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Encyclopedia > Joe Clark
The Rt. Hon.Charles Joseph Clark,
PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD


In office
June 4, 1979 – March 3, 1980
Preceded by Pierre Elliott Trudeau
Succeeded by Pierre Elliott Trudeau

Born June 5, 1939 (1939-06-05) (age 67)
High River, Alberta
Political party Progressive Conservative
Spouse Maureen McTeer
Religion Roman Catholic

Charles Joseph "Joe" Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. The Right Honourable (abbreviated The Rt Hon. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the... Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country. ... The Alberta Order of Excellence is the highest award given in the Canadian province of Alberta. ... A Master of Arts is a postgraduate academic masters degree awarded by universities in North America and the United Kingdom (excluding the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge. ... Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ... Image File history File links Joe_Clark_at_Progressive_Conservative_Convention_1976. ... The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Name Pierre Elliott Trudeau Number Fifteenth First term April 20, 1968–June 4,1979 Second term March 3, 1980–June 30, 1984 Predecessor Lester Bowles Pearson Successors Joe Clark John Napier Turner Date of birth October 18, 1919 Place of birth Montreal, Quebec Date of death September 28... Name Pierre Elliott Trudeau Number Fifteenth First term April 20, 1968–June 4,1979 Second term March 3, 1980–June 30, 1984 Predecessor Lester Bowles Pearson Successors Joe Clark John Napier Turner Date of birth October 18, 1919 Place of birth Montreal, Quebec Date of death September 28... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... High River is a town in southwestern Alberta, Canada with a population of 9,523 (2004). ... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [province]) Area Ranked... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Maureen Anne McTeer (born February 27, 1952 in Ottawa) is an author and a lawyer, and the wife of Joe Clark, the 16th Prime Minister of Canada. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the... Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country. ... The Alberta Order of Excellence is the highest award given in the Canadian province of Alberta. ... A Master of Arts is a postgraduate academic masters degree awarded by universities in North America and the United Kingdom (excluding the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge. ... Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...


Despite his relative inexperience, Clark rose quickly in federal politics, entering the House of Commons in the 1972 election and winning the leadership of the Progressive Conservative Party in 1976. He came to power in the 1979 election, defeating Pierre Trudeau and ending sixteen continuous years of Liberal rule, making Clark the youngest man to become Prime Minister at 39 years of age. His tenure was brief as he only won a minority government and it was defeated on a motion of non-confidence. Clark subsequently lost the 1980 election and the leadership of the party in 1983. The House of Commons after the 1972 election The Canadian federal election of 1972 was held on October 30, 1972 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The 1976 leadership convention of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada was held in Ottawa on February 22, 1976, to elect a leader to replace Robert Stanfield, who had resigned after losing the 1968, 1972, and 1974 elections. ... The House of Commons after the 1979 election The Canadian federal election of 1979 was held on May 22, 1979 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... For other uses, see Pierre Elliott Trudeau (disambiguation). ... The House of Commons after the 1980 election The 1980 Canadian federal election was called when the minority Progressive Conservative government led by Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. ... The 1983 Progressive Conservative leadership convention was held on June 11, 1983 in Ottawa, Ontario to elect a leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ...


He returned to prominence as a senior cabinet minister in Brian Mulroney's cabinet, retiring from politics after not standing for re-election for the House of Commons in 1993. He made a political comeback in 1998 to lead the Progressive Conservatives before its dissolution, serving his final term in Parliament from 2000 to 2004. {{Infobox Prime Minister | name=The Rt. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Family

Joe Clark was born in High River, Alberta, the son of Charles A. Clark, who was the publisher of the local newspaper, and Grace Welch. He attended local schools and the University of Alberta, where he earned a bachelor's and a master's degree in political science. He studied law at Dalhousie Law School in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and at the University of British Columbia Faculty of Law in Vancouver, British Columbia. He was active in student politics, and left law school to work full time for the Progressive Conservative Party. High River is a town in southwestern Alberta, Canada with a population of 9,523 (2004). ... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [province]) Area Ranked... The University of Alberta (U of A) is a public coeducational research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. ... The Dalhousie Law School, part of Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada was established in 1883, making it the oldest university Common Law School in the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Motto: Template:Unhide = E Mari Merces (Wealth from the Sea) Logo: Location City Information Established: April 1, 1996 Area: (former city) 79. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian... The University of British Columbia Faculty of Law houses one of the largest English language legal programs in Canada, with over 630 LL.B. students. ... This article refers to the city in British Columbia, Canada. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Clark is married to Maureen McTeer, a well-known author and lawyer. Their daughter, Catherine, is an art history graduate from the University of Toronto who has pursued a career in public relations and broadcasting. Maureen Anne McTeer (born February 27, 1952 in Ottawa) is an author and a lawyer, and the wife of Joe Clark, the 16th Prime Minister of Canada. ... Catherine Jane Clark (born November 6, 1976, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) is the daughter of former Canadian Prime Minister Joe Clark and Maureen McTeer. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a coeducational public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Public relations (PR): Building sustainable relations with all publics in order to create a postive brand image. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ...


Early political career

Clark first became active in politics at the university level. He served as President of the University of Alberta Young Progressive Conservatives. Clark sparred with future political rival Preston Manning in debate forums on campus between the Young PCs and the Youth League of the Alberta Social Credit Party. Clark was keenly aware from a very young age of the politics of Canada. In his youth, Clark was an admirer of Progressive Conservative leader and Canadian Prime Minister John Diefenbaker, and he eventually entered politics himself at the provincial level at the age of 28. He was unsuccessful in his first foray into politics as an official constituency candidate for the Alberta Progressive Conservative Party in the 1967 provincial election. Clark served as a chief assistant to provincial opposition leader and future Premier Peter Lougheed. He missed being elected to the Alberta Legislative Assembly in the 1971 provincial election. However, he ran in the federal election held a year later, and was elected to Parliament as the MP for Rocky Mountain, a largely rural riding in southwestern Alberta. The University of Alberta (U of A) is a public coeducational research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. ... Ernest Preston Manning (born June 10, 1942, in Edmonton, Alberta), is a right-wing populist Canadian politician. ... The Social Credit Party of Alberta is a provincial political party in Alberta, Canada that was founded on the social credit monetary policy and conservative Christian social values. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (18 September 1895 – 16 August 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... The Alberta Progressive Conservative Party is a provincial right-of-centre party in the Canadian province of Alberta. ... The Alberta general election of 1967 was the sixteenth general election for the Province of Alberta, Canada. ... Peter Lougheed, painting by C. Leeper The Honourable Peter Lougheed, PC , CC , QC (born July 26, 1928, in Calgary, Alberta) is a Canadian lawyer, politician and Canadian Football League player. ... The Legislative Assembly of Alberta meets in the provincial capital, Edmonton. ... The Alberta general election of 1971 was the seventeenth general election for the Province of Alberta, Canada. ... The House of Commons after the 1972 election The Canadian federal election of 1972 was held on October 30, 1972 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Rocky Mountain was a former federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Alberta. ...


