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Encyclopedia > Johann Wolfgang Goethe
Johann Wolfgang Goethe
Johann Wolfgang Goethe
Born 28 August 1749
Frankfurt, Germany
Died 22 March 1832
Weimar, Germany

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Johann Wolfgang Goethe , IPA: [gøːtə], later von Goethe, (28 August 174922 March 1832) was a German polymath: he was a poet, novelist, dramatist, humanist, scientist, theorist, painter, and for ten years chief minister of state for the duchy of Weimar. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Used in German wikipedia article Johann Wolfgang von Goethe This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Main Station Frankfurt Frankfurt International Airport For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (82nd in leap years). ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For the locality in Texas called Weimar see Weimar, Texas, there is also Weimar bei Kassel and Weimar in Marburg-Biedenkopf. ... Image File history File links De-Johann_Wolfgang_von_Goethe. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (82nd in leap years). ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Leonardo da Vinci is seen as an epitome of the Renaissance man or polymath. ... A poet is someone who writes poetry. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... A dramatist is an author of dramatic compositions, usually plays. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The physicist Albert Einstein is probably the most famous scientist of our time. ... In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... Minister of State is a title borne by officials in certain countries governed under the parliamentary system. ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... The city hall Goethe and Schiller in front of the Deutsche Nationaltheater Weimar is a city in Germany. ...


Goethe was one of the key figures of German literature and the movement of Weimar Classicism in the late 18th and early 19th centuries; this movement coincides with Enlightenment, Sentimentality ("Empfindsamkeit"), Sturm und Drang, and Romanticism. The author of Faust and Theory of Colours, he inspired Darwin[citation needed] with his independent discovery of the human intermaxillary jaw bones and focus on evolutionary ideas. Goethe's influence spread across Europe, and for the next century his works were a primary source of inspiration in music, drama, poetry, and philosophy. He is widely considered to be one of the most important thinkers in Western culture, and is often cited as one of history's greatest geniuses.[1] German literature comprises those literary texts originating within Germany proper and written in the German language. ... Weimar Classicism is, as many historians and scholars argue, a disputed literary movement that took place in Germany and Continental Europe. ... The Age of Enlightenment (from the German word Aufklärung, meaning Enlightenment) refers to either the eighteenth century in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the seventeenth century and the Age of Reason. ... The Sentiment for 18th century readers and writers is an equivalent for a strong romantic, usually exageratedly powerful feeling. ... Sturm und Drang (literally: storm and stress) was a Germany literary movement that developed during the latter half of the 18th century. ... Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... It has been suggested that Faust Part One, Faust Part Two be merged into this article or section. ... Theory of Colours (original German title, Zur Farbenlehre) is a book published by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in 1810. ... Charles Robert Darwin (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an eminent English naturalist who achieved lasting fame by convincing the scientific community that species develop over time from a common origin. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... Socrates (central bare-chested figure) about to drink hemlock as mandated by the court. ... A genius is a person with great intelligence. ...

Contents

Life

Early life (1749–1765)

Goethe's birthplace in Frankfurt, Germany (Großer Hirschgraben)
Goethe's birthplace in Frankfurt, Germany (Großer Hirschgraben)

Goethe's father, Johann Caspar Goethe (1710–1782), lived with his family in a large house in Frankfurt am Main, then part of the Holy Roman Empire. Goethe's mother, Catharina Elisabeth Textor (1731–1808), the daughter of the Mayor of Frankfurt, married 38-year-old Johann Caspar when she was only 17. All their children, except for Goethe and his sister, Cornelia Friderike Christiana, who was born in 1750, died at an early age. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (550x800, 232 KB) This image was taken by my grandfather, who releases all rights. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (550x800, 232 KB) This image was taken by my grandfather, who releases all rights. ... Main Station Frankfurt Frankfurt International Airport For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... The double-headed eagle A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (15th century painting by Albrecht Dürer) The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ...


Johann Caspar and private teachers gave Goethe lessons in all common subjects, especially languages (Latin, Greek, French, English and Hebrew). Goethe also took lessons in dancing, riding, and fencing. He had a persistent dislike of the church, and characterized its history as a "hotchpotch of mistakes and violence" {Mischmasch von Irrtum und Gewalt). His great passion was drawing. Goethe quickly became interested in literature; Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock and Homer were among his early favourites. He had a lively devotion to theatre as well, and was greatly fascinated by puppet shows that were annually arranged in his home –- a familiar theme in Wilhelm Meister. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... A contemporary dancer rehearsing in a dance studio Dance generally refers to human movement either used as a form of expression or presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting. ... In the British Isles since Anglo-Saxon times, a riding is traditionally a sub-division (especially in three) of a county, in Australia analogous. ... In the broadest possible sense, fencing is the art and science of armed combat involving cutting, stabbing, or bludgeoning weapons directly manipulated by hand, rather than shot or thrown (in other words, swords, knives, pikes, bayonets, batons, clubs, and so on). ... St. ... Drawing (verb) is the act of making marks on a surface so as to create a visual image of a form or a shape. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock. ... Homer (Greek: , HómÄ“ros) was a legendary early Greek poet and aoidos (singer) traditionally credited with the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Italic text Wayang shadow-puppet created in Bali, in the early 20th century. ... Wilhelm Meisters Apprenticeship (in German, Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre) was a 1795 novel by Goethe. ...


