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Encyclopedia > Johann Nepomuk Hummel
Johann Nepomuk Hummel
Johann Nepomuk Hummel

Johann Nepomuk Hummel or Jan Nepomuk Hummel (14 November 177817 October 1837) was a composer and virtuoso pianist of Austrian origin who was born in Pressburg (present-day Bratislava, Slovakia). His music reflects the transition from the Classical to the Romantic musical era. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1778 (MDCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... A pianist is a person who plays the piano. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907 Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from 1820 to 1900, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ...

Contents

Life

Hummel was born in Pressburg (now Bratislava), Slovakia. His father, Josef Hummel, was the director of the Imperial School of Military Music in Vienna and the conductor there of Schikaneder's Theater Orchestra. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart offered the boy music lessons at the age of eight after being impressed with his ability. Hummel was taught and housed by Mozart for two years free of charge and made his first concert appearance at the age of nine, at one of Mozart's concerts. Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907 Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... Emanuel Schikaneder (Straubing, September 9, 1751 – September 21, 1812, Vienna), born Johann Joseph Schikaneder, was an Austrian impresario, dramatist, actor, and singer. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ...


Hummel's father then led him on a European tour, arriving in London, where he received instruction from Muzio Clementi and stayed for four years before returning to Vienna. In 1791, Franz Joseph Haydn, who was in London at the same time as young Hummel, composed a sonata in A flat for Hummel, who played its premiere in the Hanover Square Rooms in Haydn's presence. When Hummel finished, Haydn reportedly thanked the young man and gave him a guinea. Muzio Clementi (January 24, 1752 – March 10, 1832) was a classical composer, and acknowledged as the first to write specifically for the piano. ... (Franz) Joseph Haydn (in German, Josef; he never used the Franz) (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was a leading composer of the classical period. ... A piano sonata is a sonata written for unaccompanied piano. ...


The outbreak of the French Revolution and the following Terror caused Hummel to cancel a planned tour through Spain and France. Instead he concertized his way back to Vienna. Upon Hummel's return to Vienna he was taught by Johann Georg Albrechtsberger, Haydn, and Antonio Salieri. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Johann Georg Albrechtsberger (February 3, 1736 - March 7, 1809) was an Austrian musician who was born at Klosterneuburg, near Vienna. ... Antonio Salieri Antonio Salieri (August 18, 1750 – May 7, 1825), was an Italian composer and conductor. ...


At about this time, young Ludwig van Beethoven arrived in Vienna and took lessons from Haydn and Albrechtsberger, becoming a fellow student and a friend. Beethoven's arrival was said to have nearly destroyed Hummel's self-confidence, though he recovered without much harm. Despite the fact that Hummel's friendship with Beethoven was often marked by ups and downs, the mutual friendship developed into reconciliation and respect. Before Beethoven's death, Hummel visited him in Vienna on several occasions, with his wife Elisabeth and pupil Ferdinand Hiller. Following Beethoven's wishes, Hummel improvised at the great man's memorial concert. It was at this event that Hummel became good friends with Franz Schubert. Schubert dedicated his last three piano sonatas to Hummel. However, since both composers were dead by the time of the sonatas' first publication, the publishers changed the dedication to Robert Schumann, who was still active at the time. “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Ferdinand Hiller (October 24, 1811 - May 12, 1885), was a German composer of the romantic era. ... Schubert redirects here. ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ...

Bust of Hummel near the Deutsches Nationaltheater in Weimar
Bust of Hummel near the Deutsches Nationaltheater in Weimar

In 1804, Hummel succeeded Haydn as Kapellmeister to Prince Esterházy's establishment at Eisenstadt. He held this post for seven years before being dismissed for neglecting his duties. Following this, he toured Russia and Europe and married the opera singer Elisabeth Röckel. They had two sons. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1150, 131 KB) Beschreibung: Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Büste hinter dem Deutschen Nationaltheater Weimar, Weimar Johann Nepouk Hummel, bust behind the Deutsches Nationaltheater, Weimar, Germany Aufnahmedatum: Fotografiert am 17. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1150, 131 KB) Beschreibung: Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Büste hinter dem Deutschen Nationaltheater Weimar, Weimar Johann Nepouk Hummel, bust behind the Deutsches Nationaltheater, Weimar, Germany Aufnahmedatum: Fotografiert am 17. ... For other uses, see Weimar (disambiguation). ... A Kapellmeister is nowadays the director or conductor of an orchestra or choir. ...


