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Encyclopedia > Joaquin Murrieta
Artist's rendition of Joaquin Murrieta (artist unknown, ca. 1848)
Artist's rendition of Joaquin Murrieta (artist unknown, ca. 1848)

Joaquin Murrieta (sometimes spelled Murieta or Murietta) (1829–ca. 1853), also called the Chilean Robin Hood or the Robin Hood of El Dorado, was a semi-legendary figure in California during the California Gold Rush in the 1850s. He was either an infamous bandit or a patriot, depending on one's point of view. Whatever the truth of the matter, his name has, for some political activists at least, symbolized resistance against Anglo-American economic and cultural domination in California. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x760, 170 KB) Summary Joaquin, the Mountain Robber (ca. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x760, 170 KB) Summary Joaquin, the Mountain Robber (ca. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... The California Gold Rush (1848-1855) was the first world-class gold rush. ... See Anglo-America for the term denoting mixed English and American influence or heritage or those parts of (or groups within) America which have a tie to or which are influenced by England or simply English-speaking America. ...


The site of his birth is disputed: Either Quillota, Chile (near Valparaiso), or in Alamos, in the northwestern state of Sonora, Mexico. Some scholars contend his maternal side has Cherokee Indian ancestors from the Southeast US migrated to Chile in the late 18th century. Folklore claimed Joaquin Murrieta, a noble landowner supposedly to have mainly Spanish criollo blood, sympathized with the struggle of Native Americans equally that of Mexicans and Spanish-Americans he encountered in his residence in 1850s California. The city of Quillota is located in the Aconcagua river valley, in the Valparaiso region of Chile. ... Valparaiso is the name of at least three cities and a village: Valparaíso, Chile Valparaiso, Florida Valparaiso, Indiana Valparaiso, Nebraska This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The name Álamos can refer to the following: Álamos, Guanajuato Álamos, Sonora This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sonora is a state in northwestern Mexico, bordering the states of Chihuahua to the east, Sinaloa to the south, and Baja California to the northwest. ... The Cherokee, or (Unicode: ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ) (ah-ni-yv-wi-ya) in the Cherokee language, are a people indigenous to North America, who at the time of European contact in the 16th century inhabited what is now the Eastern and Southeastern United States. ... Criollo is a Spanish term (feminine criolla, plural criollos/criollas) which may refer to: The Spanish Criollo peoples, a caste in the Spanish colonial caste system. ... An Aani (Atsina) named Assiniboin Boy. ...


It is said he first went to California in 1850 to seek his fortune in the California Gold Rush. Instead of opportunity, he instead encountered racism and discrimination. Unable to make a living legally, Murrieta became one of the leaders of the band called The Five Joaquins, which included Joaquin Botellier, Joaquin Carrillo, Joaquin Ocomorenia, and Joaquin Valenzuela. Between 1850 and 1853 these men, along with Murietta's right hand man "Three-Fingered Jack" (Manuel Garcia), were said to be responsible for the majority of cattle rustling, robberies, and murders that were committed in the Mother Lode area of the Sierra Nevadas. They are credited with stealing more than $100,000 in gold, over 100 horses, killing 19 people (mostly Chinese mine workers), and having outrun three posses, killing three lawmen. At the time no one was certain of the name of the leader, so he was simply called Joaquin, and it was further uncertain if it was one band or more than one. The band was supposedly supported by Californios, who protected them, Robert Livermore among them. The California Gold Rush (1848-1855) was the first world-class gold rush. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Gold Country (also Mother Lode Country) is a region of northeastern California famed for the mines and mineral deposits which so famously brought the 49ers west for the California Gold Rush. ... The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range that is almost entirely in the eastern portion of the U.S. state of California. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... In common law, posse comitatus (Latin, roughly translated as to be able to be made into part of a retinue or force) referred to the authority wielded by the county sheriff to conscript any able-bodied male over the age of fifteen to assist him in keeping the peace or... The Californios were Spanish-speaking inhabitants of New Spains, and later Mexicos, Alta California. ... On December 15, 1799, six-week old Robert Thomas Livermore was christened at a parish church in Springfield, England. ...


On May 11, 1853, John Bigler, who was Governor of California at the time, signed a legislative act creating the "California State Rangers", lead by Captain Harry Love (a former Texas Ranger), whose purpose was to arrest the Five Joaquins. The California Rangers were paid $150 a month and stood a chance to split a $5000 reward for the capture of Murrieta. On July 25, 1853 a group of these rangers encountered a group of Mexican males near Panoche Pass in San Benito County, about 100 miles away from the Mother Lode and 50 away from Monterey. A confrontation occurred and two of the Mexicans were killed—one claimed to be Murrieta and the other thought to be Garcia. May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... John Bigler 3rd Governor of California John Bigler (January 8, 1805–November 29, 1871) was Governor of California from January 8, 1852 until January 9, 1856. ... Governors Arnold Schwarzenegger and Gray Davis with President George W. Bush (2003) Seal of the Governor of California (without the Roman numerals designating the governors sequence) See also: List of pre-statehood governors of California, List of Governors of California The Governor of California is the highest executive authority... The California State Rangers was the states first state wide law enforcement agencies formed in 1854 to deal with gangs during the mid 1800s. ... Harry Love (1810 – June 29, 1868) was the head of Californias first law enforcement agency, the California State Rangers, and became famous for allegedly killing the notorious bandit Joaquin Murrieta. ... Texas Rangers, a body of law enforcement in the state of Texas which is the oldest law enforcement body in North America with statewide jurisdiction and serves as a State Bureau of Investigation. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... San Benito County is a county located in the California Coast Range Mountains south of San Jose. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Cradle of History, Californias First City Location Location of Monterey, California Government County Monterey Mayor Dan Albert Geographical characteristics Area     City 11. ...

