April 1783, a descendant of Lucas Cranach the Elder and Henry III, Landgrave of Hesse-Marburg), married 38-year-old Johann Caspar when she was only 17 at Frankfurt am Main on 20 August 1748. All their children, except for Goethe and his sister, Cornelia Friderike Christiana, who was born in 1750, died at an early age. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (550x800, 232 KB) This image was taken by my grandfather, who releases all rights. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (550x800, 232 KB) This image was taken by my grandfather, who releases all rights. ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth largest city in Germany. ... Hesse is also the name of the German writer Hermann Hesse, as well as the German mathematician Otto Hesse. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 3 - Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier (d. ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth largest city in Germany. ... Hesse is also the name of the German writer Hermann Hesse, as well as the German mathematician Otto Hesse. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...   (German: , English: American English: ) is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a mid-2007 population of 663,567. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth largest city in Germany. ... Hesse is also the name of the German writer Hermann Hesse, as well as the German mathematician Otto Hesse. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 10 Downing Street becomes the official residence of the United Kingdoms Prime Minister when Robert Walpole moves in. ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth largest city in Germany. ... Hesse is also the name of the German writer Hermann Hesse, as well as the German mathematician Otto Hesse. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth largest city in Germany. ... Hesse is also the name of the German writer Hermann Hesse, as well as the German mathematician Otto Hesse. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth largest city in Germany. ... Hesse is also the name of the German writer Hermann Hesse, as well as the German mathematician Otto Hesse. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Wetzlar is a town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of the Lahn-Dill district. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events George Friderich Handel becomes a British subject. ... Wetzlar is a town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of the Lahn-Dill district. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1711 (MDCCXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth largest city in Germany. ... Hesse is also the name of the German writer Hermann Hesse, as well as the German mathematician Otto Hesse. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Portrait of Lucas Cranach the Elder at age 77 by Lucas Cranach the Younger (1550), at the Uffizi Gallery, Florence Lucas Cranach the Elder (Lucas Cranach der Ältere, 1472 – October 16, 1553) was a German painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving. ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1748 (MDCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Johann Caspar and private teachers gave Goethe lessons in all common subjects, especially languages (Latin, Greek, French and English). Goethe also received lessons in dancing, riding and fencing. He had a persistent dislike of the church, characterizing its history as a "hotchpotch of mistakes and violence" (Mischmasch von Irrtum und Gewalt). His great passion was drawing. Goethe quickly became interested in literature; Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock and Homer were among his early favourites. He had a lively devotion to theatre as well and was greatly fascinated by puppet shows that were annually arranged in his home; a familiar theme in Wilhelm Meister. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A contemporary dancer rehearsing in a dance studio Dance generally refers to human movement either used as a form of expression or presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting. ... A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Fencing advertisement for the 1900 Summer Olympic Games This article is about the sport, which is distinguished from stage fencing and academic fencing (mensur). ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (IPA: ; July 2, 1724 – March 14, 1803) was a German poet. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... A puppet is a representational object manipulated by a puppeteer. ... Wilhelm Meisters Apprenticeship (in German, Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre) was a 1795 novel by Goethe. ...


Leipzig (1765-1768)

Goethe studied law in Leipzig from 1765 to 1768. Learning age-old judicial rules by heart was something he strongly detested. He preferred to attend the poetry lessons of Christian Fürchtegott Gellert. In Leipzig, Goethe fell in love with Käthchen Schönkopf and wrote cheerful verses about her in the Rococo genre. In 1770, he anonymously released Annette, his first collection of poems. His uncritical admiration for many contemporary poets vanished as he became interested in Lessing and Wieland. Already at this time, Goethe wrote a good deal, but he threw away nearly all of these works, except for the comedy Die Mitschuldigen. The restaurant Auerbachs Keller and its legend of Faust's 1525 barrel ride impressed him so much that Auerbachs Keller became the only real place in his closet drama Faust Part One. Because his studies did not progress, Goethe was forced to return to Frankfurt at the close of August 1768. For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... Christian Fürchtegott Gellert (July 4, 1715 - December 13, 1769) was a German poet. ... A style of 18th century French art and interior design, Rococo style rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. ... Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781), writer, philosopher, publicist, and art critic, was one of the most outstanding German representatives of the Enlightenment era. ... Christoph Martin Wieland (September 5, 1733 _ January 20, 1813), was a German poet and writer. ... Sculptures depicting the events at Auerbachs Keller at the cellars entrance in Mädlerpassage Auerbachs Keller (Auerbachs Cellar in English) is the best known and second oldest restaurant in Leipzig. ... 17th century German portrait of Faust. ... A closet drama is a play that is not intended to be performed onstage, but read by a solitary reader or, sometimes, out loud in a small group. ... Faust: The First Part of the Tragedy is the first part of Goethes Faust. ...


Frankfurt/Strasbourg (1768-1770)

In Frankfurt, Goethe became severely ill. During the next year and a half which followed, because of several relapses, the relationship with his father worsened. During convalescence, Goethe was nursed by his mother and sister. Bored in bed, he wrote an impudent crime comedy. In April 1770, his father lost his patience; Goethe left Frankfurt in order to finish his studies in Strasbourg. For other uses, see Strasburg. ...