Clark was the first Canadian politician to take a strong stand for decriminalization of marijuana in Canada, and for a guaranteed minimum income for everyone — both positions characteristic of the Red Tories. In many ways his social liberalism was as bold in the 1970s as Trudeau's was in the 1960s. This however put Clark at odds with the right-wing members of his caucus. In particular, during the 1979 election when Clark's riding was merged into the riding of another Tory MP during a redistribution of ridings, the other MP refused to step aside (even though Clark was now party leader), forcing Clark to run in nearby Yellowhead. A Cannabis sativa plant The drug cannabis, also called marijuana, is produced from parts of the cannabis plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant. ... A guaranteed minimum income is a proposed system of income redistribution that would give each citizen a certain sum of money independent of whether they work or not. ... The Red Tory Tradition: Ancient Roots-New Routes, by Ron Dart Red Tory is a term given to a political philosophy, tradition, and disposition in Canada. ... Yellowhead is the name of a federal electoral district in Alberta, Canada. ...


Progressive Conservative leadership, 1976-83 & Opposition Leader, 1976-79

Following the resignation of PC party leader Robert Stanfield, Clark sought and won the leadership of the PC Party at the 1976 leadership convention. Initially, the favorite among Red Tories was Flora MacDonald; however she did worse than expected while Clark placed a surprising third in a field of eleven on the first ballot of convention delegates, behind Claude Wagner and Brian Mulroney. MacDonald dropped off after the second ballot, encouraging her supporters to support Clark who quickly became the compromise Red Tory candidate. The party's right-wing rallied behind Wagner. Mulroney, a Quebec businessman with no elected political experience, was unable to expand his base of support significantly. Many delegates were offended by his expensive leadership campaign. As other Red Tory candidates were eliminated during the first four ballots, Clark gradually overtook Mulroney and then Wagner to emerge as the victor on the fifth ballot. Robert Lorne Stanfield, PC, QC (April 11, 1914–December 16, 2003) was Premier of Nova Scotia and leader of the federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... The 1976 leadership convention of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada was held in Ottawa on February 22, 1976, to elect a leader to replace Robert Stanfield, who had resigned after losing the 1968, 1972, and 1974 elections. ... The Red Tory Tradition: Ancient Roots-New Routes, by Ron Dart Red Tory is a term given to a political philosophy, tradition, and disposition in Canada. ... Flora MacDonald (1722 – March 5, 1790), Jacobite heroine, was the daughter of Ranald MacDonald of Milton in the island of South Uist in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland, and his wife Marion, the daughter of Angus MacDonald. ... Claude Wagner (April 4, 1925 - July 11, 1979) was a judge and politician in the Province of Quebec, Canada. ... {{Infobox Prime Minister | name=The Rt. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² - Water...


Joe Clark's rapid rise from a relatively unknown Alberta MP to the Leader of the Opposition took much of Canada by surprise. The Toronto Star announced Clark's victory with a headline that read "Joe Who?" giving Clark a nickname that stuck for years. Much joking was made of Clark's clumsiness and awkward mannerisms. Skinny and tall, he became a frequent target for editorial cartoonists, who delighted in portraying him as a sort of walking candy apple, with an enormous head and floppy dog-like ears. Initially, it seemed unlikely that a man that was the source of so much mockery could ever hope to compete against the confident and intellectual Pierre Trudeau. It also did not help that the Progressive Conservatives lost a string of by-elections on May 24, 1977. However, Clark remained belligerent in his attacks on the Trudeau government, angrily clashing with the prime minister in Parliament. The Leader of the Opposition (French: Chef de lOpposition) in Canada is the Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ... The Toronto Star is Canadas highest-circulation newspaper, though its print edition is distributed almost entirely within Ontario. ... An editorial cartoonist, also known as a political cartoonist, is an artist who draws cartoons that contain some level of political or social commentary. ... For other uses, see Pierre Elliott Trudeau (disambiguation). ... The initial seat distribution of the 30th Canadian parliament The 30th Canadian parliament was in session from 1974 until 1979. ...


1979 election

Large budget deficits, high inflation, and high unemployment made the Liberal government unpopular. Trudeau had put off asking the Governor General to call an election as long as possible in the hope that his party could recover popular support but it backfired, as there was growing public antipathy towards his perceived arrogance. Clark campaigned on the slogans, "Let's get Canada working again," and "It's time for a change - give the future a chance!" The House of Commons after the 1979 election The Canadian federal election of 1979 was held on May 22, 1979 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ...


In the latter half of the campaign, the Liberals focused their attacks on Clark's perceived inexperience. Their advertisements claimed "This is no time for on-the-job training," and "We need tough leadership to keep Canada growing. A leader must be a leader." Clark played into their hands by appearing bumbling and unsure in public. When he undertook a tour of the Middle East in order to show his ability to handle foreign affairs issues, his luggage was lost, and Clark appeared to be uncomfortable with the issues being discussed. During the same tour, while inspecting a military honour guard, Clark turned too soon and nearly bumped into a soldier's bayonet; one of the first major media reports on the incident hyperbolically claimed that he had nearly been beheaded. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The US Marine Corps OKC-3S Bayonet A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a knife- or dagger-shaped weapon designed to fit on or over the muzzle of a rifle barrel or similar weapon. ...


