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Encyclopedia > Johann Gutenberg

Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (c. 1398 – c. February 3, 1468) was a German metal-worker and inventor who achieved fame for his contributions to the technology of printing during 1447, including a type metal alloy and oil-based inks, a mould for casting type accurately, and a new kind of printing press based on presses used in wine-making. The exact origin of Gutenberg’s first presses is apparently unknown, and several authors cite his earliest presses as adaptations of heavier binding presses which were already in use. Tradition credits him with inventing movable type in Europe — an improvement on the block printing already in use there. By combining these elements into a production system, he allowed for the rapid printing of written materials, and an information explosion in Renaissance Europe. Yet, it must be noted that an iron printing press was first invented by Korea's Goryeo dynasty in 1234, 216 years ahead of Gutenberg's feat in 1450. [citation needed] Public Domain image from http://www. ... Events Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland destroyed. ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Baeda Maryam succeeds his father Zara Yaqob as Emperor of Ethiopia Battle of RigómezÅ‘ Births February 29 - Pope Paul III (died 1549) Juan del Encina, Spanish poet, dramatist and composer Charles I of Savoy John, Elector of Saxony (died 1532) Juan de Zumárraga, Spanish Franciscan prelate and... An inventor is a person who creates new inventions, typically technical devices such as mechanical, electrical or software devices or methods. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In traditional typography, punchcutting is the process by which matrices were made in hard metal for type founding in the early days. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... In the traditional view, the Renaissance is understood as an historical age that was preceded by the Middle Ages and followed by the Reformation. ... Korea (Hangul: 한국, Hanja: 韓國, McCune-Reischauer: Hanguk, Revised: Hanguk, or ChosŏngÅ­l : ì¡°ì„ , Hanja: 朝鮮, McCune-Reischauer: Chosŏn, Revised: Joseon) is a civilization and geographical area situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia, bordering China (PRC) to the northwest and Russia to the northeast, with Japan situated to the... The state of Goryeo ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ...

Contents


Printing

Block printing, whereby individual sheets of paper were pressed into wooden blocks with the text and illustrations carved in, was first recorded in Chinese history, and was in use in East Asia long before Gutenberg. By the 12th and 13th centuries, many Chinese libraries contained tens of thousands of printed books. The Chinese and Koreans knew about moveable metal type at the time, but because of the complexity of the Chinese writing system, movable type printing was not as widely used as in Renaissance Europe. China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... 漢字 Chinese character in hànzì, hanja, kanji. ...


It is not clear whether Gutenberg knew of these existing techniques, or invented them independently, although the former is considered unlikely because of the substantial differences in technique. Some also claim that the Dutchman Laurens Janszoon Coster was the first European to invent movable type. Statue of Laurens Janszoon Coster on the Grote Markt in Haarlem, where he was born. ...


Gutenberg certainly introduced efficient methods into book production, leading to a boom in the production of texts in Europe — in large part, owing to the popularity of the Gutenberg Bibles, the first mass-produced work, starting on February 23, 1455. Even so, Gutenberg was a poor businessman, and made little money from his printing system. The Gutenberg bible owned by the U.S. Library of Congress The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, and as the Mazarin Bible) is a print of the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible that was printed by its namesake, Johann Gutenberg, in Mainz, Germany. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... ... no changes . ...


Gutenberg began experimenting with metal typography after he had moved from his native town of Mainz to Strasbourg (then in Germany, now France) around 1430. Knowing that wood-block type involved a great deal of time and expense to reproduce, because it had to be hand-carved, Gutenberg concluded that metal type could be reproduced much more quickly once a single mould had been fashioned. City motto: – City proper (commune) Région Alsace Département Bas-Rhin (67) Mayor Fabienne Keller (UMP) (since 2001) Land area 78. ...


Gutenberg’s printed works

In 1455, Gutenberg demonstrated the power of the printing press by selling copies of a two-volume Bible (Biblia Sacra) for 300 florins each. This was the equivalent of approximately three years' wages for an average clerk, but it was significantly cheaper than a handwritten Bible that could take a single monk 20 years to transcribe. The Gutenberg Bible owned by the United States Library of Congress The Bible (Hebrew: תנ״ך tanakh, Greek: η Βίβλος hē biblos) (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Work of God, The Word, The Good Book or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βίβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, is the name used by Jews and Christians for their...