In Alsace, Goethe blossomed. No other landscape has he described as affectionately as the warm, wide Rhine area. In Strasbourg, Goethe met Johann Gottfried Herder, who happened to be in town on the occasion of an eye operation. The two became close friends, and crucially to Goethe's intellectual development, it was Herder who kindled his interest in Shakespeare, Ossian and in the notion of Volkspoesie (folk poetry). On a trip to the village Sesenheim, Goethe fell in love with Friederike Brion, but, after a couple of weeks, terminated the relationship. Several of his poems, like Willkommen und Abschied, Sesenheimer Lieder and Heideröslein, originate from this time. (New région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 904 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oisín. ...


Despite being based on his own ideas, his legal thesis was published uncensored. Shortly after, he was offered a career in the French government. Goethe rejected: he did not want to commit himself, but to remain an "original genius". This article is about the thesis in academia. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ...


Frankfurt and Darmstadt (1771)

At the end of August 1771, Goethe was certified as a licensee in Frankfurt. He wanted to make the jurisdiction progressively more humane. In his first cases, he proceeded too vigorously, was reprimanded and lost the position. This prematurely terminated his career as a lawyer after only a few months. At this time, Goethe was acquainted with the court of Darmstadt, where his inventiveness was praised. From this milieu came Johann Georg Schlosser (who was later to become his brother-in-law) and Johann Heinrich Merck. Goethe also pursued literary plans again; this time, his father did not have anything against it, and even helped. Goethe obtained a copy of the biography of a noble highwayman from the Peasants' War. In a couple of weeks the biography was reworked into a colourful drama. The work, called Götz von Berlichingen, went directly to the heart of his contemporaries. A licensee is a term used in the law of torts to describe a person who is on the property of another, despite the fact that the property is not open to the general public, because the owner of the property has allowed the licensee to enter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... For other uses, see Darmstadt (disambiguation). ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Johann Heinrich Merck (April 11, 1741 - June 27, 1791), German author and critic, was born at Darmstadt, a few days after the death of his father, a chemist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... Folk image of a mounted highwayman Highwayman was a term used particularly in Britain during the 17th and 18th centuries to describe robbers who targeted people traveling by stagecoach and other modes of transport along public highways. ... Peasants War map. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... Götz von Berlichingen is a successful 1773 drama by Goethe, based on the memoirs of the historical adventurer-poet Götz von Berlichingen (ca. ...


Professional and later life (1772-1832)

Goethe. Painting by Luise Seidler (Weimar 1811).
Goethe. Painting by Luise Seidler (Weimar 1811).

Goethe could not subsist on being one of the editors of a literary periodical (published by Schlosser and Merck). In May 1772, he once more began the practice of law at Wetzlar. At the invitation of Carl August, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach in 1775, Goethe went to live in Weimar where he held a succession of political offices; becoming the Duke's chief adviser. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Wetzlar is a town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of the Lahn-Dill district. ... Carl August (3 September 1757 - 14 June 1828) was the duke of Saxe-Weimar from 1758, duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach from its creation in 1809, and grand-duke from 1815 until his death. ... For the locality in Texas called Weimar see Weimar, Texas, there is also Weimar bei Kassel and Weimar in Marburg-Biedenkopf. ...


Later life

He was ennobled in 1782. His journey to the Italian peninsula from 1786 to 1788 was of great significance for his later æsthetical and philosophical development, as was his admission in 1782 that he was "a decided non-Christian".[8] His diaries of this period form the basis of the non-fiction Italian Journey. In late 1792, Goethe took part in the battle of Valmy against revolutionary France, assisting Duke Carl August of Saxe-Weimar during the failed invasion of France. Again during the Siege of Mainz he assisted Carl August as a military observer. In 1794 Friedrich Schiller wrote to Goethe offering friendship, which lasted until the former's death in 1805; they had previously had a wary acquaintance since 1788. In 1806, he married Christiane Vulpius. By 1820, he was on amiable terms with Kaspar Maria von Sternberg. Post-1793, Goethe devoted his endeavour principally to literature. In 1832, after a life of vast productivity, Goethe died at Weimar. He is buried in the Ducal Vault at Weimar's Historical Cemetery. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Italian Journey (in the German original: Italienische Reise) is Johann Wolfgang von Goethes report on a his 1786–1787 travels to Italy, published in 1816–1817. ... Combatants France Prussia Commanders Dumouriez, Kellermann Duke of Brunswick Strength 47,000 35,000 Casualties 300 184 The Battle of Valmy (or Cannonade of Valmy) was fought on 20 September 1792, during the French Revolutionary Wars, around the village of Valmy in northern France. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Carl August (3 September 1757 - 14 June 1828) was the duke of Saxe-Weimar from 1758, duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach from its creation in 1809, and grand-duke from 1815 until his death. ... Saxe-Weimar (German Sachsen-Weimar) was a Duchy in Thuringia. ... Combatants First French Republic Kingdom of Prussia Austria (Habsburg) Electorate of Saxony Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel Electoral Palatinate Duchy of Saxe-Weimar Commanders General Ignace dOyré Alexandre de Beauharnais Field marshal von Kalckreuth Duke of Brunswick Strength 23,000 184 cannons 36,000 later 44... Friedrich Schiller “Schiller” redirects here. ... Christiane Vulpius ( 1765-1816 ) was the mistress and wife of Goethe. ... K.M. Count Sternberg Kaspar Maria von Sternberg (also: Caspar Maria, Count Sternberg, German: Kaspar Maria Graf Sternberg, Czech: hrabÄ› KaÅ¡par Maria Å ternberk), 1761–1838, BÅ™ezina Castle, was a Bohemian theologian, mineralogist, geognost and botanist. ... For the locality in Texas called Weimar see Weimar, Texas, there is also Weimar bei Kassel and Weimar in Marburg-Biedenkopf. ...


