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Encyclopedia > Joe "King" Oliver
Joe "King" Oliver

Joseph Oliver, about 1915
Background information
Birth name Joseph Nathan Oliver [1]
Also known as King Oliver
Born December 19, 1885(1885-12-19)
Origin Aben, Louisiana, USA
Died April 10, 1938 (aged 52)
Genre(s) Jazz
Dixieland
Occupation(s) bandleader
Instrument(s) cornet
Associated acts Louis Armstrong
Johnny Dodds

Joe "King" Oliver, (December 19, 1885April 10, 1938) was a jazz cornet player and bandleader. He was particularly noted for his playing style, pioneering the use of mutes. Also a notable composer, he wrote many tunes still played regularly, including "Dippermouth Blues", "Sweet Like This", "Canal Street Blues", and "Doctor Jazz". Two of Louis Armstrong's most famous recordings, "West End Blues" and "Weather Bird," were Oliver compositions. His influence was such that Armstrong claimed [1], that 'if it had not been for Joe Oliver, Jazz would not be what it is today'. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Dixieland music is a style of jazz which developed in New Orleans at the start of the 20th century, and was spread to Chicago and New York City by New Orleans bands in the 1910s. ... A bandleader is the director of a band of musicians. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... Bâ™­ cornet The cornet is a brass instrument very similar to the trumpet, distinguished by its conical bore, compact shape, and mellower tone quality. ... Louis[1] Armstrong[2] (4 August 1901[3] – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo[4] and Pops, was an American jazz musician. ... Johnny Dodds (April 12, 1892 - August 8, 1940) was a jazz clarinetist, and older brother of drummer Baby Dodds. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Bâ™­ cornet The cornet is a brass instrument very similar to the trumpet, distinguished by its conical bore, compact shape, and mellower tone quality. ... A bandleader is the director of a band of musicians. ... see also Guitar Mute A mute is a device which alters the timbre and/or reduces the volume of a musical instrument. ... Louis[1] Armstrong[2] (4 August 1901[3] – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo[4] and Pops, was an American jazz musician. ... West End Blues is a multi-strain 12 bar blues composition by Joe King Oliver. ...

Contents

Life

Joseph Oliver was born in Aben, Louisiana near Donaldsonville in Ascension Parish, and moved to New Orleans in his youth. Oliver played cornet in the New Orleans brass bands and dance bands and also in the city's red-light district, Storyville. The band he co-led with trombonist Kid Ory was considered New Orleans' hottest and best in the 1910s. Oliver achieved great popularity in New Orleans across economic and racial lines, and was in demand for playing jobs from rough working class black dance halls to white society debutante parties. This article is about the U.S. State. ... The city of Donaldsonville is the parish seat of Ascension Parish in the US state of Louisiana, and is located on the west bank of the Mississippi River. ... Ascension Parish (French: Paroisse dAscension) is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana. ... NOLA redirects here. ... B♭ cornet The cornet is a brass instrument very similar to the trumpet, distinguished by its conical bore, compact shape, and mellower tone quality. ... A brass band a musical group consisting mostly or entirely of brass instruments, often with a percussion section. ... Storyville was the prostitution district of New Orleans, Louisiana from 1897 through 1917. ... Edward Kid Ory (December 25, 1886 – January 23, 1973) was a jazz trombonist and bandleader. ...


According to an interview at the Tulane's Hogan Jazz Archive with Oliver's widow Stella Oliver, in 1919 a fight broke out at a dance where Oliver was playing, and the police arrested Oliver and the band along with the fighters. This made Oliver decide to leave the Jim Crow South. Tulane University is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university located in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...


By 1922, after travels in California, Oliver was the jazz king in Chicago, with King Oliver and his Creole Jazz Band performing at the Royal Gardens (later renamed the Lincoln Gardens). Virtually all the members of this band went on to notable solo careers. Personnel were Oliver on cornet, his protegé Louis Armstrong, second cornet, Baby Dodds, drums, Johnny Dodds, clarinet, Lil Hardin (later Armstrong's wife), on piano, Honore Dutrey on trombone, and Bill Johnson, bass and banjo. Recordings made by this group in 1923 demonstrated the serious artistry of the New Orleans style of collective improvisation or Dixieland music to a wider audience. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Jazz royalty is a term that reflects the many great jazz musicians who have some sort of royal title in their names or nicknames. ... Louis[1] Armstrong[2] (4 August 1901[3] – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo[4] and Pops, was an American jazz musician. ... Warren Baby Dodds (December 24, 1898–February 14, 1959) was a jazz drummer born in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... For other uses, see Drum (disambiguation). ... Johnny Dodds (April 12, 1892 - August 8, 1940) was a jazz clarinetist, and older brother of drummer Baby Dodds. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... Lil Hardin Armstrong (February 3, 1898 - August 27, 1971) was a jazz pianist, composer, arranger, singer, and bandleader, and the second wife of Louis Armstrong with whom she collaborated on many recordings in the 1920s. ... Pianoforte redirects here. ... Honoré Dutrey (c. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... William Manuel Bill Johnson (August 10, 1872 – December 3, 1972), was a United States jazz musician, considered the father of the slap style of string bass playing. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... For other uses, see Banjo (disambiguation) The banjo is a stringed instrument developed by enslaved Africans in the United States, adapted from several African instruments. ... Dixieland music is a style of jazz which developed in New Orleans at the start of the 20th century, and was spread to Chicago and New York City by New Orleans bands in the 1910s. ...