The one copy of the Biblia Sacra dated 1455 went to Paris, and was dated by the binder. (View the Gutenberg Bible)

The Gutenberg Bibles surviving today are sometimes called the oldest surviving books printed with movable type — although actually, the oldest such surviving book is the Jikji, published in Korea in 1377[citation needed]. However, it is still notable, in that the print technology that produced the Gutenberg Bible marks the beginning of a cultural revolution unlike any that followed the development of print culture in Asia. As of 2003, the Gutenberg Bible census includes 11 complete copies on vellum, 1 copy of the New Testament only on vellum, 48 substantially complete integral copies on paper, with another divided copy on paper, and an illuminated page (the Bagford fragment). Download high resolution version (925x625, 90 KB)Picture of the Gutenberg Bible owned by the US Library of Congress Taken by me on August 12, 2002. ... Download high resolution version (925x625, 90 KB)Picture of the Gutenberg Bible owned by the US Library of Congress Taken by me on August 12, 2002. ... The Great Hall interior. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... The Gutenberg bible owned by the U.S. Library of Congress The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, and as the Mazarin Bible) is a print of the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible that was printed by its namesake, Johann Gutenberg, in Mainz, Germany. ... Jikji is the abbreviated title of a Buddhist document, whose full title can be translated Baegun Hwasangs Anthology of the Great Priests Teachings on Identification of the Buddha’s Spirit by the Practice of Seon. ... Korea (Hangul: 한국, Hanja: 韓國, McCune-Reischauer: Hanguk, Revised: Hanguk, or ChosŏngÅ­l : ì¡°ì„ , Hanja: 朝鮮, McCune-Reischauer: Chosŏn, Revised: Joseon) is a civilization and geographical area situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia, bordering China (PRC) to the northwest and Russia to the northeast, with Japan situated to the... The Gutenberg bible owned by the U.S. Library of Congress The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, and as the Mazarin Bible) is a print of the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible that was printed by its namesake, Johann Gutenberg, in Mainz, Germany. ... Vellum was originally a translucent or opaque material produced from calfskin that had been soaked, limed and unhaired, and then dried at normal temperature under tension, usually on a wooden device called a stretching frame. ... See New Covenant for the concept translated as New Testament in the KJV. The New Testament (Καινή Διαθήκη), sometimes called the Greek Testament or Greek Scriptures, and sometimes also New Covenant, is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written by various authors c. ... Piece of paper Paper is a thin, flat material produced by the compression of fibers (or fibres). ...


The Gutenberg Bible lacks many print features that modern readers are accustomed to, such as pagination, word spacing, indentations, and paragraph breaks.


The Bible was not Gutenberg's first printed work, for he produced approximately two dozen editions of Ars Minor, a portion of Aelius Donatus’s schoolbook on Latin grammar. The first edition is believed to have been printed between 1451 and 1452. Aelius Donatus (fl. ...


Debt

Johann Fust extended Gutenberg 800 guilders, at the beginning of their partnership in 1436, to allow him to carry out his work. The money Gutenberg earned at the fair was not enough to repay Fust for his investments, which eventually exceeded 2000 guilders. Fust sued, and the court’s ruling not only effectively bankrupted Gutenberg, but it awarded control of the type used in his Bible, plus much of the printing equipment, to Fust. So, while Gutenberg ran a print shop until shortly before his death in Mainz in 1468, Fust became the first printer to publish a book with his name on it. Johann Fust ( died 1466) was an early German printer. ...


Gutenberg was subsidized by the Archbishop of Mainz until his death. Gutenberg was also known to spend what little money he had on alcohol, so the Archbishop arranged for him to be paid in food and lodging, instead of coin.


Legacy

Although Gutenberg was financially unsuccessful in his lifetime, his invention spread quickly, and news and books began to travel across Europe much faster than before. It fed the growing Renaissance, and since it greatly facilitated scientific publishing, it was a major catalyst for the later scientific revolution. The ability to produce many copies of a new book, and the appearance of Greek and Latin works in printed form was a major factor in the Reformation. Literacy also increased dramatically as a result. Gutenberg's inventions are sometimes considered the turning point from the Middle Ages to the Early Modern Period. In the traditional view, the Renaissance is understood as an historical age that was preceded by the Middle Ages and followed by the Reformation. ... In the history of science, the scientific revolution was the period that roughly began with the discoveries of Kepler, Galileo, and others at the dawn of the 17th century, and ended with the publication of the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687 by Isaac Newton. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies, between the Middle Ages and modern society. ...