Siege of Weimar

In 1806, Goethe was living in Weimar with his mistress Christiane Vulpius, the sister of Christian A. Vulpius, and their son Karl August. On October 13, Napoleon's army invaded the town. The French "spoon guards", the least-disciplined soldiers, occupied Goethe's house. Christiane Vulpius ( 1765-1816 ) was the mistress and wife of Goethe. ... Christian August Vulpius (January 23, 1762 - June 25, 1827), German author, was born at Weimar, and was educated at Jena and Erlangen. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...

The 'spoon guards' had broken in, they had drunk wine, made a great uproar and called for the master of the house. Goethe's secretary Riemer reports: 'Although already undressed and wearing only his wide nightgown … he descended the stairs towards them and inquired what they wanted from him … . His dignified figure, commanding respect, and his spiritual mien seemed to impress even them.' But it was not to last long. Late at night they burst into his bedroom with drawn bayonets. Goethe was petrified, Christiane raised a lot of noise and even tangled with them, other people who had taken refuge in Goethe's house rushed in, and so the marauders eventually withdrew again. It was Christiane who commanded and organized the defense of the house on the Frauenplan. The barricading of the kitchen and the cellar against the wild pillaging soldiery was her work. Goethe noted in his diary: "Fires, rapine, a frightful night … Preservation of the house through steadfastness and luck." The luck was Goethe's, the steadfastness was displayed by Christiane.

Schopenhauer and the Wild Years of Philosophy, Ch. 5[9]

The next day, Goethe legitimized their relationship by marrying Christiane in a quiet marriage service at the court chapel. Christiane Vulpius and Goethe produced a son, Karl August von Goethe (25 December 178928 October 1830), and whose wife, Ottilie von Pogwisch (31 October 179626 October 1872), cared for Goethe until he died in 1832. They had three children: Walther, Freiherr von Goethe (9 April 181815 April 1885), Wolfgang, Freiherr von Goethe (18 September 182020 January 1883) and Alma von Goethe (29 October 182729 September 1844). is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ...


Works

The following is a list of the major publications of Johann Wolfgang Goethe. ...

Literary work

"Modern Book Printing" from the Walk of Ideas in Berlin, Germany - built in 2006 to commemorate Johannes Gutenberg's invention, c. 1445, of movable printing type.
"Modern Book Printing" from the Walk of Ideas in Berlin, Germany - built in 2006 to commemorate Johannes Gutenberg's invention, c. 1445, of movable printing type.

The most important of Goethe's works produced before he went to Weimar was his tragedy Götz von Berlichingen (1773), which was the first work to bring him fame, and the novel The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774), which gained him enormous popularity as a writer in the Sturm und Drang movement. During the years at Weimar before he met Schiller he began Wilhelm Meister, wrote the dramas Iphigenie auf Tauris (Iphigenia in Tauris), Egmont, Torquato Tasso, and the fable Reineke Fuchs. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 43 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Book User:Sadi Carnot Walk of Ideas Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 43 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Book User:Sadi Carnot Walk of Ideas Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... The Walk of Ideas is a set of six sculptures made for the 2006 FIFA World Cup football event at Berlin in Germany. ... This article is about the inventor of printing in Europe; for other uses, see Guttenberg (disambiguation) and Gutenberg. ... Götz von Berlichingen is a successful 1773 drama by Goethe, based on the memoirs of the historical adventurer-poet Götz von Berlichingen (ca. ... The Sorrows of Young Werther (originally published as Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) is an epistolary and loosely autobiographical novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, first published in 1774. ... Sturm und Drang (literally: storm and stress) was a Germany literary movement that developed during the latter half of the 18th century. ... Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (November 10, 1759 - May 9, 1805), usually known as Friedrich Schiller, was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and dramatist. ... Wilhelm Meisters Apprenticeship (in German, Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre) is the second novel by Goethe, published in 1795. ... Scene from the première of the final version in Weimar in 1802 of Goethes Iphigenia in Tauris, with Goethe as Orestes in the centre. ... Egmont is a play by Goethe telling the tale of the 16th century Flemish Count of Egmont who is sentenced to death by the occupying Spaniards. ... Torquato Tasso is a play by the German dramatist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe about the sixteenth-century Italian poet, Torquato Tasso. ...