Clark also had problems with certain right-wing members of his party, particularly when Clark's riding was merged into the riding of another PC Member of Parliament during a redistribution of ridings. The other MP refused to step aside, and Clark had to seek a seat elsewhere. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Clark was bilingual but the PC party was also unable to make much headway in Quebec, which continued to be federally dominated by the Liberals. While Clark's 1976 leadership rivals were prominent in that province, Claude Wagner had left politics and recently passed away, while Brian Mulroney was still bitter about his loss and turned down an offer to serve under Clark. Claude Wagner (April 4, 1925 - July 11, 1979) was a judge and politician in the Province of Quebec, Canada. ... {{Infobox Prime Minister | name=The Rt. ...


Nonetheless, Clark's Progressive Conservatives won 136 seats to end sixteen continuous years of Liberal rule, falling just short of a majority as they could only get two seats in Quebec. The Progressive Conservatives had also won the popular vote in seven provinces. The Liberals lost 27 seats, including several high-profile cabinet ministers, and Trudeau announced his intention to step down as party leader.


Prime Minister

On June 4, 1979, the day before his 40th birthday, Clark was sworn in as Canada's youngest prime minister, after defeating the Liberal Party in the May 1979 general election. Clark was the first Progressive Conservative to head Canada's federal government since the defeat of John Diefenbaker in the 1963 election. He was also the first Alberta-based prime minister since Richard Bennett (and the last until the 2006 election of Stephen Harper). June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The House of Commons after the 1979 election The Canadian federal election of 1979 was held on May 22, 1979 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (18 September 1895 – 16 August 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... Map of Canadas provinces and territories and which party won the most votes in each province and territory and their popular vote. ... Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett, PC, KC (July 3, 1870 – June 26, 1947) was the eleventh Prime Minister of Canada from August 7, 1930 to October 23, 1935. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ...

Joe Clark presenting the 1979 Grey Cup.
Joe Clark presenting the 1979 Grey Cup.

But with a minority government in the House of Commons, Clark had to rely on the support of the Social Credit Party, with its six seats, or the New Democratic Party (NDP), with its 26 seats. At the time, Opposition leader Trudeau said that he would allow the Progressive Conservatives a chance to govern, though he warned the Prime Minister against dismantling Petro-Canada, which was unpopular in Clark's home province of Alberta.[1] Joe Clark presents the 1979 Grey Cup to victorious Edmonton Eskimos Dan Kepley and Tom Wilkinson. ... Joe Clark presents the 1979 Grey Cup to victorious Edmonton Eskimos Dan Kepley and Tom Wilkinson. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... The Social Credit Party of Canada (French: Parti Crédit social du Canada), was a conservative - populist political party in Canada that promoted social credit theories of monetary reform. ... The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (French: LOpposition Loyale de Sa Majesté) in Canada is usually the largest parliamentary opposition party in the Canadian House of Commons that is not in government either on its own or as part of a governing coalition. ... Petro-Canada is a Canadian oil and gas firm headquartered in Calgary, Alberta. ...


Social Credit was below the 12 seats needed for official party status in the House of Commons. However, the six seats would have been just enough to give Clark's government a majority had the Progressive Conservatives formed a coalition government with Social Credit, or had the two parties otherwise agreed to work together. Clark managed to lure Socred MP Richerd Janelle to the government caucus but this still left the PCs short. Clark however declared that he would govern as if he had a majority,[2] and refused to grant the small Social Credit caucus official party status or form a coalition or co-operate with the party in any way. Official party status refers to the Canadian practice of recognizing political parties. ... A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a cabinet in parliamentary government in which several parties cooperate. ...


Clark was unable to accomplish much in office, due to his tenuous minority situation. Though the election had been held in May, Parliament did not resume sitting until October, one of the longest break periods in Confederation.[3] The gas tax in the budget soured Clark's relationship with Ontario Premier Bill Davis, even though both were Red Tories and both were Progressive Conservatives. Even before the budget, the government was criticized for its perceived inexperience, such as in its handling of its campaign commitment to move Canada's embassy in Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. For the actor, professor, and waterskiier, see William B. Davis The Honourable William (Bill) Grenville Davis, PC , CC , O.Ont. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


Internationally, Clark represented Canada in June 1979 at the 5th G7 summit in Tokyo. Compared to his predecessor as Prime Minister, Clark reportedly had a better relationship with US President Jimmy Carter, who phoned Clark to wish him luck in the upcoming 1980 election. The 5th G7 Summit was held at Tokyo, Japan between June 28th and 29th, 1979. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... The House of Commons after the 1980 election The 1980 Canadian federal election was called when the minority Progressive Conservative government led by Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. ...


Fall of government

During the 1979 election campaign, Clark had promised to cut taxes to stimulate the economy. However, once in office he adopted a budget designed to curb inflation by slowing economic activity, and also proposed an 18 cent per Imperial gallon tax on gasoline in order to reduce the budgetary deficit. Finance Minister John Crosbie touted the budget as "short term pain for long term gain." Though Clark had hoped this change in policy would work to his advantage, it actually earned him widespread animosity as a politician who could not keep his promises, even in such a short period. Imperial Measure was a former system of measurement used in some Commonwealth nations, most notably the United Kingdom and Canada. ... The Minister of Finance is one of the most important positions in the Cabinet of Canada. ... Hon. ...


Clark's refusal to work with the Socreds, combined with the 18 cent gas tax, led to the defeat of the government in the House of Commons in December, 1979. NDP Finance Critic Bob Rae attached a rider to a budget bill declaring that "this House has lost confidence in the government." The five Socred MPs had demanded the tax revenues be allocated to Quebec and when that was turned down, they abstained, which ensured the vote's passage on a 139-133 margin. Bob Rae Robert Keith (Bob) Rae, PC, OC, O.Ont, QC, B.A., LL.B, B.Phi. ... A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ...


Clark was criticized for his "inability to do math" in failing to predict the outcome, not only because he was a minority situation, but also because several members of his caucus would be absent for the crucial budget vote, as one was ill and two were stuck abroad on official business. The Liberals by contrast had assembled their entire caucus, save one, for the occasion, with two of their MPs being taken by ambulances from hospitals to Parliament Hill so they could vote.[4]


1980 Election

The collapse was partially welcomed by the PC Party. When a new election was called, Clark expected his party would be able to defeat the demoralized and leaderless Liberals easily, since Trudeau announced his intention to step aside. However, the Progressive Conservatives had misjudged the electorate since they did not commission any polls after August. A November Gallup poll published eight days before the December 11 budget reported that their popularity down from 36% during the summer to 28%, with the party 19 points behind the Liberals, giving the latter the popular support to initiate the non-confidence motion.[5] After the government fell, Clark's party was caught off guard when Pierre Trudeau quickly rescinded his resignation from the Liberal leadership (as no convention had been held) to lead his party into the subsequent election.