The term incunabulum refers to any western printed book produced between the first work of Gutenberg and the end of the year 1500. A page from a rare Blackletter Bible (1497) printed in Strasbourg by J.R. Grueninger. ... Look up book in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


There are many statues of Gutenberg in Germany; one of the more famous being a work by Bertel Thorvaldsen, in Mainz, home to the Gutenberg Museum. Bertel Thorvaldsen, portrait by Karl Begas, c. ... The Gutenberg Museum is one of the oldest museums of printing in the world, located opposite the cathedral in the old part of Mainz, Germany. ...


The Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz is named in his honor.


The Gutenberg Galaxy and Project Gutenberg also commemorate Gutenberg’s name. The Gutenberg Galaxy, named for Johannes Gutenberg, the inventor of printing, is the universe of all printed books ever published. ... Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ...


He was also named the number one person of the millennium by A&E in 1998. The A&E Network is a cable and satellite television network based in New York City. ...


Matthew Skelton (an English writer) recently wrote a book Endymion Spring which explores a controversial theory about Johann Gutenberg and his partner Fust. Endymion Spring is a book by the English author Matthew Skelton. ...


See also

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A page from a rare Blackletter Bible (1497) printed in Strasbourg by J.R. Grueninger. ... Francišak Skaryna (or Skoryna; the first name also spelled as Francis, Franciszak, Frantsiszak, Francisk, Frantzisk, Francysk; Belarusian: Францыск Скарына (Франці́шак Скары́на)) was a Belarusian famous for being the printer of the first book in an Eastern Slavic language. ... William Caxton (c. ...

External links

Events 11 May: Printing of The Diamond Sutra, the oldest dated printed book. ... The Gutenberg bible owned by the U.S. Library of Congress The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, and as the Mazarin Bible) is a print of the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible that was printed by its namesake, Johann Gutenberg, in Mainz, Germany. ... The University of Texas at Austin, often called UT or Texas, is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System. ...

Further reading

  • Michael H. Hart, The 100, Carol Publishing Group, July 1992, paperback, 576 pages, ISBN 0806513500
  • Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change, Cambridge University Press, September 1980, Paperback, 832 pages, ISBN 0521299551

Michael H. Hart is an astrophysicist who has worked for NASA and been a professor of astronomy and physics at a college in Maryland, USA. He holds degrees in physics, astronomy, and law and is the author of the best selling book, The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential... In 1978, Michael H. Hart published a book called The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. ...

References

  • Woong-Jin-Wee-In-Jun-Gi #11 Jang Young Sil by Baek Sauk Gi. Copyright 1987 Woong-Jin-Chool-Pan, Ltd.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Johann Gutenberg - LoveToKnow 1911 (0 words)
In 1438 another partnership was arranged between Gutenberg, Andreas Dritzehn, and Andreas and Anton Heilmann, and that this had in view the art of printing has been inferred from the word "drucken" used by one of the witnesses in the law proceedings which soon after followed.
Gutenberg's work, whatever it may have been, was not a commercial success, and in 1452 Fust had to come forward with another 800 guilders to prevent a collapse.
Gutenberg seems to have died at Mainz at the beginning of 1468, and was, according to tradition, buried in the Franciscan church in that city.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Johann Gutenberg (0 words)
Gutenberg was the son of Friele (Friedrich) Gänsfleisch and Else Wyrich.
Of Johann Gutenberg's father, Friele Gänsfleisch, we know only that he was married in 1386 to Else Wyrich, daughter of a burgher of Mainz, Werner Wyrich zum steinern Krame (at the sign of the pottery shop), and that he died in 1419, his wife dying in 1433.
In 1450 Gutenberg formed a partnership with the wealthy burgher, Johann Fust of Mainz, for the purpose of completing his contrivance and of printing the so-called "42-line Bible", a task which was finished in the years 1453-1455 at the Hof zum Humbrecht (today Schustergasse, 18, 20).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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