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Encyclopedia > Johann Heinrich Lambert
Johann Heinrich Lambert

Johann Heinrich Lambert (August 26, 1728September 25, 1777), was a mathematician, physicist and astronomer. copied from http://www. ... copied from http://www. ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). ... Events Astronomical aberration discovered by the astronomer James Bradley Swedish academy of sciences founded at Uppsala Births January 9 - Thomas Warton, English poet (d. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years). ... 1777 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A mathematician is a person whose area of study and research is mathematics. ... The word physicist should not be confused with physician, which means medical doctor. ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a scientist whose area of research is astronomy or astrophysics. ...


He was born in Mülhausen (now Mulhouse, Alsace, France). His father was a poor tailor, so Johann had to struggle to gain an education. He first worked as a clerk in an ironworks, then gained a position in a newspaper office. The editor recommended him as a tutor to a private family, which gave him access to a good library and provided enough leasure time in which to explore it. In 1759 he moved to Augsburg, then in 1763 he dwelled in Berlin. In the final decade of his life he gained the sponsorship of Frederick II of Prussia, and passed the rest of his life in reasonable comfort. He died in Berlin, Prussia (today Germany). Location within France Mulhouse (Mülhausen in German, Milhüsa in Alsatian and Muhlhausen in Dutch) is a town and commune in eastern France. ... Capital Strasbourg Area 8,280 km² Regional President Adrien Zeller Population  - 2004 estimate  - 1999 census  - Density 1,793,000 1,734,145 209/km² Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Départements Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Alsace (French: Alsace; Alsatian/German: Elsaß) is a région of France. ... A tailor is a person whose occupation is to sew clothes custom-fit to individuals, and to repair clothes. ... Editor has four major senses: a person who obtains or improves material for a publication; a film editor, a person responsible for the flow of a motion picture or television program from scene to scene a sound editor, a person responsible for the flow and choice of music, voice, and... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Augsburg is a city in south central Germany. ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Berlin (pronounced: , German ) is the capital of Germany and its largest city, with 3,426,000 inhabitants (as of January 2005); down from 4. ... See: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194-1250, emperor 1211-1250) Frederick II of Austria (?-1246, duke of Austria 1230-1246) Frederick II, Margrave of Brandenburg (1413-1470, margrave 1440-1470) Frederick II of Denmark and Norway (1534-1588, king 1559-1588) Frederick II of Prussia (1712-1786, king 1740... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen or Preussen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prūsai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia and... Berlin (pronounced: , German ) is the capital of Germany and its largest city, with 3,426,000 inhabitants (as of January 2005); down from 4. ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen or Preussen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prūsai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia and...


Lambert studied light intensity and the hyperbolic functions of trigonometry. He proved that "Pi" was an irrational number. In 1760 he published a book on light reflection in Latin, in which the word albedo was introduced. In 1761 he hypothesized that the stars near the Sun were part of a system which travelled together through the Milky Way, and that there were many such groupings throughout the galaxy. The former was later confirmed by Sir William Herschel. Prism splitting light Light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength that is visible to the eye, or in a more general sense, any electromagnetic radiation in the range from infrared to ultraviolet. ... In mathematics, the hyperbolic functions are analogs of the ordinary trigonometric, or circular, functions. ... Trigonometry (from the Greek trigonon = three angles and metro = measure) is a branch of mathematics dealing with angles, triangles and trigonometric functions such as sine and cosine. ... The minuscule, or lower-case, pi The mathematical constant π represents the ratio of a circles circumference to its diameter and is commonly used in mathematics, physics, and engineering. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Latin is the language that was originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The albedo is a measure of reflectivity of a surface or body. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A Sun is the star at the center of a solar system. ... The Milky Way (a translation of the Latin Via Lactea, in turn derived from the Greek Galaxia Kuklos) is the galaxy in which the Earth is found. ... This article is about a celestial body. ... Sir Wilhelm Friedrich Herschel (Hanover, November 15, 1738 – August 25, 1822 Slough, then in Buckinghamshire now in Berkshire) was a German-born British astronomer and composer who became famous for discovering the planet Uranus, and made many other astronomical discoveries. ...


References

  • A Short Account of the History of Mathematics, W. W. Rouse Ball, 1908.
  • Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Isaac Asimov, Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1972, ISBN 0385177712.

Dr. Isaac Asimov enthroned with symbols of his lifes work (Rowena Morrill) Isaac Asimov (c. ... See also: 1971 in literature, other events of 1972, 1973 in literature, list of years in literature. ...

See also

In optics, the Beer-Lambert law, also known as Beers law or the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law is an empirical relationship in relating the absorption of light to the properties of the material the light is travelling through. ... Lambert may be Blanche Lambert Lincoln U.S. politician Christophe Lambert, the actor Constant Lambert, the composer Daniel Lambert Eleanor Lambert George Lambert (VC) George Lambert (baritone) George Lambert (English painter) Jean Lambert the politician Johann Heinrich Lambert John Lambert the English Civil War general John Lambert, English Protestant martyr... Lamberts cosine law is the statement that the total power observed from a Lambertian surface is directly proportional to the cosine of the angle θ made by the observers line of sight and the line normal to the surface. ... In mathematics, Lamberts W function, named after Johann Heinrich Lambert, also called the Omega function, is the inverse function of f(w) = w·ew for complex numbers w; where ew is the exponential function. ... The minuscule, or lower-case, pi The mathematical constant π represents the ratio of a circles circumference to its diameter and is commonly used in mathematics, physics, and engineering. ...

External links

  • University of St Andrews' biographical entry (http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Lambert.html)
  • Entry from "A Short Account of the History of Mathematics" (http://www.maths.tcd.ie/pub/HistMath/People/Lambert/RouseBall/RB_Lambert.html).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lambert, Johann Heinrich (1728-1777) (383 words)
Lambert's Letters which reached a wider audience in eighteenth century Europe than did the works of either Wright or Kant, is also replete with the most extreme kind of speculation about extraterrestrial life.
No object in the universe, as far as Lambert was concerned, is devoid of life — and life, moreover, of every conceivable kind.
Like Wright and Kant, Lambert was driven to his extraterrestrial conclusions by the conviction that God, in his omnipotence, could not fail to populate every corner of the cosmos with all manner of beings.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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