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Encyclopedia > Job (Biblical figure)
William Blake's imagining of Satan inflicting boils on Job.
William Blake's imagining of Satan inflicting boils on Job.

Job (Hebrew: אִיּוֹב, Standard Iyyov Tiberian ʾIyyôḇ ; Arabic: أيوب, Ayub), is a character in the Book of Job in the Hebrew Bible. In brief, the book begins with an introduction to Job's character — he is described as a rich, blessed man who fears God and lives righteously. Satan, however, challenges Job's integrity, and so God gives Job into Satan's hand, ending in tragedy for Job: the loss of his children, wealth, and physical soundness. The main portion of the text consists of the discourse of Job and his three friends concerning why Job was so punished, ending in God answering Job. Job is also a prophet in Islam. Image File history File links Job-Blake. ... Image File history File links Job-Blake. ... William Blake in an 1807 portrait by Thomas Phillips William Blake (November 28, 1757–August 12, 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker. ... This page is about the concept of Satan. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Arabic ( or just ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... This page is about the concept of Satan. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ...

Contents

In the Hebrew Bible

Job is a figure in the Hebrew Bible, his story concentrated in the book bearing his name. Described as upright, virtuous, and religious, he was wealthy in terms of slaves and cattle, which at the time were the principal wealth of princes in Arabia and Edom. He is said to have lived in the land of Uz. He had seven sons and three daughters and was "the greatest man among all the people of the East." (Job 1:1-3) 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Edom (אֱדוֹם, Standard Hebrew Edom, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔḏôm, Assyrian Udumi, Syriac ܐܕܘܡ), a Hebrew word meaning red, is a name given to Esau in the Hebrew Bible, as well as to the nation that purportedly traced their ancestry to him. ... The ancient kingdom of Edom. ...


His sons took turns entertaining each other with feasts; each time they completed a cycle of feast days, Job sent to them and purified them, offering burn-offerings for each one in case any of them had cursed God in their hearts. He was "blameless and upright; he feared God and shunned evil. His good character is discussed in depth later in the book.(Job 1:1;4,5) This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


In one assembly of the angels before God, Satan also comes, having patrolled the earth. Satan asserts that Job does not really love God, but fears God for blessing. To show that this is not so, God tested Job by giving Satan power over his property and family. In rapid succession, Job is suddenly informed by four servants of four different tragedies to strike his household. First, Sabeans slaughtered his servants and took away his oxen and donkeys. Second, a fire from heaven had consumed his sheep and servants with them. Third, the Chaldeans formed raiding parties and carried away his camels, killing the servants with them. Fourth and finally, a mighty wind brought down the house his sons and daughters were eating in, collapsing on and killing them all. Each time, only the servant delivering the message had escaped the catastrophe. (Job 1:6-19) The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. ... This page is about the concept of Satan. ... Harran, also known as Carrhae, is an archeological site in present day southeastern Turkey, 24 miles (39 kilometers) southeast of Sanli Urfa. ... Map showing the location of Tel Kaif, Iraq and the neighboring areas. ...


Job responded by tearing his clothes and shaving his head, and began to worship, saying, "Naked I came from my mother's womb, and naked I will depart. The LORD gave and the LORD has taken away; may the name of the LORD be praised." In all this Job did not sin by charging God with wrongdoing. (Job 1:20-22)


Job maintained his righteousness despite his loss, but Satan was still unsatisfied. Therefore, he received permission to afflict Job's person, though he could not take his life. So, Job became diseased with painful sores all over his body. Job was forced to relieve the pain by scraping himself with a piece of broken pottery. His wife incited him to "curse God, and die" but Job answered "Shall we receive good at the hand of God, and shall we not receive evil?" Even then Job did not sin by cursing God. (Job 2:1-10)