To the period of his friendship with Schiller belong the continuation of Wilhelm Meister, the idyll of Hermann and Dorothea, and the Roman Elegies. In the last period, between Schiller's death, in 1805, and his own, appeared Faust, Elective Affinities, his pseudo-autobiographical Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit (From my Life: Poetry and Truth), his Italian Journey, much scientific work, and a series of treatises on German art. His writings were immediately influential in literary and artistic circles. An idyll is a short poem, descriptive of rustic life, written in the style of Theocrituss short pastoral poems, the Idylls. ... Hermann and Dorothea is an epic 1798 poem by German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. ... The Römische Elegien, or Roman Elegies, is a series of poems by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. ... Front cover of Faust, Leipzig 1832 Johann Wolfgang von Goethes Faust is a tragic play and the best known version of the Faust story. ... Elective Affinities (in German, Die Wahlverwandtschaften) is an 1809 novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. ... Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit (Out of my Life: Poetry and Truth) (1811-1833), is Johann Wolfgang von Goethes autobiography. ... Italian Journey (in the German original: Italienische Reise) is Johann Wolfgang von Goethes report on a his 1786–1787 travels to Italy, published in 1816–1817. ...


Scientific work

As to what I have done as a poet,... I take no pride in it... But that in my century I am the only person who knows the truth in the difficult science of colours - of that, I say, I am not a little proud, and here I have a consciousness of a superiority to many.

Johann Eckermann, Conversations of Goethe Johann Peter Eckermann (1792 - 1854) was a German author, writer & editor. ...

Although his literary work has attracted the greatest amount of interest, Goethe was also keenly involved in studies of natural science[10]. He wrote several works on plant morphology, and colour theory. The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ...


With his focus on morphology he influenced Darwin[11][12]. His studies led him to independently discover the human intermaxillary bone in 1784, which Broussonet (1779) and Vicq d'Azyr (1780) had identified several years earlier.[13] In 1790, he published his Metamorphosis of Plants. The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The rounded lateral angles of the medial process constitute the globular processes. ... Pierre Marie Auguste Broussonet (1761-1807), French naturalist, was born at Montpellier on the 28th of February 1761, and was educated for the medical profession. ... Félix Vicq-dAzyr Félix Vicq-dAzyr (b. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the great German poet and philosopher published in 1790 the seminal essay Versuch die Metamorphose der Pflanzen zu erklären, known in English as Metamorphosis of Plants. ...

Light spectrum, from Theory of Colours – Goethe observed that with a prism, colour arises at the edges, and the spectrum occurs where these coloured edges overlap.
Light spectrum, from Theory of Colours – Goethe observed that with a prism, colour arises at the edges, and the spectrum occurs where these coloured edges overlap.

During his Italian journey, Goethe formulated a theory of plant metamorphosis in which the archetypal form of the plant is to be found in the leaf - he writes, "from top to bottom a plant is all leaf, united so inseparably with the future bud that one cannot be imagined without the other." [14]. Light Spectrum Illustration, from Goethes Theory of Colours. ... Light Spectrum Illustration, from Goethes Theory of Colours. ...


In 1810, Goethe published his Theory of Colours, which he considered his most important work. In it, he (contentiously) characterized colour as arising from the dynamic interplay of darkness and light. After being translated into English by Charles Eastlake in 1840, this theory became widely adopted by the art world, most notably J. M. W. Turner (Bockemuhl, 1991[15]). It also inspired the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, to write his Remarks on Colour. Theory of Colours (original German title, Zur Farbenlehre) is a book published by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in 1810. ... Born in Plymouth, Devon, Sir Charles Lock Eastlake ( 17 November 1793 – 24 December 1865) was an English painter, gallery director, collector and writer of the early 19th century. ... Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 1775[1] – 19 December 1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. ... Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ) (April 26, 1889 in Vienna, Austria – April 29, 1951 in Cambridge, England) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking ideas to philosophy, primarily in the foundations of logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mind. ...


Goethe outlines his method in the essay, The experiment as mediator between subject and object (1772). In the Kurschner edition of Goethe's works, the science editor, Rudolf Steiner, presents Goethe's approach to science as phenomenological. Steiner elaborated on this in the books The Theory of Knowledge Implicit in Goethe's World-Conception[7] and Goethe's World View[8], in which he emphasizes the need of the perceiving organ of intuition in order to grasp Goethe's biological archetype (i.e. The Typus). Rudolf Steiner. ... Use of the word phenomenology in modern science is described in the separate article phenomenology (science). ...


Key works

Statues of Goethe and Schiller, Weimar.
Statues of Goethe and Schiller, Weimar.

The following annotated citation of principal works may explain the gravity and impact of Goethe's corpus upon Modernity: Download high resolution version (524x753, 69 KB)from de: see [1] (in German) for copyright details File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (524x753, 69 KB)from de: see [1] (in German) for copyright details File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (November 10, 1759 - May 9, 1805), usually known as Friedrich Schiller, was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and dramatist. ... For other uses, see Weimar (disambiguation). ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ...