Leipzig (1765-1768)

Goethe studied law in Leipzig from 1765 to 1768. Learning age-old judicial rules by heart was something he strongly detested. He preferred to attend the poetry lessons of Christian Fürchtegott Gellert. In Leipzig, Goethe fell in love with Käthchen Schönkopf and wrote cheerful verses about her in the Rococo genre. In 1770, he anonymously released Annette, his first collection of poems. His uncritical admiration for many contemporary poets vanished as he became interested in Lessing and Wieland. Already at this time, Goethe wrote a good deal, but he threw away nearly all of these works, except for the comedy Die Mitschuldigen. The restaurant Auerbachs Keller and its legend of Faust's 1525 barrel ride impressed him so much that Auerbachs Keller became the only real place in his drama Faust Part One. Because his study did not advance, Goethe was forced to return to Frankfurt at the end of August 1768. Equality and the balancing of our interests under law is symbolised by a blindfold and weighing scales For other senses of this word, see Law (disambiguation). ... [] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the Federal State (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ... Christian Fürchtegott Gellert (July 4, 1715 - December 13, 1769) was a German poet. ... North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781), writer, philosopher, publicist, and art critic, was one of the most outstanding German representatives of the Enlightenment era. ... Christoph Martin Wieland (September 5, 1733 _ January 20, 1813), was a German poet and writer. ... Sculptures depicting the events at Auerbachs Keller at the cellars entrance in Mädlerpassage Auerbachs Keller (Auerbachs Cellar in English) is the best known and second oldest restaurant in Leipzig. ... Dr. Johann Georg Faust (approx. ... Faust: The First Part of the Tragedy is the first part of Goethes Faust. ...


Frankfurt/Strasbourg (1768-1770)

In Frankfurt, Goethe became severely ill. During the year and a half which followed, because of several relapses, the relationship with his father worsened. During convalescence, Goethe was nursed by his mother and sister. Bored in bed, he wrote an impudent crime comedy. In April 1770, his father lost his patience; Goethe left Frankfurt in order to finish his studies in Strasbourg. City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Alsace Department Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ...


In Alsace, Goethe blossomed. No other landscape has he described as affectionately as the warm, wide Rhine area. In Strasbourg, Goethe met Johann Gottfried Herder, who happened to be in town on the occasion of an eye operation. The two became close friends, and crucially to Goethe's intellectual development, it was Herder who kindled his interest in Shakespeare, Ossian, and in the notion of Volkspoesie (folk poetry). On a trip to the village Sesenheim, Goethe fell in love with Friederike Brion. But after a couple of weeks, he ended the relationship. Several of his poems, like Willkommen und Abschied, Sesenheimer Lieder and Heideröslein, originate from this time. Location Administration Capital Strasbourg Regional President Adrien Zeller (UMP) (since 1996) Départements Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2005 est. ... Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried von Herder (August 25, 1744 – December 18, 1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher, is best known for his influence on authors such as Goethe and the role he played in the development of the larger cultural movement known as romanticism. ...


Despite being based on his own ideas, his legal thesis was published uncensored. Shortly after, he was offered a career in the French government. Goethe rejected – he did not want to commit himself, but to remain an "original genius". Look up thesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ...


Frankfurt and Darmstadt (1771)

At the end of August 1771, Goethe was certified as a licensee in Frankfurt. He wanted to make the jurisdiction progressively more humane. In his first cases, he proceeded too vigorously, was reprimanded and lost the passion. This prematurely terminated his career as a lawyer after only a few months. At this time, Goethe was acquainted with the court of Darmstadt, where his inventiveness was praised. From this milieu came Johann Georg Schlosser (who was later to become his brother-in-law) and Johann Heinrich Merck. Goethe also pursued literary plans again; this time, his father did not have anything against it, and even helped. Goethe got hands on the biography of a noble highwayman from the Peasants' War. In a couple of weeks, the biography was converted into a colourful picture book. The work, called "Götz von Berlichingen", went straight to the heart of his contemporaries. A licensee is a term used in the law of torts to describe a person who is on the property of another, despite the fact that the property is not open to the general public, because the owner of the property has allowed the licensee to enter. ... In law, jurisdiction (from the Latin jus, juris meaning law and dicere meaning to speak) is the practical authority granted to a formally constituted legal body or to a political leader to deal with and make pronouncements on legal matters and, by implication, to administer justice within a defined area... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... Darmstadt is a city in the Bundesland (federal state) of Hessen in Germany. ... Look up brother-in-law in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Johann Heinrich Merck (April 11, 1741 - June 27, 1791), German author and critic, was born at Darmstadt, a few days after the death of his father, a chemist. ... This is an article on biographies. ... // Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... Folk image of a mounted highwayman This page is about the criminal occupation of highwayman, for groups of that name, see The Highwaymen. ... The Peasants War (in German, der Deutsche Bauernkrieg) was a popular revolt in the Holy Roman Empire in the years 1524/1525. ... A picture book is a popular form of illustrated literature—more precisely, a book with pictures in it—popularized in the 20th century Western world. ...


