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Encyclopedia > Johann Gottfried Eichhorn
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Johann Gottfried Eichhorn (October 16, 1752 - June 27, 1827), was a German theologian. October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in Leap years). ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... 1827 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It also refers to the study of other religious topics. ...


He was born at Dörrenzimmern, in the principality of Hohenlohe-Oehringen. He was educated at the state school in Weikersheim, where his father was superintendent, at the gymnasium at Heilbronn and at the University of Göttingen (1770-1774), studying under JP Michaelis. In 1774 he received the rectorship of the gymnasium at Ohrdruf, in the duchy of Gotha, and in the following year was made professor of oriental languages at Jena. On the death of Michaelis in 1788 he was elected professor ordinarius at Göttingen, where he lectured not only on Oriental languages and on the exegesis of the Old and New Testaments, but also on political history. His health was shattered in 1825, but he continued his lectures until attacked by fever on June 14 1827. His son, Karl Friedrich, became a famous jurist. A gymnasium is a type of school of secondary education in parts of Europe. ... Coat of Arms of Heilbronn Map of Germany showing Heilbronn Heilbronn is a city in northern Baden-Württemberg, Germany, near Stuttgart. ... The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... Johann David Michaelis (1717-1791), German biblical scholar and teacher, was a member of a family which had the chief part in maintaining that solid discipline in Hebrew and the cognate languages which distinguished the university of Halle in the period of Pietism. ... Saxe-Gotha (German Sachsen-Gotha) is a historical state in todays Thuringia, Germany. ... Friedrich Schiller University of Jena (FSU) is located in Jena, Thuringia in Germany and was named for the German writer Friedrich Schiller. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Old Testament or the Hebrew Scriptures (also called the Hebrew Bible) constitutes the first major part of the Bible according to Christianity. ... The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Testament or Greek Scriptures is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... Karl Friedrich Eichhorn (November 20, 1781 - July 4, 1854), German jurist, son of Johann Gottfried, was born at Jena. ...


Eichhorn has been called "the founder of modern Old Testament criticism." He recognized its scope and problems, and began many of its most important discussions. "My greatest trouble," he says in the preface to the second edition of his Einleitung, "I had to bestow on a hitherto unworked field--on the investigation of the inner nature of the Old Testament with the help of the Higher Criticism (not a new name to any humanist)." His investigations led him to the conclusion that "most of the writings of the Hebrews have passed through several hands." He took for granted that all the so-called supernatural facts relating to the Old and New Testaments were explicable on natural principles. He sought to judge them from the standpoint of the ancient world, and to account for them by the superstitious beliefs which were then generally in vogue. He did not perceive in the biblical books any religious ideas of much importance for modern times; they interested him merely historically and for the light they cast upon antiquity. A critic (derived from the ancient Greek word krites meaning a judge) is a person who offers a value judgement or an interpretation. ...


He regarded many books of the Old Testament as spurious, questioned the genuineness of the First and Second letters of Peter and the Epistle of Jude, denied the Pauline authorship of the First and Second letters to Timothy and to Titus. He suggested that the canonical gospels were based upon various translations and editions of a primary Aramaic gospel, but did not appreciate as sufficiently as David Strauss and the Tübingen critics the difficulties which a natural theory has to surmount, nor did he support his conclusions by such elaborate discussions as they deemed necessary. In Christianity, the First Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament. ... The Second Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament of the Bible. ... The brief Epistle of Jude is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ... An early portrait of the Apostle Paul. ... This article or section should be merged with Second Epistle to Timothy The First Epistle to Timothy is a book of the canonic New Testament, one of the three so-called pastoral epistles (1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and the Epistle to Titus). ... This article or section should be merged with First Epistle to Timothy The Pastoral Epistles are often considered together, as each throws light upon the others. ... The Pastoral Epistles are often considered together, as each throws light upon the others. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Portrait of David Strauss. ...


His principal works were:

  • Geschichte des Ostindischen Handels vor Mohammed (Gotha, I 775)
  • Allgemeine Bibliothek der biblischen Literatur (10 vols., Leipzig, 1787-1801)
  • Einleitung in das Alte Testament (5 vols., Leipzig, 1780-1783)
  • Einleitung in das Neue Testament (1804-1812)
  • Einleitung in die apokryphischen Bücher des Alten Testaments (Gött., 1795)
  • Commentarius in apocalypsin Joannis (2 vols., Gött., 1791)
  • Die Hebr. Propheten (3 vols., Gött., 1816- 1819)
  • Allgemeine Geschichte der Cultur und Literatur des neuern Europa (2 vols., Gött., 1796-1799)
  • Literargeschichte (1st vol., Gött., 1799, 2nd ed. 1813, 2nd vol. 1814)
  • Geschichte der Literatur von ihrem Anfänge bis auf die neuesten Zeiten (5 vols., Gött., 1805-1812)
  • Übersicht der Französischer Revolution (2 vols., Gött., 1797)
  • Weltgeschichte (3rd ed., 5 vols., Gött., 1819-1820)
  • Geschichte der drei letzten Jahrhunderte (3rd ed., 6 vols., Hanover, 1817-1818)
  • Urgeschichte des erlauchten Hauses der Welfen (Hanover, 1817).

This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Higher Criticism Encyclopedia Article (5997 words)
This was Johann Gottfried Eichhorn, the author of an Introduction to the O. T., issued 1780-83, and distinguished by vigour and scientific acumen.
Eichhorn was indebted not a little to his friend Herder, the noted German littérateur, and the two conjointly originated the critical habit of looking upon the O.
Eichhorn, the pioneer of modern German criticism, carried his inquiries into the field of the N. and, beginning with 1794, proposed a theory to explain the similarities and differences of the Synoptic Gospels, i.
Johann Gottfried Eichhorn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (473 words)
Johann Gottfried Eichhorn (October 16, 1752 - June 27, 1827), was a German theologian.
Eichhorn has been called "the founder of modern Old Testament criticism." He recognized its scope and problems, and began many of its most important discussions.
He sought to judge them from the standpoint of the ancient world, and to account for them by the superstitious beliefs which were then generally in vogue.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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