The short epistolary novel, Die Leiden des jungen Werthers, or The Sorrows of Young Werther, published in 1774, recounts an unhappy romantic infatuation that ends in suicide. Goethe admitted that he "shot his hero to save himself": a reference to Goethe's own near-suicidal obsession with a young woman during this period, an obsession he quelled through the writing process. The novel remains in print in dozens of languages and its influence is undeniable; its central hero, an obsessive figure driven to despair and destruction by his unrequited love for the young Lotte, has become a pervasive literary archetype. The fact that Werther ends with the protagonist's suicide and funeral — a funeral which "no clergyman attended" — made the book deeply controversial upon its (anonymous) publication, for on the face of it, it appeared to condone and glorify suicide. Suicide was considered sinful by Christian doctrine: suicides were denied Christian burial with the bodies often mistreated and dishonoured in various ways; in corollary, the deceased's property and possessions were often confiscated by the Church.[16][17] Epistolary novels were common during this time, letter-writing being a primary mode of communication. What set Goethe's book apart from other such novels was its expression of unbridled longing for a joy beyond possibility, its sense of defiant rebellion against authority, and of principal importance, its total subjectivity: qualities that trailblazed the Romantic movement. Titlepage of Aphra Behns Love-Letters (1684) An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents. ... The Sorrows of Young Werther (originally published as Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) is an epistolary and loosely autobiographical novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, first published in 1774. ... For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ... Christian Theology is reasoned discourse concerning Christian faith. ... A Christian burial is the burial of a deceased person with ecclesiastical rites in consecrated ground. ...


The next work, his epic closet drama Faust, was to be completed in stages, and only published in its entirety after his death. The first part was published in 1808 and created a sensation. The first operatic version, by Spohr, appeared in 1814, and was subsequently the inspiration for operas and oratorios by Schumann, Gounod, Boito, Busoni, and Schnittke as well as symphonic works by Liszt, Wagner, and Mahler. Faust became the ur-myth of many figures in the 19th century. Later, a facet of its plot, i.e., of selling one's soul to the devil for power over the physical world, took on increasing literary importance and became a view of the victory of technology and of industrialism, along with its dubious human expenses. In 1919, the Goetheanum staged the world premiere of a complete production of Faust. On occasion, the play is still staged in Germany and other parts around the world. A closet drama is a play that is not intended to be performed onstage, but read by a solitary reader or, sometimes, out loud in a small group. ... Front cover of Faust, Leipzig 1832 Johann Wolfgang von Goethes Faust is a tragic play and the best known version of the Faust story. ... Louis Spohr as a young man: a self-portrait Louis Spohr (April 5, 1784 - October 22, 1859) was a German composer, violinist and conductor. ... Schumann is the name of several notable people: Robert Schumann (1810 - 1856), German composer (husband of composer Clara Schumann) Clara Wieck Schumann (1819 - 1896), German pianist and composer, (wife of composer Robert Schumann) Georg Schumann (1886 - 1945), German Communist and resistance fighter against the Nazis Georg Schumann (1866 - 1952), German... Categories: Stub | 1818 births | 1893 deaths | Opera composers | Romantic composers | French musicians ... Arrigo Boito (February 24, 1842 – June 10, 1918) was an Italian poet, novelist and composer, best known today for his opera libretti and his own opera, Mefistofele. ... Dante Michaelangelo Benvenuto Ferruccio Busoni (April 1, 1866 – July 27, Italian composer, pianist, music teacher and conductor. ... Alfred Garyevich Schnittke (Russian: Альфред Шнитке, November 24, 1934 – August 3, 1998) was a Russian composer of classical music. ... Franz Liszt (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a virtuoso pianist and composer. ... Wagner may refer to more than one place in the United States: Wagner, South Dakota Wagner, Wisconsin Wagner may refer to more than one person: Richard Wagner, German composer Cosima Wagner, daughter of Franz Liszt and wife of Richard Wagner Heinrich Leopold Wagner, dramatist and author John Peter Honus Wagner... “Mahler” redirects here. ... The Goetheanum is a center for the anthroposophical movement in Dornach, Switzerland. ... Premiere, from French language première meaning first, generally means a first performance. Premieres for theatrical, musical, and other productions are often extravagant affairs, attracting large numbers of socialites and much media attention. ...


Goethe's poetic work served as a model for an entire movement in German poetry termed Innerlichkeit ("introversion") and represented by, for example, Heine. Goethe's words inspired a number of compositions by, among others, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Berlioz, Rammstein and Wolf. Perhaps the single most influential piece is "Mignon's Song" which opens with one of the most famous lines in German poetry, an allusion to Italy: "Kennst du das Land, wo die Zitronen blühn?" ("Do you know the land where the lemons bloom?"). Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was a journalist, an essayist, and one of the most significant German romantic poets. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Schubert redirects here. ... Portrait of Berlioz by Signol, 1832 Louis Hector Berlioz (December 11, 1803 – March 8, 1869) was a French Romantic composer best known for the Symphonie Fantastique, first performed in 1830, and for his Requiem of 1837, with its tremendous resources that include four antiphonal brass choirs. ... For other uses, see Ramstein. ... Photograph of Hugo Wolf Hugo Wolf (March 13, 1860 – February 22, 1903) was an Austrian composer of Slovene origin, particularly noted for his art songs, or Lieder. ...