Professional and later life (1772-1832)

Goethe. Painting by Josef Stieler, 1828.

Goethe could not subsist on being one of the editors of a literary periodical (published by Schlosser and Merck). In May 1772, he once more began the practice of law at Wetzlar. At the invitation of Carl August, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, he went, in 1775, to live in Weimar where he held a succession of political offices, even becoming the Duke's chief adviser. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (542x800, 143 KB) Description: Oil painting of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) by Josef Stieler, 1828. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (542x800, 143 KB) Description: Oil painting of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) by Josef Stieler, 1828. ... 1820 portrait of Ludwig van Beethoven by Joseph Karl Stieler. ... Merck may refer to: Merck & Co. ... Wetzlar is a town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of the Lahn-Dill district. ... Carl August (3 September 1757 - 14 June 1828) was the duke of Saxe-Weimar from 1758, duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach from its creation in 1809, and grand-duke from 1815 until his death. ... For the locality in Texas called Weimar see Weimar, Texas, there is also Weimar bei Kassel and Weimar in Marburg-Biedenkopf. ...


His first Qur'an studies of 1771/1772 and the later ones are in the Goethe and Schiller-Archive in Weimar. Goethe read the German translation of Qur'an by J. v. Hammer (possibly as well the more prosaic English translation of G. Sale) aloud in front of members of the Duke's family in Weimar and their guests. Being witnesses, Schiller and his wife reported about the reading. [2] Goethe's positive attitude towards Islam goes far beyond anyone in Germany before. On 24 February 1816, he wrote, "The poet [Goethe]... does not refuse the suspicion that he himself is a Muslim."[3] The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎, literally the recitation; also called The Noble Qurān; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran), is the central religious text of Islam. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Later life

He was ennobled in 1782. His journey to the Italian peninsula from 1786 to 1788 was of great significance for his later aesthetical and philosophical development, as was his admission in 1782 that he was "a decided non-Christian".[4] His diaries of this period form the basis of the non-fiction Italian Journey. In the autumn of 1792, Goethe took part in the battle of Valmy against revolutionary France, assisting Duke Carl August of Saxe-Weimar during the failed invasion of France. Again during the Siege of Mainz he assisted Carl August as a military observer. In 1794 Friedrich Schiller wrote to Goethe offering friendship, which lasted until the former's death in 1805; they had previously had a wary acquaintance since 1788. In 1806, he married Christiane Vulpius. By 1820, he was on friendly terms with Kaspar Maria von Sternberg. From 1794, he devoted himself chiefly to literature and after a life of immense productivity, died while in Weimar, in 1832. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity. ... Italian Journey (in the German original: Italienische Reise) is Johann Wolfgang von Goethes report on a his 1786–1787 travels to Italy, published in 1816–1817. ... Combatants France Prussia Commanders Dumouriez Kellermann Duke of Brunswick Strength 47,000 35,000 Casualties 300 184 The Battle of Valmy (September 20, 1792) saw the inexperienced armies of revolutionary France drive out an invading allied army. ... The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a vital period in the history of France and Europe as a whole. ... Carl August (3 September 1757 - 14 June 1828) was the duke of Saxe-Weimar from 1758, duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach from its creation in 1809, and grand-duke from 1815 until his death. ... Saxe-Weimar (German Sachsen-Weimar) was a Duchy in Thuringia. ... Combatants First French Republic Kingdom of Prussia Austria (Habsburg) Electorate of Saxony Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel Electoral Palatinate Duchy of Saxe-Weimar Commanders General Ignace dOyré Alexandre de Beauharnais Field marshal von Kalckreuth Duke of Brunswick Strength 23,000 184 cannons 36,000 later 44... Friedrich Schiller Schiller redirects here. ... Christiane Vulpius ( 1765-1816 ) was the mistress and wife of Goethe. ... K.M. Count Sternberg Kaspar Maria von Sternberg (also: Caspar Maria, Count Sternberg, German: Kaspar Maria Graf Sternberg, Czech: hrabě Kašpar Maria Šternberk), 1761–1838, was a Bohemian theologian, mineralogist, geognost and botanist. ... For the locality in Texas called Weimar see Weimar, Texas, there is also Weimar bei Kassel and Weimar in Marburg-Biedenkopf. ...


Siege of Weimar

In 1806, Goethe was living in Weimar with his mistress Christiane Vulpius, the sister of Christian A. Vulpius, and their son August. On October 13, Napoleon's army invaded the town. The French "spoon guards", the least-disciplined soldiers, occupied Goethe's house. Christiane Vulpius ( 1765-1816 ) was the mistress and wife of Goethe. ... Christian August Vulpius (January 23, 1762 - June 25, 1827), German author, was born at Weimar, and was educated at Jena and Erlangen. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...

