FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Johann Gottlieb Fichte
Western Philosophy
18th-century philosophy
Johann Gottlieb Fichte

Name (Redirected from 18th century philosophy) 17th-century Western philosophy is conventionally seen as being dominated by the coming of symbolic mathematics and rationalism to philosophy, many of the most noted philosophers were also mathematicians. ... From German This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ...

Johann Gottlieb Fichte

Birth

Flag of Germany 19 May 1762 (Rammenau, Saxony, Germany) Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Rammenau is a municipality in the district of Bautzen, in Saxony, Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km...

Death

27 January 1814 (Berlin, Germany) is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...

School/tradition

German Idealism, Post-Kantianism German idealism was a philosophical movement in Germany in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ...

Main interests

Self-consciousness and Self-awareness, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy For the understanding that one exists, see Self-awareness. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Self-consciousness. ... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what...

Notable ideas

absolute consciousness, the not-I, striving, mutual recognition

Influences

Immanuel Kant, Karl Leonhard Reinhold, Salomon Maimon “Kant” redirects here. ... Karl Leonhard Reinhold (October 26, 1757 - April 10, 1823) was in Austrian philosopher. ... Salomon Maimon (1754 - 22nd November 1800) was a German philosopher born of Jewish parentage in Polish Lithuania, and died at Nieder-Siegersdorf. ...

Influenced

Hegel, Schopenhauer, Schelling, Novalis, Dieter Henrich, Rudolf Steiner, Thomas Carlyle Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (IPA: ) (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and, with Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, one of the representatives of German idealism. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (January 27, 1775 - August 20, 1854) was a German philosopher. ... For the German rock band, see Novalis (band). ... Dieter Henrich (born January 5, 1927 in Marburg, Germany) is a German philosopher. ... Rudolf Steiner. ... The most familiar view of Carlyle is as the bearded sage with a penetrating gaze. ...

Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762January 27, 1814) was a German philosopher. He was one of the founding figures of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, a movement that developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant. Fichte is often perceived as a figure whose philosophy forms a bridge between the ideas of Kant and the German Idealist Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Recently, philosophers and scholars have begun to appreciate Fichte as an important philosopher in his own right due to his original insights into the nature of self-consciousness or self-awareness. Like Descartes and Kant before him, the problem of subjectivity and consciousness motivated much of his philosophical rumination. Fichte also wrote political philosophy, and is thought of by some as the father of German nationalism.[1] is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... German idealism was a philosophical movement in Germany in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ... “Kant” redirects here. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (IPA: ) (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and, with Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, one of the representatives of German idealism. ... For the understanding that one exists, see Self-awareness. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Self-consciousness. ... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ...

Contents

Life and work

Fichte was born in Rammenau, Upper Lusatia. In 1780, he began study at the Jena theology seminary. In 1784, without completing his degree, Fichte ended his studies. Fichte worked as a private tutor in Zürich, and in 1790 he became engaged to Johanna Rahn, who happened to be the niece of the famous poet F. G. Klopstock. In 1790, Fichte began to study the works of Kant, which were to have a lasting effect on the trajectory of his life and thought. Not long after meeting Kant in Königsberg, Fichte published his first work, Attempt at a Critique of All Revelation (1792), a book that investigates the connections between divine revelation and Kant's Critical philosophy. The first edition of the book was published, without Kant or Fichte's knowledge, without Fichte's name and signed preface; it was thus mistakenly thought to be a new work by Kant himself.[2] Everyone, including the first reviews of the book, assumed Kant was the author; when Kant cleared the confusion and openly praised the work and author, Fichte's reputation skyrocketed: "...the most shocking and astonishing news...nobody but Kant could have written this book. This amazing news of a third sun in the philosophical heavens has set me into such confusion..."[3] Rammenau is a municipality in the district of Bautzen, in Saxony, Germany. ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice, sometimes called Sorbia, is a historical region between Bóbr-Kwisa rivers and Elbe river in northeastern Germany (states of Saxony and Brandenburg), south-western Poland (voivodship of Lower Silesia and northern Czech... , For other uses, see Jena (disambiguation). ... Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (July 2, 1724 – March 14, 1803) was a German poet. ... Former German name of the city of Kaliningrad. ... Attributed to Immanuel Kant, the critical philosophy movement sees the primary task of philosophy as criticism rather than justification of knowledge; criticism, for Kant, meant judging as to the possibilities of knowledge before advancing to knowledge itself (from the Greek kritike (techne), or art of judgment). The initial, and perhaps...