Goethe in the Roman Campagna (1786) by Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein. Oil on canvas, 164 x 206 cm. Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt.
Goethe in the Roman Campagna (1786) by Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein. Oil on canvas, 164 x 206 cm. Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt.

He is also widely quoted. Epigrams such as "Against criticism a man can neither protest nor defend himself; he must act in spite of it, and then it will gradually yield to him", "Divide and rule, a sound motto; unite and lead, a better one", and "Enjoy when you can, and endure when you must", are still in usage or are often paraphrased. Lines from Faust, such as "Das also war des Pudels Kern", "Das ist der Weisheit letzter Schluss", or "Grau ist alle Theorie" have entered everyday German usage. Although a success of less tasteful appeal, the famous line from the drama Götz von Berlichingen ("Er kann mich im Arsche lecken": "He can lick my arse") has become a vulgar idiom in many languages, and shows Goethe's deep cultural impact extending across social, national, and linguistic borders. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1600, 458 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt Goethes in der Campagna Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 164 × 206 cm Country of origin: de: Deutschland Current location (city): de: Frankfurt am Main Current location (gallery): de: Städelsches Kunstinstitut... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1600, 458 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt Goethes in der Campagna Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 164 × 206 cm Country of origin: de: Deutschland Current location (city): de: Frankfurt am Main Current location (gallery): de: Städelsches Kunstinstitut... Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein, also known as Goethe-Tischbein (15 February 1751–26 February 1829) was a German painter. ... Götz von Berlichingen is a successful 1773 drama by Goethe, based on the memoirs of the historical adventurer-poet Götz von Berlichingen (ca. ...


It may be taken as another measure of Goethe's fame that other well-known quotations are often incorrectly attributed to him, such as Hippocrates' "Art is long, life is short", which is found in Goethe's Wilhelm Meister. For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ...


Eroticism

Many of Goethe's works, especially Faust, the Roman Elegies, and the Venetian Epigrams, depict hetero- and homosexual erotic passions and acts. In Faust, having signed (the Devil insists on his signature in an actual contract) his deal with the devil, the very first use of his new power thus gained sees Faust ravishing a young teenage girl. In fact, some of the Venetian Epigrams were held back from publication due to their sexual content. However, Karl Hugo Pruys caused national controversy in Germany when his 1999 book The Tiger's Tender Touch: The Erotic Life of Goethe tentatively deduced from Goethe's writings the possibility of Goethe's homosexuality.[18] The sexual portraitures and allusions in his work may stem from one of the many effects of Goethe's eye-opening sojourn in Italy, where men, who shunned the prevalence of women's venereal diseases and unconscionable conditions, embraced homosexuality as a solution that was not widely imitated outside of Italy.[19] Whatever the case, Goethe clearly saw sexuality in general as a topic that merited poetic and artistic depiction. This went against the thought of his time, when the very private nature of sexuality was rigorously normative, and makes him appear more modern than he is typically thought to be.[20] Front cover of Faust, Leipzig 1832 Johann Wolfgang von Goethes Faust is a tragic play and the best known version of the Faust story. ... The Römische Elegien, or Roman Elegies, is a series of poems by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ...


Religion

Born into a Protestant (Lutheran) family, Goethe's early faith was shaken by news of such events as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and the Seven Years' War. His later spiritual perspective evolved among pantheism, humanism, and various elements of Western esotericism, as seen most vividly in Part II of Faust. Copper engraving of the Lisbon earthquake 1755 The 1755 Lisbon earthquake took place on November 1, 1755 at 9:20 in the morning. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( pan ) = all and θεός ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationality. ... Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A year before his death he expressed an identification with the Hypsistarians, an ancient Jewish-pagan sect of the Black Sea region. After describing his difficulties with mainstream religion, Goethe laments: Hypsistarians, i. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ...

...I have found no confession of faith to which I could ally myself without reservation. Now in my old age, however, I have learned of a sect, the Hypsistarians, who, hemmed in between heathens, Jews and Christians, declared that they would treasure, admire, and honour the best, the most perfect that might come to their knowledge, and inasmuch as it must have a close connection to the Godhead, pay it reverence. A joyous light thus beamed at me suddenly out of a dark age, for I had the feeling that all my life I had been aspiring to qualify as a Hypsistarian. That, however, is no small task, for how does one, in the limitations of one's individuality, come to know what is most excellent?

from a letter to Sulpiz Boisserée dated 22 March 1831[21]

Goethe is remembered with special fondness by followers of 20th century esoteric figure Rudolf Steiner. Rudolf Steiner. ...