The 'spoon guards' had broken in, they had drunk wine, made a great uproar and called for the master of the house. Goethe's secretary Riemer reports: 'Although already undressed and wearing only his wide nightgown … he descended the stairs towards them and inquired what they wanted from him … . His dignified figure, commanding respect, and his spiritual mien seemed to impress even them.' But it was not to last long. Late at night they burst into his bedroom with drawn bayonets. Goethe was petrified, Christiane raised a lot of noise and even tangled with them, other people who had taken refuge in Goethe's house rushed in, and so the marauders eventually withdrew again. It was Christiane who commanded and organized the defense of the house on the Frauenplan. The barricading of the kitchen and the cellar against the wild pillaging soldiery was her work. Goethe noted in his diary: "Fires, rapine, a frightful night … Preservation of the house through steadfastness and luck." The luck was Goethe's, the steadfastness was displayed by Christiane.

Schopenhauer and the Wild Years of Philosophy, Ch. 5

[5]


The next day, Goethe legitimized their relationship by marrying Christiane in a quiet marriage service at the court chapel.


Works

Walk of Ideas (Germany) - built in 2006 to commemorate Johannes Gutenberg's invention, c. 1445, of movable printing type.
Walk of Ideas (Germany) - built in 2006 to commemorate Johannes Gutenberg's invention, c. 1445, of movable printing type.

The most important of Goethe's works produced before he went to Weimar were his tragedy Götz von Berlichingen (1773), which was the first work to bring him fame, and the novel The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774), which gained him enormous popularity as a writer in the Sturm und Drang movement. During the years at Weimar before he met Schiller he began Wilhelm Meister, wrote the dramas Iphigenie auf Tauris (Iphigenia in Tauris), Egmont, Torquato Tasso, and Reineke Fuchs. The following is a list of the major publications of Johann Wolfgang Goethe. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 43 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Book User:Sadi Carnot Walk of Ideas Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 43 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Book User:Sadi Carnot Walk of Ideas Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... The Walk of Ideas is a set of six sculptures made on the on the occasion of 2006 FIFA World Cup Germany in Berlin unveiled on April 21, 2006 at Bebelplatz square near the Unterden Linden in front of Humboldt University. ... Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (c. ... An 18th Century engraving of Götz von Berlichingen. ... The Sorrows of Young Werther (German, Die Leiden des jungen Werther, originally published as Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) is a loosely autobiographical novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, first published in 1774. ... Sturm und Drang (literally: storm and stress) was a Germany literary movement that developed during the latter half of the 18th century. ... Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (November 10, 1759 - May 9, 1805), usually known as Friedrich Schiller, was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and dramatist. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe   Johann Wolfgang von Goethe? (pronounced [gø tÉ™]) (August 28, 1749 – March 22, 1832) was a German novelist, dramatist, humanist, scientist, philosopher, and he conducted his civic services as a cabinet minister of Weimar. ... Egmont is a play by Goethe telling the tale of the 16th century Flemish Count of Egmont who is sentenced to death by the occupying Spaniards. ... Torquato Tasso (March 11, 1544 – April 25, 1595) was an Italian poet of the 16th century, best known for his poem La Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered; 1575), in which he describes the imaginary combats between Christians and Muslims at the end of the First Crusade, during the siege of Jerusalem. ...


To the period of his friendship with Schiller belong the continuation of Wilhelm Meister, the idyll of Hermann and Dorothea, and the Roman Elegies. In the last period, between Schiller's death, in 1805, and his own, appeared Faust, Elective Affinities, his pseudo-autobiographical Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit (From my Life: Poetry and Truth), his Italian Journey, much scientific work, and a series of treatises on German art. His writings were immediately influential in literary and artistic circles. An idyll is a short poem, descriptive of rustic life, written in the style of Theocrituss short pastoral poems, the Idylls. ... Hermann and Dorothea is an epic 1798 poem by German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. ... The Römische Elegien, or Roman Elegies, is a series of poems by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. ... It has been suggested that Faust Part One, Faust Part Two be merged into this article or section. ... Elective Affinities (in German, Die Wahlverwandtschaften) is an 1809 novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. ... Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit (Out of my Life: Poetry and Truth) (1811-1833) (note: the German word Dichtung also means fiction in English, which indicates through an ingenious ambiguity a humourous notion that perhaps not all aspects are unfolded truthfully therein), is a story related in part to... Italian Journey (in the German original: Italienische Reise) is Johann Wolfgang von Goethes report on a his 1786–1787 travels to Italy, published in 1816–1817. ...


In addition to his literary work, Goethe also contributed significant work to the sciences. In biology, his theory of plant metamorphosis stipulated that all plant formation stems from a modification of the leaf; during his Italian journey (1786-1788), in July 1787, he writes as the first indication of this idea:

Furthermore I must confess to you that I have nearly discovered the secret of plant generation and structure, and that it is the simplest thing imaginable.... Namely it had become apparent to me that in the plant organ which we ordinarily call the leaf a true Proteaus is concealed, who can hide and reveal himself in all sorts of configurations. From top to bottom a plant is all leaf, united so inseparably with the future bud that one cannot be imagined without the other.