Clark's Tories campaigned under the slogan, "Real change deserves a fair chance," but the broken promises were still fresh in voters' minds. Progressive Conservative Premier Bill Davis's criticism of the gas tax was used in the Liberals' Ontario television ads, and the swing in support from the Tories to the Liberals in that province proved to be decisive in the campaign. Trudeau's Liberals swept his party back into power in the February 1980 election with 146 seats, against 103 for the Progressive Conservatives. For the actor, professor, and waterskiier, see William B. Davis The Honourable William (Bill) Grenville Davis, PC , CC , O.Ont. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 4th... The House of Commons after the 1980 election The 1980 Canadian federal election was called when the minority Progressive Conservative government led by Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. ...


Supreme Court appointments

Clark recommended to the Governor General that the following be appointed as Justice to the Supreme Court of Canada: The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian Monarch, who is Canadas Head of State; Canada is one of sixteen Commonwealth realms, all of which share a single... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ...

Justice Chouinard The Honourable Mr. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Relationship between Trudeau and Clark

Trudeau commented in his memoirs that Clark was much more tough and aggressive than past Tory leader Robert Stanfield, noting that those qualities served Clark well in his party winning the 1979 election victory. However, Trudeau also complimented Clark as a respectable leader and a better choice over Brian Mulroney, who had defeated Clark at the leadership convention 1983. When Mulroney took over the reins of the Progressive Conservatives, Trudeau's Liberals attacked them with the slogan "Bring back Joe!", taking aim at how the Tories had replaced their proven leader with an unknown. In contrast to Clark, Trudeau and Mulroney had become bitter enemies over the Meech Lake Accord, despite never having fought an election. Robert Lorne Stanfield, PC, QC (April 11, 1914–December 16, 2003) was Premier of Nova Scotia and leader of the federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... {{Infobox Prime Minister | name=The Rt. ... The 1983 Progressive Conservative leadership convention was held on June 11, 1983 in Ottawa, Ontario to elect a leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ...

Joe Clark during his second term as Tory leader in 2001.

At Trudeau's funeral in 2000, his son Justin Trudeau related a story in which he had told a joke about one of his father's chief rivals, and his father had corrected him, lectured him sternly on how wrong it was to insult someone just because they disagreed. At this point in the ceremony, the CBC cut to an image of Clark, leading many to believe that Justin's joke had been about Clark. Joe Clark, PC Party This work is copyrighted. ... Joe Clark, PC Party This work is copyrighted. ... Justin Trudeau breaking down into tears after giving his eulogy The death and state funeral of Pierre Trudeau took place in 2000. ... Justin Trudeau (born December 25, 1971 in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) is the eldest son of the late former Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and his wife, Margaret Trudeau. ...


Opposition leader 1980-83

Opposition to Clark's leadership began to grow after the fall of the PC minority government, and the party's defeat by a resurgent Liberal Party. There were frequent rumors that several potential challengers were covertly undermining Clark's leadership; though in 1982 Brian Mulroney appeared at a press conference with Clark to say that he was not seeking the leadership of the PC party. {{Infobox Prime Minister | name=The Rt. ...


The Liberal Party had regained national prominence by leading the "No" side to victory in the 1980 Quebec referendum and the Constitution patriation. While Trudeau's National Energy Program was hugely unpopular in Western Canada, especially Alberta, it was able to shore up Liberal support in the voter-rich Eastern Canada, particularly Ontario and Quebec, generally having the opposite effect of Clark's proposed gas tax. Difficult budgets and the economic recession resulted in Trudeau's approval ratings declining after the bounce from the 1982 Constitution patriation and showed his party headed for certain defeat by early 1984, prompting him to retire. However, Clark was unable to stay on as Progressive Conservative leader long enough for that to happen. The 1980 Quebec referendum was the first referendum in Quebec on the role of Quebec within Canada and whether Quebec should pursue a path toward sovereignty. ... Reference re a Resolution to amend the Constitution, [1981] 1 S.C.R. 753 – also known as the Patriation Reference – is a leading opinion of the Supreme Court of Canada where the Court affirmed the existence of an unwritten dimension to the Constitution and held that constitutional convention did not... The National Energy Program (NEP) was an energy policy of the Government of Canada. ... Western Canada is a geographic region of Canada, also known as simply the West, generally considered to be west of the province of Ontario. ... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [province]) Area Ranked... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 4th... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² - Water...


At the party's 1981 convention, 33.5% of the delegates supported a leadership review; they felt that Clark would not be able to lead the party to victory again. At the January, 1983, convention in Winnipeg, 33.1% supported a review, even though the governing Liberals were slipping in polls. The fact that Clark had been able to increase his support among party members by only 0.5% was likely a contributing factor to his decision to resign as leader and seek a renewed mandate from the membership through a leadership convention.


1983 Leadership convention

In 1983, after declaring that an endorsement by 66% of delegates at the party's biennial convention was not enough, Clark called a leadership convention to decide the issue. The 1983 Progressive Conservative leadership convention was held on June 11, 1983 in Ottawa, Ontario to elect a leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ...


Clark retained support from most of the Red Tories and other party members who were opposed to the public attacks on Clark's leadership by others in the party. In a rematch of the 1976 convention, Mulroney emerged as the main challenger, gaining the support of the party's right wing who viewed Clark as too progressive and opposed his continued leadership. Other party members felt that the federal Liberal Party's stranglehold on Quebec seats could only be broken by a native from that province, which gave Mulroney considerable support. Several candidates agreed to a "ABC" (Anybody But Clark) strategy for the convention and when news of that back-room deal broke out, support was expected to rally around the party's embattled leader. During delegate voting, Clark led on the first three ballots but his vote total was far short of the 50% required and it dwindled as the convention progressed. He was defeated on the fourth ballot, though he urged his supporters to unite and agreed to serve under Mulroney.


