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Encyclopedia > Jochi

Jochi (also spelled Jöchi) (c. 1185-1227), was the first son of Genghis Khan's wife Börte. The wording here is important as shortly after her marriage to Genghis Khan (known as Temujin at the time), Börte had been abducted by the members of the Merkit tribe. She was given to a certain Chilger Boke, who was the brother of Merkit chief, as a spoil of war. She remained in Chilger Boke's captivity for a few months before she was recovered by Temujin. Shortly afterwards she gave birth to Jöchi. By all accounts, Genghis Khan treated Jochi as his first son, but a doubt always remained among the Mongols whether Temujin or Chilger Boke was the real father of Jochi. This uncertainty about his paternity was not without results. Jochi’s descendants, although they formed the oldest branch of the Genghis Khan’s family, were never considered for the succession of the empire. The descendants of Genghis Khan’s other sons apparently exploited the uncertainty so well that the Jochi’s branch of the family remained permanently ineligible in the election for the Khakhan (Great Khan). Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... Events Henry III of England declares himself of age and assumes power Births September 30 - Pope Nicholas IV Deaths March 18 - Pope Honorius III (b. ...   or Temüjin by birthname, (c. ... Börte Ujin was the Grand Empress of the Mongol Khan Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire. ... Genghis Khan (Mongolian: Чингис Хаан, Jenghis Khan, Jinghis Khan, Chinghiz Khan, Jinghiz Khan, Chinggis Khan, Chingis Khan, born as Temüjin, Temuchin, Mongolian: Тэмүүжин) (c. ... The Merkit are a Kazakh tribe that inhabited southeastern Siberia during the Middle Ages, regarded by their neighbours as being particularly ferocious. ... Mongols (Mongolian: Монгол Mongol, Turkish: MoÄŸollar) are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China or more specifically on the Central Asian plateau north of the Gobi desert and south of Siberia. ... Khagan or Great Khan, alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan, Khakhan, Khaghan, Kagan, Khaqan etc. ...


The word ‘Jochi’ means guest (or "the unexpected") in Mongolian. Some historians have ascribed meaning to the word in the context of Jochi’s uncertain paternity, but it does not seem to imply anything as ‘Jochi’ was a common name among Mongols.


The first major military campaign that Jochi commanded independently was when he was ordered to conquer the tribes residing between the Selenga and the Yenisey rivers in Siberia. He subdued Oirat, Kirghiz, Buryat, Barqun, Ursut and Tubas tribes residing in Siberian forests during this campaign of 1207-1208 and received the proud approval of his father for his achievements as a military commander. Genghis Khan then assigned these tribes and their territories to Jochi. The Buryats, numbering approximately 436,000, are the largest ethnic minority group in Siberia and are mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic. ...


Jochi continued to play an important role in his father’s campaigns till the Khwarezm campaign in early 1220’s. But as his younger brothers came of age and started asserting themselves in claiming their father’s heritage, there were signs of estrangement between Jochi and Genghis Khan. Jochi’s contribution in the Khwarezm war was extensive and he was responsible for capturing the towns of Signak, Jand and Yanikant in April 1220 during this war. Subsequently he was given the command of operation against the city of Urgench (Gurganj) which was the capital of the Khwarezm Empire. Here the siege of the town led to inordinate delays because Jochi engaged in extensive negotiation with the town to persuade it to surrender peacefully and save it from the destruction. This action was seen as militarily unsound by Chagatai. Chagatai wanted to destroy the city but Genghis Khan had promised the city to Jochi after his victory. This difference of opinion on military affairs deepened a rift between Jochi and Chagatai. Genghis Khan intervened in the campgain and appointed Ogedei as the commander of the operation. Ogedei resumed the operations vigorously and the town was duly captured, sacked, massacred and destroyed thoroughly. Khwarezmid Empire (1190-1220) Khwarezm (Uzbek: Xorazm, Russian: Хорезм Khorezm, Persian: خوارزم Khwārazm, Arabic: خوارزم Khwārizm, Chinese: 花剌子模 Hualazimo) was a state centred on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as the eastern shores... Khwarezmid Empire (1190-1220) Khwarezm (Uzbek: Xorazm, Russian: Хорезм Khorezm, Persian: خوارزم Khwārazm, Arabic: خوارزم Khwārizm, Chinese: 花剌子模 Hualazimo) was a state centred on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as the eastern shores... Ögedei, (also Ögädäi, Ögedäi, etc. ...