He is credited with the discovery of the intermaxillary bone in humans, during 1784; however, Broussonet (1779) and Vicq d'Azyr (1780) had identified the same structure several years earlier.[6]


Although it was never well received by scientists due to its apparent conflict with Newton's theory of light, against which Goethe fulminated, Goethe considered his Theory of Colours to be his most important work. Although much of his position within this field is often blurred by misconceptions among both his detractors and eulogizers,[7] based upon his experiments with prismatic colors Goethe characterized color as arising from the dynamic interplay of darkness and light, and standing between their polar qualities: Theory of Colours (original German title, Zur Farbenlehre) is a book published by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in 1810. ...

...they maintained that shade is a part of light. It sounds absurd when I express it; but so it is: for they said that colours, which are shadow and the result of shade, are light itself, or, which amounts to the same thing, are the beams of light, broken now in one way, now in another.[8]

He also regarded light's physical nature, physiological effects (including the afterimages induced in the eye), and psychological effects as interrelated phenomena. In the twentieth century, Goethe's Theory of Colours influenced the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein's Remarks on Colour, Werner Heisenberg and Max Planck have indicated the accuracy and suggestiveness of many of Goethe's scientific statements, and it has had a tremendous impact in other fields.[7] Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ) (April 26, 1889 – April 29, 1951) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking works to contemporary philosophy, primarily on the foundations of logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mind. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics, and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947) was a German physicist. ...


Key works

Statues of Goethe and Schiller, Weimar.
Statues of Goethe and Schiller, Weimar.

The following list of key works may give a sense of the scope of the impact his work had on his and modern times. Download high resolution version (524x753, 69 KB)from de: see [1] (in German) for copyright details File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (524x753, 69 KB)from de: see [1] (in German) for copyright details File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (November 10, 1759 - May 9, 1805), usually known as Friedrich Schiller, was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and dramatist. ... The city hall Goethe and Schiller in front of the Deutsche Nationaltheater Weimar is a city in Germany. ...


The short epistolary novel, Die Leiden des jungen Werthers, or The Sorrows of Young Werther, published in 1774, recounts an unhappy romantic infatuation that ends in suicide. Goethe admitted that he "shot his hero to save himself"--a reference to Goethe's own near-suicidal obsession with a young woman at the time, an obsession he quelled through the writing process. The novel remains in print in dozens of languages, and its influence is undeniable; its central hero, a Hamlet-like figure tortured by his unrequited love for the young Lotte, has become a pervasive literary archetype. The fact that Werther ends with the protagonist's suicide and funeral—a funeral which "no clergyman attended"—made the book deeply controversial upon its (anonymous) publication, for it seemed to condone suicide. One would have expected a clergyman to attend the funeral service and condemn an act considered to be sinful by Christian doctrine. Epistolary novels were common during this time, letter-writing being people's primary mode of communication. What set Goethe's book apart from other such novels was its expression of unbridled longing for a joy beyond possibility, its sense of defiant rebellion against authority, and, above all, its total subjectivity—qualities that pointed the way toward the Romantic movement. Titlepage of Aphra Behns Love-Letters (1684) An epistolary novel is written as a series of documents. ... The Sorrows of Young Werther (German, Die Leiden des jungen Werther, originally published as Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) is a loosely autobiographical novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, first published in 1774. ...


The next work, his epic closet drama Faust, was to be completed in stages, and only published in its entirety after his death. The first part was published in 1808 and created a sensation. The first operatic version, by Spohr, appeared in 1814, and was subsequently the inspiration for operas by Gounod, Boito, and Busoni, as well as symphonies by Liszt, Wagner, and Mahler. Faust became the ur-myth of many figures in the 19th century. Later, a facet of its plot, i.e., of selling one's soul to the devil for power over the physical world, took on increasing literary importance and became a view of the victory of technology and of industrialism, along with its dubious human expenses. In 1919, the Goetheanum staged the world premiere of a complete production of Faust. On occasion, the play is still staged in Germany and other parts around the world. A closet drama is a play that is not intended to be performed onstage. ... It has been suggested that Faust Part One, Faust Part Two be merged into this article or section. ... Louis Spohr as a young man: a self-portrait Louis Spohr (April 5, 1784 - October 22, 1859) was a German composer, violinist and conductor. ... Categories: Stub | 1818 births | 1893 deaths | Opera composers | Romantic composers | French musicians ... Arrigo Boito (February 24, 1842 – June 10, 1918) was an Italian poet, novelist and composer, best known today for his opera libretti and his own opera, Mefistofele. ... Dante Michaelangelo Benvenuto Ferruccio Busoni (April 1, 1866 – July 27, Italian composer, pianist, music teacher and conductor. ... Franz Liszt (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a virtuoso pianist and composer. ... Wagner may refer to more than one place in the United States: Wagner, South Dakota Wagner, Wisconsin Wagner may refer to more than one person: Richard Wagner, German composer Cosima Wagner, daughter of Franz Liszt and wife of Richard Wagner Heinrich Leopold Wagner, dramatist and author John Peter Honus Wagner... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Goetheanum is a center for the anthroposophical movement in Dornach, Switzerland. ... Premiere, from French language première meaning first, generally means a first performance. Premieres for theatrical, musical, and other productions are often extravagant affairs, attracting large numbers of socialites and much media attention. ...