Historical importance

Goethe had a great effect on the changing dynamics of the 19th century. In many respects, he was the originator of—or at least the first to cogently express—many ideas which would later become familiar. Goethe produced volumes of poetry, essays, criticism, and scientific work, including a theory of optics and early work on evolution and linguistics. He was fascinated by minerals and early mineralogy (the mineral goethite is named for him). His non-fiction writings, most of which are philosophic and aphoristic in nature, spurred on the development of many philosophers, such as G.W.F. Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrich Nietzsche, Ernst Cassirer, Carl Gustav Jung, Ludwig Wittgenstein and others, and of various literary movements, such as romanticism. The mystical philosopher Rudolf Steiner, founder of the anthroposophist movement, named two buildings after Goethe. In contemporary culture, he stands in the background as the author of the story upon which Disney's The Sorcerer's Apprentice is based. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... Goethite, named after the German polymath Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, is an iron bearing oxide mineral found in soil and other low temperature environments. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ... Ernst Cassirer (July 28, 1874 – April 13, 1945) was a German-Jewish philosopher. ... Carl Gustav Jung Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875 – June 6, 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of the neopsychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ) (April 26, 1889 in Vienna, Austria – April 29, 1951 in Cambridge, England) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking ideas to philosophy, primarily in the foundations of logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mind. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Rudolf Steiner. ... The Goetheanum is a center for the anthroposophical movement in Dornach, Switzerland. ... For the childrens T.V series, see The Sorcerers Apprentice (TV series). ...


Goethe embodied many of the contending strands in art over the next century: his work could be lushly emotional, and rigorously formal, brief and epigrammatic, and epic. He would argue that classicism was the means of controlling art, and that romanticism was a sickness, even as he penned poetry rich in memorable images, and rewrote the formal rules of German poetry. Classicism door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic Teatr Wielki in Warsaw Church La Madeleine in Paris Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicist seeks to emulate. ... Romantics redirects here. ...


His poetry was set to music by almost every major Austrian and German composer from Mozart to Mahler, and his influence would spread to French drama and opera as well. Beethoven declared that a "Faust" Symphony would be the greatest thing for Art. Liszt and Mahler both created symphonies in whole or in large part inspired by this seminal work, which would give the 19th century one of its most paradigmatic figures: Doctor Faustus. The Faust tragedy/drama, often called "Das Drama der Deutschen" (the drama of the Germans), written in two parts published decades apart, would stand as his most characteristic and famous artistic creation. “Mozart” redirects here. ... “Mahler” redirects here. ... Doctor Faustus could refer to: The character of Faust Christopher Marlowes The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus Thomas Manns Doktor Faustus Ferruccio Busonis opera Doktor Faust A 1967 film directed by Richard Burton and Nevill Coghill, see Doctor Faustus (movie) This is a disambiguation page — a... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ...


Goethe was also a cultural force, and by researching folk traditions, he created many of the norms for celebrating Christmas, and argued that the organic nature of the land moulded the people and their customs—an argument that has recurred ever since, including recently in the work of Jared Diamond. He argued that laws could not be created by pure rationalism, since geography and history shaped habits and patterns. This stood in sharp contrast to the prevailing Enlightenment view that reason was sufficient to create well-ordered societies and good laws. For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ...


Influence

Goethe's influence was dramatic because he understood that there was a transition in European sensibilities, an increasing focus on sense, the indescribable, and the emotional. This is not to say that he was emotionalistic or excessive; on the contrary, he lauded personal restraint and felt that excess was a disease: "There is nothing worse than imagination without taste". He argued in his scientific works that a "formative impulse", which he said is operative in every organism, causes an organism to form itself according to its own distinct laws, and therefore rational laws or fiats could not be imposed at all from a higher, transcendent sphere; this placed him in direct opposition to those who attempted to form "enlightened" monarchies based on "rational" laws by, for example, Joseph II of Austria or, the subsequent Emperor of the French, Napoleon I. A quotation from his Scientific Studies will suffice: Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...

We conceive of the individual animal as a small world, existing for its own sake, by its own means. Every creature is its own reason to be. All its parts have a direct effect on one another, a relationship to one another, thereby constantly renewing the circle of life; thus we are justified in considering every animal physiologically perfect. Viewed from within, no part of the animal is a useless or arbitrary product of the formative impulse (as so often thought). Externally, some parts may seem useless because the inner coherence of the animal nature has given them this form without regard to outer circumstance. Thus...[not] the question, What are they for? but rather, Where do they come from?

Suhrkamp ed., vol 12, p. 121; trans. Douglas Miller, Scientific Studies

This change later became the basis for 19th century thought; organic rather than geometrical, evolving rather than created, and based on sensibility and intuition, rather than on imposed order, culminating in, as he said, a "living quality" wherein the subject and object are dissolved together in a poise of inquiry. Consequently, he embraced neither teleological nor deterministic views of growth within every organism. Instead, the world as a whole grows through continual, external, and internal strife. Moreover, he did not embrace the mechanistic views that contemporaneous science subsumed during his time, and therewith he denied rationality's superiority as the sole interpretation of reality. Furthermore, he declared that all knowledge is related to humanity through its functional value alone and that knowledge presupposes a perspectival quality. He also stated that the fundamental nature of the world is aesthetic. Teleology is the philosophical study of purpose (from the Greek teleos, perfect, complete, which in turn comes from telos, end, result). ... The term deterministic may refer to: the more general notion of determinism from philosophy, see determinism a type of algorithm as discussed in computer science, see deterministic algorithm scientific determinism as used by Karl Popper and Stephen Hawking deterministic system in mathematics deterministic system in philosophy deterministic finite state machine... In philosophy, mechanism is a theory that all natural phenomena can be explained by physical causes. ... Perspectivism is the philosophical view that all perception takes place from a specific perspective. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ...