Hummel later held the position of Kapellmeister at Stuttgart and Weimar, where he formed a close friendship with Goethe and Schiller, colleagues from the Weimar theater. During Hummel's stay in Weimar, he made the city into a European musical capital, inviting the best musicians of the day to visit and make music there. He started one of the first pension programs for fellow musicians, giving benefit concert tours when the musicians' retirement fund ran low. In addition, Hummel was one of the first to fight for musical copyrights against intellectual pirating. A Kapellmeister is nowadays the director or conductor of an orchestra or choir. ... For other uses, see Stuttgart (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Weimar (disambiguation). ... Goethe redirects here. ... Friedrich Schiller “Schiller” redirects here. ... A benefit concert is a concert featuring musicians, comedians, or other performers that is held for a charitable purpose, often directed at a specific and immediate humanitarian crisis. ...


Influence

While in Germany, Hummel published A Complete Theoretical and Practical Course of Instruction on the Art of Playing the Piano Forte (1828), which sold thousands of copies within days of its publication and brought about a new style of fingering and of playing ornaments. Later 19th century pianistic technique was influenced by Hummel, through his instruction of Carl Czerny who later taught Franz Liszt. Czerny had first studied with Beethoven, but upon hearing Hummel one evening, decided to give up Beethoven for Hummel. Carl Czerny, lithograph by Joseph Kriehuber, 1833 Carl Czerny (sometimes Karl; February 21, 1791 – July 15, 1857) was an Austrian pianist, composer and teacher. ... “Liszt” redirects here. ...


Hummel's influence can also be seen in the early works of Frederic Chopin and Robert Schumann, and the shadow of Hummel's Piano Concerto in B minor as well as his Piano Concerto in A minor can be particularly perceived in Chopin's concertos. This is unsurprising, considering that Chopin must have heard Hummel on one of Hummel's concert tours to Poland and Russia, and that Chopin kept Hummel's piano concertos in his active repertoire. Chopin redirects here. ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Johann Nepomuk Hummels Piano Concerto No. ... Johann Nepomuk Hummels Piano Concerto No. ...


Robert Schumann also practiced Hummel (especially the Sonata in F sharp minor, op. 81). He later applied to be a pupil to Hummel, but was rejected for his neurotic instability. Liszt would have liked to study with Hummel, but Liszt's father Adam refused to pay the high tuition fee Hummel was used to charging (thus Liszt ended up studying with Czerny). Czerny, Friedrich Silcher, Ferdinand Hiller, Sigismond Thalberg, Felix Mendelssohn and Adolf von Henselt were among Hummel's most prominent students. For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Phillipp Friedrich Silcher (June 27, 1789 - August 26, 1860), is a German Song Composer. ... Ferdinand Hiller (October 24, 1811 - May 12, 1885), was a German composer of the romantic era. ... Sigismond Thalberg Sigismond Thalberg[1] (Pâquis near Geneva, Switzerland, January 8, 1812 – Posillipo near Naples, Italy, April 27, 1871) was a composer and one of the most prominent virtuoso pianists of the 19th century. ... Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Statue of von Henselt in his hometown of Schwabach Adolf von Henselt (May 12, 1814 - October 10, 1889), German composer and pianist, was born at Schwabach, in Bavaria. ...


Music

Hummel's music took a different direction from that of Beethoven's. Looking forward, Hummel stepped into modernity through pieces like his Sonata in F sharp minor, opus 81, and his Fantasy, opus 18, for piano. These pieces are examples where Hummel may be seen to both challenge the classical harmonic structures and stretch the sonata form. In these two pieces, Hummel showed himself to be innovative and daring, especially considering that Op. 81 was composed five years before Beethoven's Hammerklavier sonata. However, Hummel's vision of music was not iconoclastic. The philosophy on which Hummel based his actions was to "enjoy the world by giving joy to the world". This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Sonata No. ...


His main oeuvre is for the piano, on which instrument he was one of the great virtuosi of his day. He wrote eight piano concertos, ten piano sonatas (of which four are without opus numbers, and one is still unpublished), eight piano trios, a piano quartet, a piano quintet, a wind octet, a cello sonata, two piano septets, a mandolin concert, a mandolin sonata, a Trumpet Concerto in E major (usually heard in the more convenient E flat major), four hand piano music, 22 operas and Singspiels, masses, and much more. A piano concerto is a concerto for solo piano and orchestra. ... A piano sonata is a sonata written for unaccompanied piano. ... A piano trio is a group of piano and two other instruments, almost always a violin and a cello, or a piece of music written for such a group. ... A piano quartet is a musical ensemble consisting of a piano and three other instruments, or a piece written for such a group. ... A piano quintet is a chamber musical ensemble made up of one piano and four other instruments, or the name of a piece written for such a group. ... A cello sonata usually denotes a sonata written for cello and piano, though other instrumentations are used, such as solo cello. ... Like Joseph Haydn, Johann Nepomuk Hummel wrote his Concerto a Trombe Principale (Trumpet Concerto in E Major) for Viennese trumpet virtuoso and inventer of the keyed trumpet, Anton Weidinger. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Singspiel (song-play) is a form of German-language music drama, similar to modern musical theater, though it is also referred to as a type of operetta or opera. ... The Mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the fixed portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, generally known in the US as the Episcopal Church, and also the Lutheran Church) to music. ...