Goethe's poetic work served as a model for an entire movement in German poetry termed Innerlichkeit ("introversion") and represented by, for example, Heine. Goethe's words inspired a number of compositions by, among others, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Berlioz, and Wolf. Perhaps the single most influential piece is "Mignon's Song" which opens with one of the most famous lines in German poetry, an allusion to Italy: "Kennst du das Land, wo die Zitronen blühn?" ("Do you know the land where the lemons bloom?"). Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (born as Harry [Hebrew: Chaim] Heine December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was one of the most significant German poets. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (baptized as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart; January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and highly influential composer of Classical music. ... Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer of Classical music, the predominant musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. ... Franz Peter Schubert (January 31, 1797 – November 19, 1828) was an Austrian composer. ... Portrait of Berlioz by Signol, 1832 Louis Hector Berlioz (December 11, 1803 – March 8, 1869) was a French Romantic composer best known for the Symphonie Fantastique, first performed in 1830, and for his Requiem of 1837, with its tremendous resources that include four antiphonal brass choirs. ... Photograph of Hugo Wolf Hugo Wolf (March 13, 1860 – February 22, 1903) was an Austrian composer of Slovene origin, particularly noted for his art songs, or Lieder. ...

Goethe in the Roman Campagna (1786) by Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein. Oil on canvas, 164 x 206 cm. Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt.
Goethe in the Roman Campagna (1786) by Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein. Oil on canvas, 164 x 206 cm. Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt.

He is also widely quoted. Epigrams such as "Against criticism a man can neither protest nor defend himself; he must act in spite of it, and then it will gradually yield to him", "Divide and rule, a sound motto; unite and lead, a better one", and "Enjoy when you can, and endure when you must", are still in usage or are paraphrased. Lines from Faust, such as "Das also war des Pudels Kern", "Das ist der Weisheit letzter Schluss", or "Grau ist alle Theorie" have entered everyday German usage. Although a doubtful success of Goethe in this field, the famous line from the drama Götz von Berlichingen ("Er kann mich im Arsche lecken": "He can lick my arse") has become a vulgar idiom in many languages, and shows Goethe's deep cultural impact extending across social, national, and linguistic borders. It may be taken as another measure of Goethe's fame that other well-known quotations, such as Hippocrates' "Art is long, life is short", which is also found in his Wilhelm Meister, is usually forgotten to be originally associated with Hippocrates. (In the final chapter of Book VII in Wilhelm Meister, Goethe quotes Hippocrates, but inverts it. In the original, Hippocrates wrote that life is long and art is short.) ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1600, 458 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt Goethes in der Campagna Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 164 × 206 cm Country of origin: de: Deutschland Current location (city): de: Frankfurt am Main Current location (gallery): de: Städelsches Kunstinstitut... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1600, 458 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt Goethes in der Campagna Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 164 × 206 cm Country of origin: de: Deutschland Current location (city): de: Frankfurt am Main Current location (gallery): de: Städelsches Kunstinstitut... Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein, also known as Goethe-Tischbein (15 February 1751–26 February 1829) was a German painter. ... Hippocrates of Cos II. or Hippokrates of Kos (c. ...


Eroticism

Many of Goethe's works depict homoerotic and generally erotic occurrences, such as in Wilhelm Meister, Faust, Götz von Berlichingen, the Roman Elegies, and the Venetian Epigrams, though these have often been explained away or ignored. This is partly due to how some in the past and to this day view sexuality and its nuances. For example, in 1999, Karl Hugo Pruys' book The Tiger's Tender Touch: The Erotic Life of Goethe caused national controversy in Germany when it formalized the possibility of Goethe's homosexuality, tentatively deduced from Goethe's writings, for mainstream debate. In actuality, however, the perennial sexual portraitures and allusions in his work may in fact stem from one of the many effects of his profoundly eye-opening sojourn in Italy, where men, who shunned the prevalence of women's venereal diseases and unconscionable conditions, embraced homosexuality as a solution that was not widely imitated outside of Italy. Whatever the case, Goethe clearly saw sexuality, in general, as a topic that merited poetic and artistic depiction which went against the thought of his time, when the very private nature of sexuality was rigorously enforced, and makes him appear much more modern and—in the terms of Weimar ClassicismGreek than he is typically thought to be.[9] Eroticism is an aesthetic focused on sexual desire, especially the feelings of anticipation of sexual activity. ... Wilhelm Meisters Apprenticeship (in German, Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre) was a 1795 novel by Goethe. ... It has been suggested that Faust Part One, Faust Part Two be merged into this article or section. ... An 18th Century engraving of Götz von Berlichingen. ... The Römische Elegien, or Roman Elegies, is a series of poems by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual and romantic attraction between two individuals of the same sex. ... This article is about the issues and phenomena pertaining to human sexual function and behavior. ... Weimar Classicism is, as many historians and scholars argue, a disputed literary movement that took place in Germany and Continental Europe. ...