Many political observers and analysts have questioned Clark's rationale for the decision. One famous incident involved a 1987 state dinner held for Prince Charles. The Prince, who was seated next to Clark at the function, asked him "why 66 percent was not enough?" Clark's wife, Maureen McTeer, elaborated on Clark's decision in her 2003 autobiography, In My Own Name. McTeer suggested that for her husband, anything less than a 75% endorsement would not have been a clear enough mandate to forge onwards from the party membership. Clark feared that the 34% of PC members who did not support him would become his most vocal critics in the upcoming election campaign and his continued leadership would have led to fractures in the party. Clark was convinced that he could win another leadership race and gain a clear level of support once his qualities were compared against the handful of politically inexperienced challengers who coveted his position and who were covertly undermining his leadership. The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... Maureen Anne McTeer (born February 27, 1952 in Ottawa) is an author and a lawyer, and the wife of Joe Clark, the 16th Prime Minister of Canada. ...


Under Mulroney

Secretary of State for External Affairs

The Progressive Conservatives, led by Mulroney, went on to win a huge victory in the 1984 election, and became prime minister. The Canadian federal election of 1984 was called on July 4, 1984, and held on September 4 of that year. ...


Despite their personal differences, Clark ably served in Mulroney's cabinet as Secretary of State for External Affairs. Along with Arthur Meighen, Clark is one of two former Prime Ministers who have returned to prominent roles in Parliament. Clark is the only ex-PM to subsequently serve as a cabinet minister, and he earned much more respect in his latter role. Canadas Secretary of State for External Affairs was, from 1909 to 1993, the member of the Cabinet of Canada responsible for overseeing the federal governments international relations and the former Department of External Affairs. ... the best school name in the world Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ...


Some of Clark's accomplishments and bold moves in this role included:

  • convincing Mulroney to recommend the appointment of Stephen Lewis as Canada's ambassador to the United Nations — who later became the UN special envoy on the AIDS crisis; many believe Lewis' appointment was Clark's price to serve under Mulroney
  • in 1984, being the very first developed nation foreign affairs minister to land in previously-isolated Ethiopia to lead the Western response to the 1984 - 1985 famine in Ethiopia; Clark landed in Addis Ababa so quickly he had not even seen the initial Canadian Broadcasting Corporation report that had created the initial and strong public reaction; Canada's response was overwhelming and led the US and Britain to follow suit almost immediately — an unprecedented situation in foreign affairs to that time, since Ethiopia had a Marxist one-party state and had previously been wholly isolated by "the West"
  • issued a public rebuke to the Canadian Jewish Congress at its annual policy convention for its unconditional stance of supporting the State of Israel in the 1982 Lebanon War, regardless of what Israel had done.[6]
  • taking a strong stand against apartheid and for economic sanctions against South Africa at a time when Mulroney allies Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher opposed such sanctions
  • taking a strong stand against Nicaraguan intervention
  • accepting refugees from El Salvador and Guatemala
  • managing nonetheless to maintain extremely strong ties with the US and deep coordination where Canada and the US agreed, helping steer the North American Free Trade Agreement negotiations to a final agreement

During his term as External Affairs minister, Clark championed Canada's unabashed disapproval of the apartheid regime in South Africa. Canada was the only G7 nation to take such a resolute stance against the apartheid regime during the 1980s. He also took on the difficult Constitution ministerial portfolio after the failure of the Meech Lake Accord and vigorously pursued his task. This article is about the Canadian politician and broadcaster. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... A developed country is a country that is technologically advanced and that enjoys a relatively high standard of living. ... Location of Ethiopia, as Ethiopian borders were as of the famine, prior Eritrean independence in 1993. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... Marxism takes its name from the praxis (the synthesis of philosophy and political action) of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... The Canadian Jewish Congress is an umbrella group of Jewish organizations in Canada and constitutes the main lobby group for the Jewish community in the country though it often competes with Bnai Brith Canada in that regard. ... Combatants Israel Phalange South Lebanon Army Amal PLO Syria Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength 76,000 37,000 Casualties 670 9,800 The 1982 Lebanon War (Hebrew: , Milkhemet Levanon, Milkhemet Levanon, Arabic: ‎), called by Israel the Operation Peace of... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC (born October 13, 1925), former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in office from 1979 to 1990. ... NAFTA redirects here. ... 1983 G-7 Economic Summit in Williamsburg, Virginia (left to right) Pierre Trudeau, Gaston Thorn, Helmut Kohl, François Mitterrand, Ronald Reagan, Yasuhiro Nakasone, Margaret Thatcher, Amintore Fanfani. ... The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ...


He maintained Canada's independent voice politically and socially at a time of increasing economic integration with the US and the rise of more socially conservative right-wing politics there. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Left-Right politics. ...


Minister of Constitutional Affairs

Clark later served as the President of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada. In the Canadian cabinet the President of The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: President du Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is nominally in charge of the Privy Council Office. ...


With Quebec's constitutional status within Canada a rising issue, he shifted to become the minister responsible for constitutional affairs. The latter position saw him play a leading role in the drafting of the failed Charlottetown Accord. He retired from politics in 1993, side-stepping the near annihilation of the PC party in the 1993 election under the leadership of Mulroney's successor Kim Campbell. The Quebec sovereignty movement is a movement calling for the attainment of sovereignty for Quebec, a province of the Canadian federation. ... The Minister of Constitutional Affairs was the Canadian cabinet minister responsible for constitutional affairs. ... Headline on October 27, 1992 Globe and Mail. ... Popular vote map with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories. ... Avril Phaedra Douglas Campbell, PC, QC, LL.B, LL.D (h. ...


In 1994, he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada. Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country. ...


The 1995 Quebec referendum saw the federal side win by under one percent of the vote. It was widely seen as being the failure of the Charlottetown and prior Meech Lake accords that had caused it to be so close. Bill on the referendum and eventual declaration of independence. ... Meech Lake is a lake in the Gatineau Hills near Gatineau, Quebec, in Canada. ...


Mulroney's attitude to Clark

Although Clark and Mulroney had long been perceived as bitter opponents, Mulroney's speech at the 2003 PC leadership convention praised Clark as an honest and admirable leader who had the distinction of being the only prime minister in recent memory who, even when he failed, was always respected, and never hated, by the Canadian public. At the time of his retirement polls showed that he was in fact the single most trusted political personality in Canada. The 2003 Progressive Conservative leadership convention was held on May 31, 2003 to elect a leader or the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ...