Some of Job's friends learned of his misfortunes and came to visit him. These were Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite. A fourth was Elihu the Buzite; from Chapter 32 bears a distinguished part in the dialogue that ensues between the friends. They sat with Job in silence for seven days. Job finally speaks up, complaining of his misery, to which his friends respond; each time his friends accuse Job of having sinned in some way to explain his punishment, urging him to repent and submit to His justice, but each time Job argues back that he had been innocent and did not deserve these punishments, also arguing that God sometimes tries those He loves, to allow them to grow spiritually, or for some other reason unknown to foolish mankind. (Job 3-31) one of Jobs friends, probably a descendant of Eliphaz, son of Esau (Job 4:1). ... One of Jobs three friends. ... In the Book of Job, Zophar or Tzófar (צוֹפַר Chirping; rising early, Standard Hebrew Ẓófar, Tiberian Hebrew Ṣôp̄ar) is one of the friends of Job who visits to confort him during his illness. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ...


The English expression "Job's comforter" derives from these incidents meaning someone who aggravates the distress of the unfortunate person that they have come to comfort.


When Job's first three friends stop answering Job, Elihu becomes angry with Job for justifying himself rather than God, angry with the three friends for condemning Job but not being able to refute him. So, he takes a middle path, emphasizing the sovereignty of God (Job 32-27). To settle the matter, God Himself appears in a cloud and decides in favour of Job, but He did not approve of the harsh words Job used in his suffering. Job humbly acknowledges his fault and asks forgiveness. The Lord condemns his friends, and directs them to make amends for their sins with sacrifices, coupled with Job's prayers. He restores Job to good health, gives him double the riches he had previously possessed, blesses him with a beautiful and numerous family, and crowns a holy life with a happy death. Job lived 140 years after his time of trial, 248 years in all, long enough even to see his great-grandchildren.(Job 32-42)


Job is also mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel (14:14,20), along with Noah and Daniel (or Danel), as among the most righteous men to emphasize the intensity of Jerusalem's sin. Ezekiel redirects here. ... Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépmüvészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... Daniel (Hebrew: דָּנִיֵּאל; transliterated as Daniyyel in Standard Hebrew and Dāniyyêl in Tiberian Hebrew, Arabic: Danyel, دانيال) is the name of at least three people from the Hebrew Bible: A Jewish exile in Babylon, the subject of the Book of Daniel and the most well-known of the three Daniels. ...


The Testament of Job

Job is also the protagonist of a book in the Hebrew Bible Apocrypha called the Testament of Job. It is discussed in greater detail in its own article; see Testament of Job. Apocrypha (from the Greek word απόκρυφα meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... The Testament of Job is a book written in the 1st century BCE or the 1st century CE, elaborating upon the Book of Job with many parallels to Christian belief. ...


Jewish view of Job

Classical Torah scholarship has not doubted Job's existence. He was seen as a real and powerful figure. Some scholars of Orthodox Judaism maintain that Job was in fact one of three advisors that Pharaoh consulted, prior to taking action against the increasingly multiplying "Children of Israel" mentioned in the Book of Exodus during the time of Moses' birth. The episode is mentioned in the Talmud (Tractate Sotah): Balaam gives evil advice urging Pharaoh to kill the Hebrew male new-born babies; Jethro opposes Pharaoh and tells him not to harm the Hebrews at all, and Job keeps silent and does not reveal his mind even though he was personally opposed to Pharaoh's destructive plans. It is for his silence that God subsequently punishes him with his bitter afflictions. [1]. Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmudic texts (The Oral Law) and as subsequently developed and applied by the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Pharaoh is a title used to refer to any ruler, usually male, of the Egyptian kingdom in the pre-Christian, pre-Islamic period. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt Moses or Mosheh (Hebrew: מֹשֶׁה Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: موسى, ; Geez: ሙሴ Musse) was an early Biblical Hebrew religious leader, lawgiver, prophet, and historian. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Balaam (Hebrew בִּלְעָם, Standard Hebrew Bilʻam, Tiberian Hebrew Bilʻām; could mean glutton or foreigner, but this etymology is uncertain), is a prophet in the Bible, his story occurring in the Book of Numbers. ... Jethro (יִתְרוֹ Standard Hebrew Yitro, Tiberian Hebrew Yiṯrô, Shoaib Arabic Quran His excellence/posterity) is a figure from the Hebrew Bible. ...