The differences in tactics between Jochi and Chagataiin early 1221 added to their personal quarrel about the succession. To settle the matter, Genghis Khan called a khuriltai. The formal formal meeting was used in both familial matters and matters of state. Temujin was elected/appointed Khan of his tribe during a khuriltai and he called for them often during his early campaigns to garner public support for his wars. These meetings were key to Genghis Khan legitimacy. Tribal tradition was also critical. As Genghis Khan's first born son, Jochi, was favored to rule the clan and the empire after his father died. At the familial khuriltai called in 1222, the issue of Jochi's legitimacy was brought up by Chagatai. At that meeting, Genghis Khan made it clear that Jochi was his legitimate first born son. However, he worried that the quarrelsome nature of the two would split the empire. By early 1223 Genghis Khan had selected Ogedei, his third son, as his successor. For the sake of preserving the Empire, both Jochi and Chagatai agreed but the rift between them never healed. Their rift would later politically divide the European part of the Mongol Empire from its Asian part permanately. Chagatai can refer to different things: Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan Chagatai language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In the autumn of 1223 Genghis Khan started for Mongolia after completing the Khwarezm campaign. Ogedei, Chagatai and Tolui went with him but Jochi withdrew to his territories north of Aral and Caspian Seas. There he remained till his death and would not see his father again in his lifetime. Perhaps the selection of Ogedei as a successor to Genghis Khan had greatly disappointed him; this is a probable explanation for Jochi's withdrawal from court life.


Though the histories are unclear, there is evidence that Jochi conspired against Genghis, and that Genghis in return pondered a pre-emptive strike. When Genghis Khan returned home he sent for Jochi. When the latter refused to obey Genghis Khan sent Chagatai and Ogedei against him. But before it came to open hostilities, news came that Jochi had died in February 1227.


Genghis Khan had divided his empire among his four surviving sons during his lifetime. Jochi was entrusted with the westernmost part of the empire, then lying between Ural and Irtish rivers. In the khuriltai of 1229 following Genghis Khan’s death, this partition was formalized and Jochi’s family (Jochi himself had died six months before Genghis Khan) was allocated the lands in the west up to ‘as far as the hooves of Mongol horses had trodden'. Following the Mongol custom, Genghis Khan bequeathed only four thousand ‘original’ Mongol troops to each of his three elder sons and 101,000 to Tolui, his youngest son. Consequently Jochi’s descendants extended their empire mostly with the help of auxiliary troops from the subjugated populations which happened to be Turkish. This was the chief reason why Golden Horde acquired a Turkish identity. Jochi's inheritance was divided among his sons Orda and Batu, who founded the White Horde and the Blue Horde, respectively, and would later combine their territories into the Kipchak Khanate or Golden Horde. Another of Jochi’s son Shiban’s territories lay north of Batu and Orda’s Ülüs. Orda was a Mongol khan, the eldest grandson of Genghis Khan, son of Jöchi and the founder of White Horde. ... Batu Khan (Russian: , Ukrainian: ) (c. ... The Golden Horde (also known as Kipchak or Qipchaq Khanate) was a Tatar state established in present day Russia by unification of Blue Horde and White Horde around 1378. ... The Golden Horde (Turkish: Altın Ordu) was a Turkic state established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. ...


Genghis Khan had made Jochi responsible for the supervision and conduct of the community hunt. Hunting was essentially a large scale military exercise designed specifically for the training of the army. It frequently encompassed thousands of square kilometers of area, required the participation of several tumens and lasted anywhere between one to three months. Rules and procedure of the conduct of the military exercise were encoded in the Yasa. Yassa, alternatively Yasa, was the written code of law created by Genghis Khan It was in force in the Mongol empire. ...


Certain incidences hint towards the fact that Jochi was of a kinder disposition than Genghis Khan, though the adjective “kind” must be interpreted by the standards of his times and milieu because Jochi had had his share of indulgence in massacres of civilians. On one occasion Jochi pleaded with Genghis Khan to spare the life of a son of an enemy chief who had been taken captive and who happened to be a great archer. Jochi argued that such a great archer can be an asset to the Mongol army. Genghis khan brushed aside this argument and had the captive executed.


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Batu Khan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1207 words)
Batu was a son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan.
Although Genghis Khan recognized Jochi as his son, his parentage was always a question, as his mother Börte, Genghis Khan's wife, had been captured and raped, so that Jochi was born exactly nine months after her recovery by Genghis Khan.
Batu Khan, son of Jochi, was the overall leader, but Subutai was the actual commander in the field, and as such was present in both the northern and southern campaigns against Russia and Ukraine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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