Progressive Conservative leadership, 1998-2003

One of the two PC candidates to survive the 1993 wipe-out, Jean Charest, became leader of the PC party following Campbell's resignation. After leading the party to a modest resurgence in the 1997 election, winning 20 seats, Charest bowed to tremendous public pressure and left federal politics to become leader of the Parti libéral du Québec (unaffiliated with the federal Liberals). The party had no obvious candidate to fill Charest's shoes, and turned to Clark once again in 1998. He was elected by a teleconference of PC members from around the country in which each of the party's riding associations was allocated 100 points. The points for each were riding were then assigned on the basis of each candidate's share of votes within each riding association. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 36th Parliament The Canadian federal election of 1997 was held on June 2, 1997, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Parti libéral du Québec (Liberal Party of Quebec, although it refers to itself in English as the Québec Liberal Party), or PLQ, is a liberal political party in the Canadian province of Quebec. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... In Canadian politics a riding association or constituency association is the basic unit of a political party, that is it is the partys organization at the level of the electoral constituency or riding. ...


Clark was elected as Member of Parliament for Kings—Hants, Nova Scotia, in a by-election on September 11, 2000, after the incumbent MP, Scott Brison, stood down in his favour. This is common practice when a newly elected party leader doesn't already have a seat in Parliament. For the general election held two months later, Clark yielded Kings-Hants back to Brison and was elected as the MP for Calgary Centre, deep in the heart of Canadian Alliance territory. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Kings—Hants (formerly Annapolis Valley—Hants) is a federal electoral district in Nova Scotia, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1979. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Scott A. Brison, PC, MP, BComm (born May 10, 1967, Windsor, Nova Scotia) is a Canadian politician. ... The 2000 Canadian federal election was held on November 27, 2000, to elect 301 Members of Parliament to the House of Commons of Canada. ... Calgary Centre is a federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Alberta. ... The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ...


Clark ran on his previous experience as Prime Minister and External Affairs Minister. However, he faced a difficult task, with critics and opponents attacking him and the PC Party as a "vote for the past." Jean Chrétien's governing Liberals were running on their successful economic record, and they were poised to regain the support that they lost in 1997, threatening the PC's 1997 gains in Ontario, Quebec, and the Atlantic provinces. Clark was judged by audiences to be the best speaker during the 2000 election debates. The party lost seats to the Liberals, though it managed to hang on to the minimum 12 seats necessary to be recognized in the House of Commons as an official party and therefore qualify for research funding, committee memberships, and minimum speaking privileges. Aside from Clark's Calgary seat (one of only three Alberta seats that did not go to the Canadian Alliance), and one each in Manitoba and Quebec, the party's seats were concentrated in Tory bastions in the Atlantic provinces. Clark continually promoted the idea that the PCs would eventually retake Ontario and form a federal government again. His vision for the party was one that was to the left of the Alliance, but to the right of the Liberals. Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English and French, per mandate of the Constitution Act 1982 Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th...


He soon realized that there was no chance of dislodging the Liberals as long as the centre-right remained split. However, he wanted a merger on his terms. He got his chance in 2001, when several dissident Alliance MPs, the most prominent one being Alliance deputy leader and party matriarch Deborah Grey, left the Alliance caucus. The dissidents felt that Alliance leader Stockwell Day hadn't learned from mistakes made in the last election. While some of them rejoined the Alliance later, seven of them, led by Chuck Strahl of British Columbia and including Grey, refused and formed the Democratic Representative Caucus. The DRC quickly entered a coalition with the Progressive Conservatives. Clark served as leader of the joint PC-DRC caucus. 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Deborah Cleland Grey (born July 1, 1952) is a former prominent Canadian Member of Parliament from Alberta for the Reform Party of Canada, Canadian Alliance and Conservative Party of Canada. ... Stockwell Burt Day Jr. ... Charles Strahl, PC, MP (born February 25, 1957 in New Westminster, British Columbia) is a politician in British Columbia, Canada. ... Democratic Reform Association logo The Democratic Representative Caucus was a group of Canadian Members of Parliament who left the Canadian Alliance in 2001 in protest against the leadership of Stockwell Day. ...


This lasted until 2002, when Stephen Harper ousted Day as Alliance leader. Harper wanted a closer union with the PCs, but Clark turned the offer down in April, 2002, and all but two of the DRC members rejoined the Alliance. One of the two, Inky Mark, eventually joined the PCs. Two by-election victories later in 2002 increased the PC caucus to 15 members and fourth place in the Commons. Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... Inky Mark (麥鼎鴻, pinyin: Mài Dǐnghóng) (born November 17, 1947) is a Canadian politician and a current member of the Canadian House of Commons, sitting for the Manitoba riding of Dauphin-Swan River. ...


Clark was selected by the media and many parliamentarians for three years in a row to be Canada's most effective opposition leader between 2000 and 2002, pursuing the Liberal government on issues such as Shawinigate and the Groupaction scandal. In his final mandate, Jean Chrétien repeatedly referred to Clark as the Leader of the Opposition (Clark wasn't), much to the chagrin of the Canadian Alliance politicians who occupied the Opposition Leader's chair during the same period. Indeed, Chretien and Clark had been fellow parliamentarians since the 1970s and they shared a mutual respect despite sitting on opposite benches. Shawinigate was a 1990s Canadian political scandal in which Prime Minister Jean Chrétien was accused of profiting from real estate deals, and government policies, in his hometown riding of Shawinigan, Quebec. ... Groupaction Inc. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ... The Leader of the Opposition is a title traditionally held by the leader of the largest party not in government in a Westminster System of parliamentary government. ...


Clark's personal popularity grew as, once again, scandal enveloped Chrétien's Liberal government. Clark was widely trusted by Canadians, but this, in his own words, did not translate into more votes and additional seats. Citing this, Clark announced his intention to step down as PC leader on August 6, 2002, at the PC Party's Edmonton policy convention. It was expected that a pro-Alliance merger candidate would succeed Clark, but Clark was instead replaced by Peter MacKay on May 31, 2003. MacKay had signed a controversial deal with Red Tory rival David Orchard, promising not to merge the PC Party with the Alliance. Clark had always encouraged MacKay to keep Orchard and his followers within the PC camp. August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Location of Edmonton within census division number 11, Alberta, Canada. ... Peter Gordon MacKay, PC, BA, LL.B, MP (born September 27, 1965) serves as the member of Parliament (MP) for Central Nova, Nova Scotia, Canadas Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister for the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency. ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Orchard (born June 28, 1950, in Borden, Saskatchewan) is a Canadian political figure and a member of the Liberal Party of Canada. ...