Fichte died of typhus at the age of fifty-two. His son, Immanuel Hermann Fichte, also made contributions to philosophy. For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... Immanuel Hermann von Fichte (July 18, 1797 - August 8, 1879), German philosopher, son of J.G. Fichte, was born at Jena. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


Fichte's philosophical writings

Fichte did not endorse Kant's argument for the existence of noumena, of "things in themselves", the supra-sensible reality beyond the categories of human reason. Fichte saw the rigorous and systematic separation of "things in themselves" (noumena) and things "as they appear to us" (phenomena) as an invitation to skepticism. Rather than invite such skepticism, Fichte made the radical suggestion that we should throw out the notion of a noumenal world and instead accept the fact that consciousness does not have a grounding in a so-called "real world". In fact, Fichte achieved fame for originating the argument that consciousness is not grounded in anything outside of itself. His student (and critic), Schopenhauer, wrote: The noumenon (plural: noumena) classically refers to an object of human inquiry, understanding or cognition. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... The noumenon (plural: noumena) classically refers to an object of human inquiry, understanding or cognition. ... For other uses, see Phenomena (disambiguation). ... This article is about the psychological term. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ...

...Fichtes who, because the thing-in-itself had just been discredited, at once prepared a system without any thing-in-itself. Consequently, he rejected the assumption of anything that was not through and through merely our representation, and therefore let the knowing subject be all in all or at any rate produce everything from its own resources. For this purpose, he at once did away with the essential and most meritorious part of the Kantian doctrine, the distinction between a priori and a posteriori and thus that between the phenomenon and the thing-in-itself. For he declared everything to be a priori, naturally without any evidence for such a monstrous assertion; instead of these, he gave sophisms and even crazy sham demonstrations whose absurdity was concealed under the mask of profundity and of the incomprehensibility ostensibly arising therefrom. Moreover, he appealed boldly and openly to intellectual intuition, that is, really to inspiration. In the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, a noumenon or thing in itself (German Ding an sich) is an unknowable, undescribable reality that, in some way, lies behind observed phenomena. ... In cognitive psychology a representation is a hypothetical internal cognitive symbol that represents external reality. ... Subject (philosophy) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 – February 12, 1804) was a Prussian philosopher, generally regarded as one of Europes most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. ... The terms a priori and a posteriori are used in philosophy to distinguish between two different types of propositional knowledge. ... A Posteriori is the title of the musical project Enigmas sixth studio album, released in September 2006. ... For other uses, see Phenomena (disambiguation). ... An intellectual is one who tries to use his or her intellect to work, study, reflect, speculate on, or ask and answer questions with regard to a variety of different ideas. ... Look up Intuition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ä· Look up inspiration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Schopenhauer, Parerga and Paralipomena, Vol. I, §13 Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher born in Gdańsk (Danzig), Poland. ...

In his famous work Foundations of Natural Right (1796), Fichte argued that self-consciousness was a social phenomenon (normative). A necessary condition of any subjects' self-awareness, he argued, is the existence of other rational subjects. These subjects influence and summons the subject or self into an awareness of itself. This idea is an elaboration and extension of his Grundlage der gesamten Wissenschaftslehre (translated into English as The Science of Knowledge), where he showed that consciousness of the self depends upon resistance or a check by something that is understood as not part of the self. Fichte's famous self/not-self (also called I/not-I) distinction derives from these points and is developed in the Science of Knowledge. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Self-consciousness. ...


Fichte also developed a theory of the state based on the idea of self-sufficiency. In his mind, the state should control international relations, the value of money, and remain an autarky. An autarky is an economy that limits trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from the outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. ...


Because of this necessity to have relations with other rational beings in order to achieve consciousness, Fichte writes that there must be a 'relation of right,' in which there is a mutual recognition of rationality by both parties.


In 1807-1808, in a Berlin occupied by Napoléon, Fichte gave a series of Addresses to the German Nation which became an incentive for the Prussian education system and German nationalism, and which has been cited as an example of Romantic nationalism. Here, Fichte indirectly continues his argumentation from his early works on religion and the French Revolution and speaks of the alleged superiority of German people over others[2]. In other earlier works he called Jews a "state within a state" that would "undermine" the German nation.[1] He openly expressed desire to expel Jews from Germany[4] In regards to Jews getting "civil rights" he wrote that this would only be possible if one managed "to cut off all their heads in one night, and to set new ones on their shoulders, which should contain not a single Jewish idea".[1] Fichte had a deep influence on the rise of the Third Reich, and continues to be deemed a spiritual father of modern Neo-Nazism. This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... The Prussian education system was a system of mandatory education dating to the early 19th century. ... Nationalism is an ethno- political ideology that sustains the concept of a nation- identity for an exclusive group of people. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ...