His views make him, along with Adam Smith, Thomas Jefferson, and Ludwig van Beethoven, a figure in two worlds: on the one hand, devoted to the sense of taste, order, and finely crafted detail, which is the hallmark of the artistic sense of the Age of Reason and the neo-classicistic period of architecture; on the other, seeking a personal, intuitive, and personalized form of expression and society, firmly supporting the idea of self-regulating and organic systems. Thinkers such as Ralph Waldo Emerson would take up many similar ideas in the 1800s. His ideas on evolution would frame the question which Darwin and Wallace would approach within the scientific paradigm. For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... The Age of Reason is either Thomas Paines book The Age of Reason. ... The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... For the Cornish painter, see Alfred Wallis. ...


References

  1. ^ Eliot, George [1871] (2004). in Gregory Maertz (ed.): Middlemarch. Broadview Press. ISBN.  Note by editor of 2004 edition, Gregory Maertz, p. 710
  2. ^ Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Ed. (2001-2005).
  3. ^ Darwin, C. R. 1859. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 1st edition.[1]
  4. ^ Opitz, John M. 2004. Goethe's bone and the beginnings of morphology. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, Volume 126A, Issue 1, Pages 1 - 8.[2]
  5. ^ Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1999). Elective Affinities – A Novel (translated with an Introduction and Notes by David Constantine). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192837761. 
  6. ^ Darwin, C. R. 1859. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 1st edition.[3]
  7. ^ Opitz, John M. 2004. "Goethe's bone and the beginnings of morphology." American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, Volume 126A, Issue 1, Pages 1 - 8.[4]
  8. ^ Letter to Johann Caspar Lavater, 29 July 1782
  9. ^ Safranski, Rüdiger, Schopenhauer and the Wild Years of Philosophy, Harvard University Press, 1990, ISBN 0-674-79275-0
  10. ^ http://www.natureinstitute.org/about/who/goethe.htm
  11. ^ Opitz, John M. 2004. Goethe's bone and the beginnings of morphology. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, Volume 126A, Issue 1, Pages 1 - 8.[5]
  12. ^ Darwin, C. R. 1859. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 1st edition.[6]
  13. ^ K. Barteczko and M. Jacob (1999). "A re-evaluation of the premaxillary bone in humans". Anatomy and Embryology 207 (6): 417–437. 
  14. ^ Goethe, J.W.. Italian Journey. Suhrkamp ed., vol 6. 
  15. ^ Bockemuhl, M. (1991). Turner. Taschen, Koln. ISBN 3-8228-6325-4. 
  16. ^ Pips Project – THE STIGMA OF SUICIDE A History
  17. ^ Ophelia's Burial
  18. ^ Karl Hugo Pruys, The Tiger's Tender Touch: The Erotic Life of Goethe. Trans. Kathleen Bunten. (Edition Q, 1999). ISBN 1883695120.
  19. ^ Outing Goethe and His Age, edited by Alice A. Kuzniar (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1996) (page number needed). ISBN 0804726159.
  20. ^ Outing Goethe and His Age; edited by Alice A. Kuzniar (page number needed)
  21. ^ quoted in Peter Boerner, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1832/1982: A Biographical Essay. Bonn: Inter Nationes, 1981 p. 82]

is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

See also

The following is a list of the major publications of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. ... Christiane Friederike Wilhelmine Minna (Minchen) Herzlieb (May 22, 1789, Züllichau/Sulechów, Lower Silesia - July 10, 1865, Görlitz) was a German female publisher, and a publisher Karl Ernst Friedrch Frommann (1765-1839). ... Ulrike von Levetzow, known as Ulrike Levetzow, Baroness von Levetzow (1804-99) was a friend of Goethe. ... Goethe Basin is a 383 km diameter impact basin at 78. ...

External links

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in the German National Library catalogue Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The German National Library (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek) was established in 1990 during the German reunification by merging the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig (founded 1912, later the national library of East Germany) and the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt (founded 1947, later the national library of West Germany). ...

Philosophy Portal
Persondata
NAME Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Goethe, Johann Wolfgang
SHORT DESCRIPTION German philosopher, poet, and writer
DATE OF BIRTH 28 August 1749(1749-08-28)
PLACE OF BIRTH Frankfurt
DATE OF DEATH 22 March 1832
PLACE OF DEATH Weimar, Germany

  Results from FactBites:
 
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2363 words)
Goethe was one of the key figures of German literature and the movement of German classicism in the late 18th and early 19th centuries; this movement coincides with Enlightenment, Sturm und Drang, Sensibility ("Empfindsamkeit"), and Romanticism, in all of which he participated to varying degrees.
Goethe in the Roman Campagna (1786) by Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein.
Goethe was also a cultural force, and by researching folk traditions, he created many of the norms for celebrating Christmas, and argued that the organic nature of the land moulded the people and their customs—an argument that has recurred ever since, including recently in the work of Jared Diamond.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe - definition of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in Encyclopedia (1171 words)
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced ['gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher.
As a writer, Goethe was one of the paramount figures of German literature and European Romanticism during and around the 18th and 19th century.
Goethe was the author of Faust and Theory of Colours and inspired Darwin with his independent discovery of the human premaxilla jaw bones.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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