The conspicuous lack of a symphony among Hummel's works may perhaps be explained by the fact that he could not follow Beethoven's innovations in that field, although that does not explain why he didn't compose a symphony in, say, the style of Haydn. It's not as if Beethoven had been an uncontested inflator of the symphonic form in his lifetime or throughout the first half of the Nineteenth Century. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... (Franz) Joseph Haydn (in German, Josef; he never used the Franz) (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was a leading composer of the classical period. ...


Last years and legacy

At the end of his life, Hummel saw the rise of a new school of young composers and virtuosi, and found his own music slowly going out of fashion. His disciplined and clean Clementi-style technique, and his balanced classicism, opposed him to the rising school of tempestuous bravura displayed by the likes of Liszt and Giacomo Meyerbeer. Composing less and less, but still highly respected and admired, Hummel died peacefully in Weimar in 1837. A freemason (like Mozart), Hummel bequeathed a considerable portion of his famous garden behind his Weimar residence to his masonic lodge. Muzio Clementi (January 24, 1752 – March 10, 1832) was a classical composer, and acknowledged as the first to write specifically for the piano. ... Giacomo Meyerbeer Giacomo Meyerbeer (September 5, 1791 – May 2, 1864) was a noted German-born opera composer, and the first great exponent of Grand Opera. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ...


Although Hummel died famous, with a lasting posthumous reputation apparently secure, his music was quickly forgotten at the onrush of the Romantic period, perhaps because his classical ideas were seen as old-fashioned. Later, during the classical revival of the early 20th century, Hummel was passed over. Like Haydn (for whom a revival had to wait until the second half of the 20th century), Hummel was overshadowed by Mozart. Due to a rising number of available recordings, and an increasing number of live concerts across the world, it seems admirers of his music are now growing again in number.


List of works

See also: List of compositions by Johann Nepomuk Hummel

For a complete list of works by Johann Nepomuk Hummel, see this list (PDF), compiled and formatted by Mr. Mikio Tao of Japan. His sources were the New Grove Dictionary of Music, as well as Zimmerschied's Thematisches Verzeichnis der Werke von Johann Nepomuk Hummel. This is a list of compositions by Johann Nepomuk Hummel (1778-1837), listed by opus number. ...


References

  • Kapellmeister Hummel in England and France. Joel Sachs, Detroit: Information Coordinators 1977.
  • Johann Nepomuk Hummel: Der Mensch und Künstler. Karl Benyovszky, Breslau: Eos-Verlag 1934.
  • Thematisches Verzeichnis der Werke von Johann Nepomuk Hummel. Dieter Zimmerschied, Hofheim am Taunus: Hofmeister 1971.
  • Die Kammermusik Johann Nepomuk Hummels Dieter Zimmerschied, Mainz: 1966.
  • Johann Nepomuk Hummel und Weimar. Komponist, Klaviervirtuose, Kapellmeister 1778-1837. Kurt Thomas, Weimar: Rat der Stadt 1987
  • Zwischen Klassik und Klassizismus. Johann Nepomuk Hummel in Wien und Weimar. Anselm Gerhard, Laurenz Lütteken (editors), Kassel: Baerenreiter 2003.
  • The Great Pianists: From Mozart to the Present. Harold Schonberg, New York: Simon & Schuster 1963. (Chapter VII: "From Ireland to Bohemia").

External links

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Johann Nepomuk Hummel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1387 words)
Johann Nepomuk Hummel or Jan Nepomuk Hummel (14 November 1778 17 October 1837) was a composer and virtuoso pianist of Austrian origin who was born in today Slovakia.
Hummel was taught and housed by Mozart for two years free of charge and made his first concert appearance at the age of nine, at one of Mozart's concerts.
Hummel's influence can also be seen in the early works of Frederic Chopin and Robert Schumann, and the shadow of Hummel's Piano Concerto in B minor as well as his Piano Concerto in A minor can be particularly perceived in Chopin's concertos.
Johann Nepomuk Hummel biography - 8notes.com (2640 words)
Johann Nepomuk Hummel or Jan Nepomuk Hummel (14 November 1778 – 17 October 1837) was an Austrian composer and virtuoso pianist of Slovak origin.
JOHANN NEPOMUK HUMMEL was born in Bratislava in 1778 and died in Weimar in 1837.
Johann Nepomuk Hummel: Trumpet Concerto Composed by Johann Nepomuk Hummel (1778-1837).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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