There is a minority view among Rabbinical scholars, for instance that of Rabbi Simeon ben Laqish, that says Job never existed (Midrash Genesis Rabbah LXVII). In this view, Job was a literary creation by a prophet who used this form of writing to convey a divine message. On the other hand, the Talmud (in Tractate Baba Batra 15a-16b) goes to great lengths trying to ascertain when Job actually lived, citing many opinions and interpretations by the leading sages. Job is further mentioned in the Talmud as follows [2]: For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy Rabbi (Sephardic Hebrew רִבִּי ribbī; Ashkenazi Hebrew רֶבִּי rebbī or rebbə; and modern Israeli רַבִּי rabbī) in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root-word RaV, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished (in... Simeon ben Lakish (in Hebrew, Shimon ben Lakish; in Aramaic, Shimon bar Lakish or bar Lakisha), better known by his nickname of Resh Lakish, was a Palestinian amora of the third century CE. He was reputedly born in Bostra, east of the Jordan River, in around 200 CE, but lived... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... In religion, a prophet is a person who has directly encountered God, of whose intentions he can then speak as if he were a formal representative of God. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Telemachus and Mentor Illustration of Les Aventures de Télémaque by François Fénelon The wise old man (or Senex) is an archetype as described by Carl Jung. ...

  • Job's resignation to his fate (in Tractate Pesachim 2b)
  • When Job was prosperous, anyone who associated with him even to buy from him or sell to him, was blessed (in Tractate Pesachim 112a)
  • Job's reward for being generous (in Tractate Megillah 28a)
  • King David, Job and Ezekiel described the Torah's length without putting a number to it (in Tractate Eruvin 21a)

This page is about the Biblical king David. ... Ezekiel the Prophet of the Hebrew Scriptures is depicted on a 1510 Sistine Chapel fresco by Michelangelo. ...

In Christianity

Christianity accepts the Book of Job as canon in the Old Testament and thus contains the same information regarding Job as discussed above in the Hebrew Bible. In addition, Job is mentioned in the New Testament: the Epistle of James 5:11 cites Job as an example of perseverance in suffering. The New Testament also quotes and references the Book of Job throughout. Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... The Epistle of James is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ...


Job's declaration "I know that my Redeemer lives" (Job 19:25) is considered by Christians to be a proto-Christian statement of belief, and is the basis of several Christian hymns. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity. ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ...


Some hold that Job was not a real historical figure. In this view, the narrative is a parable, written under divine inspiration in order to teach theological truths, but was never meant to be taken as literally true in a historical sense. An ill digested lesson The Governess. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason) means reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God. ...


In Islam

The front entrance to the tomb of the Prophet Job, at the Druze region of Lebanon (Al-Chouf)
The front entrance to the tomb of the Prophet Job, at the Druze region of Lebanon (Al-Chouf)
The tomb of Job, outside Salalah, Oman

In the Qur'an he is known as Ayyūb (Arabic: أيوب ), which is Arabic for Job, and is considered a prophet in Islam. In the Arabic language the name of Job (Ayyūb) is symbolic of the virtue of patience, though it does not mean patience in itself. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1013 KB) This picture was taken on May 11th, 2006 in the Druze mountain region of Lebanon (El-Chouf). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1013 KB) This picture was taken on May 11th, 2006 in the Druze mountain region of Lebanon (El-Chouf). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2832 KB) I am the author. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2832 KB) I am the author. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎ , literally the recitation; also called The Noble Quran; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran), is the central religious text of Islam. ... Arabic ( or just ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ...


Local traditions regarding Ayyub (Job)

In Palestinian folk tradition Job's place of trial is Al-Joura, a village outside the town of Al Majdal (now Ashkelon). It was there God rewarded him with a fountain of youth that removed whatever illnesses he had, and gave him back his youth. The town of Al-Joura was a place of annual festivities (4 days in all) when people of many faiths gathered and bathed in a natural spring. The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... The Arab town of Al Majdal (Majdal, Migdal) was described as a large village in the 16th century. ... Ashkelon or Ashqelon (Hebrew אַשְׁקְלוֹן; Standard Hebrew Ašqəlon; Tiberian Hebrew ʾAšqəlôn; Arabic عسقلان ; Latin Ascalon) was an ancient Philistine seaport on the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea just north of Gaza. ... The Fountain of Youth by Lucas Cranach the Elder The Fountain of Youth is a legendary spring that reputedly restores the youth of anyone who drinks of its waters. ...