MacKay eventually reversed his position on seeking a merger, and in 2003, 90% of PC Party delegates voted in favor of a merger with the Canadian Alliance. Orchard unsuccessfully tried to block the merger and later joined the Liberal Party.


Legacy of second PC leadership

Overall, Clark's efforts to rebuild the PC party had mixed results. In May 2003, the party finally overtook the New Democratic Party as the fourth-largest party in the House of Commons, after successful by-election wins in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario. Many of his supporters have suggested his actions helped sustain the relevance of the weakened Progressive Conservative Party during some of its toughest years when its national alternative status was seriously challenged by the prairie populism of Preston Manning and the Reform Party of Canada and the social conservatism of Stockwell Day and the Canadian Alliance. The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 4th... Ernest Preston Manning (born June 10, 1942, in Edmonton, Alberta), is a right-wing populist Canadian politician. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party founded in 1987. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Stockwell Burt Day Jr. ...


At the same time, the party was still $10 million dollars in debt from the 2000 election. The PC Party's membership had also dropped from 100,000 in 1998 to 45,000 card carrying PCs in May 2003.[7] Clark's leadership of the Progressive Conservatives was also the subject of criticism from many United Alternative supporters, who argued that his staunch opposition to a merger with the Reform/Alliance parties helped divide the "conservative" vote during the tenure of Jean Chrétien. Some critics accused Clark of being more interested in helping the interests of his own party and own career than the Canadian conservative movement in general. Others attacked Clark's goal of the PC party regaining its former power as unrealistic. Unite the Right, also referred to as the United Alternative, was a Canadian political movement from 1997 until 2003. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ...


From a historical perspective, it could be argued that Clark's five year long second leadership and consistent opposition to a merger with the Reform/Alliance was necessary for the latter to water-down its more right-wing policies. This process began with Preston Manning's decision to pursue the United Alternative in 1998, Reform's demise and the Canadian Alliance's rocky birth under Stockwell Day in 2000, and Stephen Harper's policy conventions of 2003 that blurred the policy differences between the Alliance and the Progressive Conservatives. Clark's staunch opposition to serious merger talks inadvertently gave Harper 18 months to consolidate power and gain control of the unwieldy Alliance parliamentary caucus and its divided membership, instead of spending that time to promote a merger with Clark's PCs. Ernest Preston Manning (born June 10, 1942, in Edmonton, Alberta), is a right-wing populist Canadian politician. ... Unite the Right, also referred to as the United Alternative, was a Canadian political movement from 1997 until 2003. ... Stockwell Burt Day Jr. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ...


Progressive Conservative/Canadian Alliance merger

On December 8, 2003, the day that the PC Party and the Canadian Alliance were dissolved and the new Conservative Party of Canada registered, Clark was one of three MPs — the other two were André Bachand and John Herron — to announce that they would not join the new caucus. MP Scott Brison had already joined the Liberals. December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-leaning conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... André Bachand Not to be confused with André Bachand, Liberal MP from Missisquoi André Bachand (born December 8, 1961 in Quebec City, Quebec) is a Canadian politician, who represented the riding of Richmond—Arthabaska as member of the Progressive Conservatives from 1997 to 2003. ... John Herron. ... Scott A. Brison, PC, MP, BComm (born May 10, 1967, Windsor, Nova Scotia) is a Canadian politician. ...


Clark announced that he would continue to sit for the remainder of the session as a Progressive Conservative MP, and retired from Parliament at the end of the session. The Parliament of Canada (French: Parlement du Canada) is Canadas legislative branch, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. ...


Later, Clark openly criticized the new Conservative Party in the run-up to the 2004 election. He gave a luke-warm endorsement to the Liberal leader, Paul Martin, saying that Canadians should trust "the devil they know" over Stephen Harper. He criticized the new Conservative Party as an 'Alliance take-over', and speculated that eastern Canada would not accept the new party or its more socially conservative policies against gay marriage and abortion. Clark endorsed former NDP leader Ed Broadbent and other Liberals and Conservatives as individuals, saying that the most important thing was to have "the strongest possible Canadian House of Commons" since neither large party offered much hope. Clark was criticized by some for dismissing the new Conservative Party outright rather than helping to steer it towards a moderate path. The Canadian federal election, 2004 (more formally, the 38th general election), was held on June 28, 2004 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Paul Edgar Philippe Martin (born August 28, 1938) was the 21st Prime Minister of Canada and a former leader of the Liberal Party of Canada. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... John Edward Ed Broadbent, PC, CC, Ph. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ...


The Conservative Party formed a minority government after the 2006 election. Rendition of party representation in the 39th Canadian parliament decided by this election. ...


Clark today

Clark continues to use his experience in foreign affairs. He was in Washington on January 20, 2005 at the second inauguration of U.S. President George W. Bush. Before heading to the United States Capitol, he and Canada's ambassador to Washington, Michael Kergin, discussed the inaugural festivities with Arizona Senator John McCain at the Canadian Embassy in Washington. In addition to teaching classes at the American University in Washington, Clark has also written several op-ed pieces for several of Canada's national newspapers since his retirement. In October 2006, Clark took a position at McGill University as a Professor of Practice for Public-Private Sector Partnerships at the McGill Centre for Developing-Area Studies. He also serves with the Jimmy Carter Center, routinely traveling overseas as part of the centre's international observing activities. January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Inauguration Day is the day on which the President of the United States is sworn in and takes office. ... The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The West Front of the United States Capitol. ... Michael Kergin (26 April 1942 – ) is a Canadian diplomat, who has been a member of the foreign service in some capacity since 1967, when he joined the Department of External Affairs. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... John Sidney McCain III (born August 29, 1936, in Panama Canal Zone, Panama) is an American Republican politician, currently the senior U.S. Senator from Arizona. ... For other universities known as American University, see American University (disambiguation). ... McGill University is a publicly funded, co-educational research university located in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ...