In the mid and late 1920s Oliver's band transformed into a hybrid of the old New Orleans style jazz band and the nationally popular larger dance band, and was christened "King Oliver & His Dixie Syncopators". Although he suffered from gum disease which started to diminish his playing abilities, Oliver remained a popular band leader through the decade.


Unfortunately, Oliver's business acumen was less than his musical ability. A succession of managers stole money from him. He demanded more money for his band than the Savoy Ballroom was willing to pay, and lost the gig. In similar fashion, he lost the chance for an engagement at New York City's famous Cotton Club when he held out for more money; young Duke Ellington took the job and subsequently catapulted to fame. The Savoy Ballroom located in Harlem, New York City, was a medium sized ballroom for music and public dancing that was in operation from 1926 to 1958. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For the 1984 film of the same name, see The Cotton Club The Cotton Club was a famous night club in New York City that operated during and after Prohibition. ... This article is about the American Jazz composer and performer. ...


The Great Depression was harsh to Oliver; he lost his life savings when a Chicago bank collapsed, as he struggled to keep his band together on a series of hand-to-mouth gigs until the band broke up and Oliver was stranded in Savannah, Georgia, where he worked as a janitor at Wimberly's Recreation Hall (526-528 West Broad Street) and died in poverty at a rooming house (508 Montgomery Street). For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Savannah redirects here. ...


Work and influence

As a player, Oliver took great interest in altering his horn's sound. He pioneered in the use of mutes, including the plumber's plunger, derby hat, and bottles and cups in the bell of his horn. His recording "WaWaWa" with the Dixie Syncopators can be credited with giving the name wah-wah to such techniques. Seventh release by Manchester indie rock group, James. ...


Oliver was also noted as a composer, having written many tunes still regularly played, including "Dippermouth Blues", "Sweet Like This", "Canal Street Blues", and "Doctor Jazz". Two of Armstrong's most famous recordings, "West End Blues" and "Weather Bird," were Oliver compositions. West End Blues is a multi-strain 12 bar blues composition by Joe King Oliver. ...


Oliver performed mostly on cornet. Oliver credited Buddy Bolden, as an early influence. Oliver, in turn, was a major influence on many younger musicians in New Orleans and Chicago, including Tommy Ladnier, Paul Mares, Muggsy Spanier, Louis Panico, Johnny Wiggs, and most famously Louis Armstrong. B♭ cornet The cornet is a brass instrument very similar to the trumpet, distinguished by its conical bore, compact shape, and mellower tone quality. ... Charles Buddy Bolden (September 6, 1877–November 4, 1931) was a cornetist and the first New Orleans jazz musician to come to prominence and also credited as the founder of jazz. ... Tommy (Thomas J.) Ladnier (May 28, 1900 - June 4, 1939) was an American jazz trumpeter. ... Paul Mares (June 15, 1900 – August 18, 1949), was an early jazz cornet & trumpet player, and leader of the New Orleans Rhythm Kings. ... Joseph Muggsy Spanier (1906-1967) was a prominent white cornet player based in Chicago. ... Johnny Wiggs (July 25, 1899 - October 10, 1977) was a jazz musician and band leader. ... Louis[1] Armstrong[2] (4 August 1901[3] – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo[4] and Pops, was an American jazz musician. ...


Armstrong called Oliver "Papa Joe" and referred to Oliver as his idol and inspiration all his life. In Armstrong's autobiography, "Satchmo - My Life in New Orleans", he writes about Oliver:

It was my ambition to play as he did. I still think that if it had not been for Joe Oliver, Jazz would not be what it is today. He was a creator in his own right.

References

  1. ^ "Satchmo - My Life in New Orleans"

External links

  • Joseph Oliver at RedHotJazz.com
  • King Oliver
  • King Oliver's WWI Draft Registration Card and Essay

 
 

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