In Turkey, Job is known as Eyyup. It is believed that Job and Elias were buried at Eyyup Nebi, near Viranşehir. The Prophet Elias, by Daniele da Volterra Elias is the latinised version of the Greek name Ηλια(Ï‚), pronounced e-lee-a(s) in Greek and English e-lie-us. ... ViranÅŸehir is a town in Åžanlıurfa Province, in southeastern Turkey. ...


There is also a tomb of Job outside the city of Salalah in Oman. Salalah from space, November 2004 Classification City Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said Area ?,???km² [1] Population  - Total (2005)  - Density  - Oman calculated rank 178,447[2] ???.??/km² 2nd Timezone: (UTC) +4 Latitude Longitude 17. ...


Additionally, the Druze community also maintains a tomb for the Prophet Job in the El-Chouf mountain district in Lebanon. (See photo on right) Cultural Heritage Druze star The Druze or Druz (also known as Druse; Arabic: derzī or durzī درزي, pl. ...


In Mormonism

According to Latter-day Saint (Mormon) belief, Christ referred to Job in a revelation to Mormon founder and prophet Joseph Smith, Jr.. The revelation is dated March 20, 1839, while Smith was a prisoner at Liberty Jail, Missouri. In response to Smith's plea ("O God, where art thou? And where is the pavilion that covereth thy hiding place? ... How long shall [thy people] suffer these wrongs and unlawful oppressions, before thine heart shall be softened toward them, and thy bowels be moved with compassion toward them?..."), Christ reminded Smith that his sufferings were not as severe as were Job's: "Thy friends do stand by thee, and they shall hail thee again with warm hearts and friendly hands. Thou art not yet as Job; thy friends do not contend against thee, neither charge thee with transgressions, as they did Job" (Doctrine and Covenants 121:1-3, 9-10). A Latter-day Saint is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the most-recognized architectural symbol of Mormonism For other uses, see Mormon (disambiguation). ... This page is about the title or the Divine Person. For the Christian figure, see Jesus. ... Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Liberty Jail is a prison in Liberty, Missouri where Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Doctrine and Covenants The Doctrine and Covenants (sometimes referred to as the D&C) is a part of the open scriptural canon of Mormonism. ...


See also

This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

External links

References to Ayyub (Job) in the Qur'an

  • Job's prophecy: 4:163, 6:84
  • Trial and patience: 21:83, 21:84, 38:41, 38:42, 38:44
Prophets of Islam in the Qur'an
Adam Idris Nuh Hud Saleh Ibrahim Lut Ismail Is'haq Yaqub Yusuf Ayub
آدم ادريس نوح هود صالح ابراهيم لوط اسماعيل اسحاق يعقوب يوسف أيوب
Adam Enoch Noah Eber Shelah Abraham Lot Ishmael Isaac Jacob Joseph Job

Shoaib Musa Harun Dhul-Kifl Daud Sulayman Ilyas Al-Yasa Yunus Zakariya Yahya Isa Muhammad
شعيب موسى هارون ذو الكفل داود سليمان إلياس اليسع يونس زكريا يحيى عيسى محمد
Jethro Moses Aaron Ezekiel David Solomon Elijah Elisha Jonah Zecharias John Jesus
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Job (Biblical figure) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1614 words)
Job is a figure in the Hebrew Bible, his story concentrated in the book bearing his name.
In addition, Job is mentioned in the New Testament: the Epistle of James 5:11 cites Job as an example of perseverance in suffering.
Job's declaration "I know that my Redeemer lives" (Job 19:25) is considered by Christians to be a proto-Christian statement of belief, and is the basis of several Christian hymns.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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