External links

  • Political biography from the Library of Parliament
  • Order of Canada Citation
  • CBC Digital Archives – The Man from High River: Joe Clark

Video links

  • Joe Clark on The Hour
24th Ministry - Government of Brian Mulroney
Cabinet Posts (2)
Predecessor Office Successor
Don Mazankowski President of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada
(1991 – 1993)
Pierre Blais
Jean Chrétien Secretary of State for External Affairs
(1984 – 1991)
Barbara McDougall
Special Cabinet Responsibilities
Predecessor Title Successor
Minister responsible for Constitutional Affairs
(1991 – 1993)
21st Ministry - Government of Joe Clark
Cabinet Post
Predecessor Office Successor
Pierre Trudeau Prime Minister of Canada
(1979 – 1980)
Pierre Trudeau
Preceded by
Robert Stanfield
Leader of the Opposition
1976 – 1979
Succeeded by
Pierre Trudeau
Leader of the Progressive Conservative Party
1976 – 1983
Succeeded by
Erik Nielsen
Preceded by
Pierre Trudeau
Leader of the Opposition
1980 – 1983
Succeeded by
Erik Nielsen
Preceded by
Elsie Wayne
Leader of the Progressive Conservative Party
1998 – 2003
Succeeded by
Peter MacKay
Preceded by
Allen B. Sulatycky
Member for Rocky Mountain
1972 – 1979
Succeeded by
Abolished
Preceded by
None
Member for Yellowhead
1979 – 1993
Succeeded by
Cliff Breitkreuz
Preceded by
Scott Brison
Member of Parliament for Kings—Hants
2000
Succeeded by
Scott Brison
Preceded by
Eric Lowther
Member for Calgary Centre
2000 – 2004
Succeeded by
Lee Richardson
Conservative Maple Leaf Logo

Leaders of the Conservative Party of Canada and its antecedents Image File history File links Conservative_maple_leaf,_blue. ... Sir John A. Macdonald, Canadas first prime minister, is considered the father of the Canadian conservative movement. ...

Liberal-Conservative/Conservative/Unionist/N.L.C./National Government/Progressive Conservative (1867-2003): Macdonald | Abbott | Thompson | Bowell | Tupper | Borden | Meighen | Bennett | Manion | Meighen | Bracken | Drew | Diefenbaker | Stanfield | Clark | Mulroney | Campbell | Charest | Clark | MacKay

Reform (1987-2000)/Canadian Alliance (2000-2003): Manning | Day | Harper
The Liberal-Conservative Party was the formal name of the Conservative Party of Canada until 1873, although some Conservative candidates continued to run under the label as late as the 1911 election and others ran as simple Conservatives prior to 1873. ... The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation. ... The Unionist Party was formed in 1917 by Members of Parliament (MPs) in Canada who supported the Union government formed by Sir Robert Borden during World War I. In May 1917, Conservative Prime Minister Borden proposed the formation of a national unity government or coalition government to Liberal leader Sir... The National Liberal and Conservative Party was the name adopted by the Canadian Conservatives in 1920 after the end of the Unionist government of Robert Borden. ... National Government was the name used by the Conservative Party of Canada for the 1940 federal election under leader Robert Manion. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, KCMG, PC, QC, DCL, LL.D was born on January 11, 1815 in Glasgow, Scotland. ... The Hon. ... Sir John Sparrow David Thompson, KCMG, PC, QC, (November 10, 1845 – December 12, 1894) was a Canadian lawyer and judge who served as the fourth Prime Minister of Canada from December 5, 1892 to December 12, 1894 as well as Premier of Nova Scotia in 1882. ... Sir Mackenzie Bowell, PC , KCMG (December 27, 1823 – December 10, 1917) was the fifth Prime Minister of Canada from December 21, 1894 to April 27, 1896. ... Not to be confused with Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper who was Sir Charles Tuppers son. ... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC, GCMG, KC, DCL, LL.D (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... the best school name in the world Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett, PC, KC (July 3, 1870 – June 26, 1947) was the eleventh Prime Minister of Canada from August 7, 1930 to October 23, 1935. ... Robert James Manion (November 19, 1881 Pembroke, Ontario - July 2, 1943 Ottawa, Ontario) was a physician and Canadian politician. ... the best school name in the world Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... The Honourable Professor John Bracken, PC (June 22, 1883-March 18, 1969) was an agronomist, Premier of Manitoba (1922-1943) and leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (1942-1948). ... Colonel The Honourable George Alexander Drew, PC , CC , QC (May 7, 1894 - January 4, 1973) was a Canadian conservative politician who founded a Progressive Conservative dynasty in Ontario that lasted 42 years. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (18 September 1895 – 16 August 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... Robert Lorne Stanfield, PC, QC (April 11, 1914–December 16, 2003) was Premier of Nova Scotia and leader of the federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... {{Infobox Prime Minister | name=The Rt. ... Avril Phaedra Douglas Campbell, PC, QC, LL.B, LL.D (h. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Peter Gordon MacKay, PC, BA, LL.B, MP (born September 27, 1965) serves as the member of Parliament (MP) for Central Nova, Nova Scotia, Canadas Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister for the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party founded in 1987. ... The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... Ernest Preston Manning (born June 10, 1942, in Edmonton, Alberta), is a right-wing populist Canadian politician. ... Stockwell Burt Day Jr. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ...


Conservative (new) (2003-present): Harper The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-leaning conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ...

Persondata
NAME Clark, Charles Joseph
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Clark, Joe
SHORT DESCRIPTION 15th Prime Minister of Canada (1979-1980)
DATE OF BIRTH June 5, 1939
PLACE OF BIRTH High River, Alberta
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
Joe Clark - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3836 words)
Joe Clark was the son of the publisher of the local newspaper.
Clark was elected as Member of Parliament for Kings—Hants, Nova Scotia, in a by-election on September 11, 2000, and in the general election held two months later for Calgary Centre, Alberta.
Clark was also selected by the media and many parliamentarians for three years in a row to be Canada's most effective opposition leader between 2000 and 2002, pursuing the Liberal government on issues such as Shawinigate and the Groupaction scandal.
Joe Clark (441 words)
Joe Clark was the son of the publisher of the local newspaper and attended local schools and the University of Alberta, where he earned a bachelor's and a master's degree in political science.
Clark was elected as Member of Parliament for Kings-Hants, Nova Scotia in a by-election on September 11, 2000, and in the general election two months later for Calgary Centre, Alberta.
Clark announced his intention to step down as PC leader on August 6, 2002 and was replaced by Peter MacKay on May 31, 2003.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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