Bibliography

  • Early Philosophical Writings
  • Attempt at a Critique of All Revelation (Versuch einer Kritik aller Offenbarung, 1793)
  • Foundations of Transcendental Philosophy (Wissenschaftslehre nova methodo, 1796)
  • The System of the Doctrine of Morals in accordance with the Principles of the Doctrine of Science (Das System der Sittenlehre nach den Principien der Wissenschaftslehre, 1798)
  • Introduction to the Wissenschaftslehre and Other Writings (1800)
  • The Vocation of Man (Die Bestimmung des Menschen, 1800)
  • Addresses to the German Nation (1807-1808)

Secondary Sources

  • Arash Abizadeh. "Was Fichte an Ethnic Nationalist?" History of Political Thought 26.2 (2005): 334-359.
  • Daniel Breazeale. "Fichte's 'Aenesidemus' Review and the Transformation of German Idealism" The Review of Metaphysics 34 (1980/1) 545-68.
  • Daniel Breazeale and Thomas Rockmore (eds) Fichte: Historical Contexts/Contemporary Controversies. Atlantic Highlands: Humanities Press, 1997.
  • Franks, Paul, All or Nothing: Systematicity, Transcendental Arguments, and Skepticism in German Idealism, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2005
  • Dieter Henrich. "Fichte's Original Insight" Contemporary German Philosophy 1 (1982) 15-52.
  • T. P. Hohler. Imagination and Reflection: Intersubjectivity. Fichte's 'Grundlage' of 1794. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1982.
  • Wayne Martin. Idealism and Objectivity: Understanding Fichte's Jena Project. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997.
  • Frederick Neuhouser. Fichte's Theory of Subjectivity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
  • Peter Suber. "A Case Study in Ad Hominem Arguments: Fichte's Science of Knowledge," Philosophy and Rhetoric, 23, 1 (1990) 12-42.
  • Robert R Williams. Recognition: Fichte and Hegel on the Other. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992.
  • Gunther Zoller. Fichte's Transcendental Philosophy: The Original Duplicity of Intelligence and Will. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Dieter Henrich (born January 5, 1927 in Marburg, Germany) is a German philosopher. ... Frederick Neuhouser is Professor of Philosophy at Barnard College, Columbia University. ... Peter Suber at the Berlin 4 Conference in Golm, germany Peter Suber (born November 8, 1951) is the creator of the game Nomic and a leader in the open access movement. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Lucy S. Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews 1933-1945
  2. ^ Traditionally, it has been assumed that either the omission was an accident or a deliberate attempt by the publisher to move copies. In either case, Fichte did not plan it, and in fact only heard of the accident much later; he writes to his fiancée: "Why did I have to have such utterly strange, excellent, unheard-of good luck?" See Garrett Green's Introduction to Attempt at a Critique of All Revelation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.
  3. ^ Letter from Jens Baggeson to Karl Reinhold. Quoted in Editor's Introduction to Fichte, Early Philosophical Writings. London: Cornell University Press, 1988.
  4. ^ [1]

External links

Persondata
NAME
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
SHORT DESCRIPTION German philosopher
DATE OF BIRTH May 19, 1762(1762-05-19)
PLACE OF BIRTH Rammenau, Saxony (now Germany)
DATE OF DEATH January 27, 1814
PLACE OF DEATH Berlin, Germany

  Results from FactBites:
 
Johann Gottlieb Fichte - definition of Johann Gottlieb Fichte in Encyclopedia (373 words)
Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 - January 27, 1814) has significant importance as one of the progenitors of German idealism and as a follower of Kant.
Fichte believed that Kant was mistaken to argue for the existence of noumena, of things as they are, not just as they are perceived through the categories of human reason.
Fichte saw the rigorous and systematic separation of "things as they are" (noumena) and things "as they appear to be" (phenomena) as an invitation to skepticism.
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (342 words)
Fichte’s dialectic idealism attempted unification of the theoretical and practical aspects of cognition that had been set apart by Kant.
Fichte’s philosophy had considerable influence in his day, but later he was remembered more as a patriot and liberal.
Although he was in political disrepute in his own day and after the reaction of 1815, he became a hero not only to the revolutionaries of 1848 but also to the conservatives of 1871.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m