Historical importance

It is very difficult to overstate the importance of Goethe on the 19th century. In many respects, he was the originator of—or at least the first to cogently express—many ideas which would later become familiar. Goethe produced volumes of poetry, essays, criticism, and scientific work, including a theory of optics and early work on evolution and linguistics. He was fascinated by minerals and early mineralogy (the mineral goethite is named for him). His non-fiction writings, most of which are philosophic and aphoristic in nature, spurred on the development of many philosophers, such as G.W.F. Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrich Nietzsche, Ernst Cassirer, Rudolf Steiner, and others, and of various literary movements, such as romanticism. He embodied many of the contending strands in art over the next century: his work could be lushly emotional, and rigorously formal, brief and epigrammatic, and epic. He would argue that classicism was the means to controlling art, and that romanticism was a sickness, even as he penned poetry rich in memorable images, and rewrote the formal rules of German poetry. Table of Opticks, 1728 Cyclopaedia Optics ( appearance or look in ancient Greek) is a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light and the interaction of light with matter. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... Goethite is an iron bearing oxide mineral found in soil and other low temperature environments. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860, [1] IPA: ) was a German philosopher, often considered a pessimist. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a German philologist and philosopher. ... Ernst Cassirer (July 28, 1874 – April 13, 1945) was a German philosopher. ... Rudolf Steiner. ... Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... Classicism door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic Teatr Wielki in Warsaw Church La Madeleine in Paris Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicist seeks to emulate. ... Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ...


His poetry was set to music by almost every major Austrian and German composer from Mozart to Mahler, and his influence would spread to French drama and opera as well. Beethoven declared that a "Faust" Symphony would be the greatest thing for Art. Liszt and Mahler both created symphonies in whole or in large part inspired by this seminal work which would give the 19th century one of its most paradigmatic figures: Doctor Faustus. The Faust tragedy/drama, often called "Das Drama der Deutschen" (the drama of Germans), written in two parts published decades apart, would stand as his most characteristic and famous artistic creation. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (baptized as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart; January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and highly influential composer of Classical music. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Doctor Faustus could refer to: The character of Faust Christopher Marlowes The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus Thomas Manns Doktor Faustus Ferruccio Busonis opera Doktor Faust A 1967 film directed by Richard Burton and Nevill Coghill, see Doctor Faustus (movie) This is a disambiguation page — a... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Goethe was also a cultural force, and by researching folk traditions, he created many of the norms for celebrating Christmas, and argued that the organic nature of the land moulded the people and their customs—an argument that has recurred ever since, including recently in the work of Jared Diamond. He argued that laws could not be created by pure rationalism, since geography and history shaped habits and patterns. This stood in sharp contrast to the prevailing Enlightenment view that reason was sufficient to create well-ordered societies and good laws. Christmas or Christmas Day is an annual holiday that marks the traditional birthdate of Jesus of Nazareth. ... Jared Mason Diamond (born 10 September 1937) is an American evolutionary biologist, physiologist, biogeographer and nonfiction author. ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ...


Influence

Goethe's influence was dramatic because he understood that there was a transition in European sensibilities, an increasing focus on sense, the indescribable, and the emotional. This is not to say that he was emotionalistic or excessive; on the contrary, he lauded personal restraint and felt that excess was a disease: "There is nothing worse than imagination without taste". He argued in his scientific works that a "formative impulse", which he said is operative in every organism, causes an organism to form itself according to its own distinct laws, and therefore rational laws or fiats could not be imposed at all from a higher, transcendent sphere; this placed him in direct opposition to those who attempted to form "enlightened" monarchies based on "rational" laws by, for example, Joseph II of Austria or, the subsequent Emperor of the French, Napoleon I. A quotation from his Scientific Studies will suffice: Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (Joseph Benedict August Johannes Anton Michel Adam) (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...

We conceive of the individual animal as a small world, existing for its own sake, by its own means. Every creature is its own reason to be. All its parts have a direct effect on one another, a relationship to one another, thereby constantly renewing the circle of life; thus we are justified in considering every animal physiologically perfect. Viewed from within, no part of the animal is a useless or arbitrary product of the formative impulse (as so often thought). Externally, some parts may seem useless because the inner coherence of the animal nature has given them this form without regard to outer circumstance. Thus...[not] the question, What are they for? but rather, Where do they come from?

—Suhrkamp ed., vol 12, p. 121; trans. Douglas Miller, Scientific Studies

This change would later become the basis for 19th century thought—organic rather than geometrical, evolving rather than created, and based on sensibility and intuition, rather than on imposed order, culminating in, as he said, a "living quality" wherein the subject and object are dissolved together in a poise of inquiry. Consequently, he embraced neither teleological nor deterministic views of growth within every organism. Instead, the world as a whole grows through continual, external, and internal strife. Moreover, he did not embrace the mechanistic views that contemporaneous science subsumed during his time, and therewith he denied rationality's superiority as the sole interpretation of reality. Furthermore, he declared that all knowledge is related to humanity through its functional value alone and that knowledge presupposes a perspectival quality. He also stated that the fundamental nature of the world is aesthetic. Teleology is the philosophical study of purpose (from the Greek teleos, perfect, complete, which in turn comes from telos, end, result). ... The term deterministic may refer to: the more general notion of determinism from philosophy, see determinism a type of algorithm as discussed in computer science, see deterministic algorithm scientific determinism as used by Karl Popper and Stephen Hawking deterministic system in mathematics deterministic system in philosophy deterministic finite state machine... In philosophy, mechanism is a theory that all natural phenomena can be explained by physical causes. ... Perspectivism is the philosophical view that all perception takes place from a specific perspective. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ...


His views make him, along with Adam Smith, Thomas Jefferson, and Ludwig van Beethoven, a figure in two worlds: on one hand, devoted to the sense of taste, order, and finely crafted detail, which is the hallmark of the artistic sense of the Age of Reason and the neo-classicistic period of architecture; on the other, seeking a personal, intuitive, and personalized form of expression and polity, firmly supporting the idea of self-regulating and organic systems. Thinkers such as Ralph Waldo Emerson would take up many similar ideas in the 1800s. His ideas on evolution would frame the question which Darwin and Wallace would approach within the scientific paradigm. For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... This article is becoming very long. ... 1820 portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler Beethoven redirects here. ... The Age of Reason is either Thomas Paines book The Age of Reason. ... The neoclassical movement that produced Neoclassical architecture began in the mid-18th century, both as a reaction against the Rococo style of anti-tectonic naturalistic ornament, and an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... Charles Robert Darwin (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an eminent English naturalist who achieved lasting fame by convincing the scientific community that species develop over time from a common origin. ... Alfred Russel Wallace Alfred Russel Wallace, OM, FRS (January 8, 1823 – November 7, 1913) was a British naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist and biologist. ...


To appreciate the genius of Goethe, one does not have to go through all his works, but just have a glance at some of his quotations which reveal his great insights.


Notes and references

  1. ^ Psychologist Catharine M. Cox, in her 1926 Early Mental Traits of Three Hundred Geniuses, speculatively estimated Goethe's IQ at 210, the highest score that she assigned.
  2. ^ Schiller's letter to Knebel, 22.2.1815
  3. ^ WA I, 41, 86
  4. ^ Letter to Johann Caspar Lavater, 29 July 1782
  5. ^ Safranski, Rüdiger, Schopenhauer and the Wild Years of Philosophy, Harvard University Press, 1990, ISBN 0-674-79275-0
  6. ^ K. Barteczko and M. Jacob (1999). "A re-evaluation of the premaxillary bone in humans". Anatomy and Embryology 207 (6): 417–437.
  7. ^ a b R. H. Stephenson, Goethe's Conception of Knowledge and Science (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1995)
  8. ^ Conversations with Eckermann, entry: 4 January 1824; trans. Wallace Wood
  9. ^ Outing Goethe and His Age; edited by Alice A. Kuzniar

Catharine Morris Cox Miles (born 1890, died approximately 1965) was an American psychologist known for her work on intelligence and genius. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ... July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

See also

The following is a list of the major publications of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. ... Christiane Friederike Wilhelmine Minna (Minchen) Herzlieb (May 22, 1789, Züllichau/Sulechów, Lower Silesia - July 10, 1865, Görlitz) was a German female publisher, and a publisher Karl Ernst Friedrch Frommann (1765-1839). ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Johann Wolfgang Goethe
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NAME Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Goethe, Johann Wolfgang
SHORT DESCRIPTION German philosopher, poet, and writer
DATE OF BIRTH 28 August 1749
PLACE OF BIRTH Frankfurt
DATE OF DEATH 22 March 1832
PLACE OF DEATH Weimar, Germany

((am:Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe)) Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... Image File history File links Socrates. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Main Station Frankfurt Frankfurt International Airport For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (82nd in leap years). ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For the locality in Texas called Weimar see Weimar, Texas, there is also Weimar bei Kassel and Weimar in Marburg-Biedenkopf. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (1176 words)
Goethe’s lyric poems for Friederike Brion, daughter of the pastor of nearby Sesenheim, were written at this time as new texts for folk-song melodies.
Goethe’s exquisite lyrical poems, often inspired by existing songs, challenged contemporary composers to give their best in music, and such songs as “Nur wer die Sehnsucht kennt” [only the lonely heart], “Kennst du das Land” [know’st thou the land], and Erlkönig were among the song texts most often set to music.
Goethe’s aim was to make his life a concrete example of the full range of human potential, and he succeeded as few others did.
Goethe - MSN Encarta (1200 words)
Goethe’s poetry expresses a modern view of humanity’s relationship to nature, history, and society; his plays and novels reflect a profound understanding of human individuality.
Goethe’s importance can be judged by the influence of his critical writings, his vast correspondence, and his poetry, dramas, and novels upon the writers of his own time and upon the literary movements which he inaugurated and of which he was the chief figure.
Herder also taught Goethe to appreciate the plays of Shakespeare, in which the classic unities are largely discarded for the sake of direct emotional expression; and to realize the value of German folk poetry and German Gothic architecture as sources of inspiration for German literature.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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