A poster advertising the display of the supposed head of Murrieta ca. 1853
A poster advertising the display of the supposed head of Murrieta ca. 1853

The Rangers took Garcia's hand and Murrieta's head as evidence of their death and displayed them in a jar, preserved in brandy. The jar was displayed in Mariposa County, Stockton and San Francisco and traveled throughout California, where spectators could, for $1, see the remains. Seventeen people, including a priest, signed affidavits identifying the remains as Murrieta's and Love and his Rangers received the reward money. However, a young woman claiming to be Murrieta's sister said she did not recognize the head and argued that it could not be her brother's since it did not have a characteristic scar on it. Additionally, numerous sightings of Murrieta were reported after his death was announced. Many people criticized Love for showing the remains in large cities far from the mining camps, where Joaquin might have been recognized. It has even been claimed that Love and his Rangers killed some innocent Mexicans and made up the story of the capture of Murrieta to claim the reward money. The head was lost in the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (566x672, 351 KB) Poster advertising the display of the bandit Joaquin Murietas head. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (566x672, 351 KB) Poster advertising the display of the bandit Joaquin Murietas head. ... Brandy pot stills at the Van Ryn Brandy Cellar near Stellenbosch, South Africa. ... Mariposa County is a county located in Californias Central Valley, north of Fresno and southeast of Stockton. ... City nickname: Californias Sunrise Seaport City slogan: Stocktons Great, Take A Look! County: San Joaquin Area code: 209 ZIP code: 952xx Area:  - Total  - Water 144. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... An affidavit is a formal sworn statement of fact, signed by the declarant (who is called the affiant), and witnessed (as to the veracity of the affiants signature) by a taker of oaths, such as a notary public. ... Arnold Genthes famous photograph of San Francisco following the earthquake, looking towards the fire on Sacramento Street The San Francisco earthquake of 1906 was a major earthquake that struck San Francisco and the coast of northern California at 5:12am on Wednesday, April 18, 1906. ...


Soon after his reported death, Murrieta became the subject of story and legend. In 1854 the first fictionalized account of his life appeared in a San Francisco newspaper and in a book by Cherokee author John Rollin Ridge. It tells a story of how his wife was raped and killed, his brother hanged for a crime he did not commit and how Murrieta swore to avenge them by killing all the Yanquis or gringos he could find. Although there is no evidence to confirm that this actually happened to a man named Joaquin Murrieta, similar things did happened to other Mexicans living in California at that time. This fictional account also inspired corridos depicting him as a fierce avenger of injustices against Mexicans. John Rollin Ridge (Indian Name: Yellow Bird) was an early Native American author, a member of the Cherokee tribe, the son of John Ridge, and the grandson of Major Ridge. ... Suicide by hanging. ... The term Yankee has a variety of meanings. ... Look up gringo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The corrido is a popular narrative song and poetry form of the mestizo Mexican cultural area (which includes the Southern states of the United States, taken from Mexican sovereignship in the mid to late 19th. ...


The siting of his birthplace in Chile seems to be a result of reports that Murrieta sided with Chilean miners during the "Chilean War". A portion of Ridge's novel was reprinted in 1859 in the California Police Gazette. This story was then subsequently translated into Spanish, which was translated into French, and finally the French version was translated back to Spanish by Roberto Hynne, who claimed to have been in California during the gold rush. This final version had Murrieta born in Chile instead of Mexico. Chili Gulch (also spelled Chile Gulch) is a gulch in Calaveras County, California. ...


The University of California, Berkeley has a housing cooperative named in his honor, "Casa Joaquin Murrieta." However, the city of Murrieta, California is not named after him. The University of California, Berkeley (also known as UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, and by other names, see below) is the oldest and flagship campus of the ten-campus University of California system. ... A housing co-operative is a legal entity that owns real estate, one or more residential buildings. ... Westward view of Murrieta/Temecula. ...


Murrieta in media

Since then, he has been a widely used romantic figure in novels, stories, films and on TV.

  • Murrieta is depicted as a largely sympathetic character in the 1936 William A. Wellman film The Robin Hood of El Dorado [1].
  • The fictional character of Zorro was in part inspired by the stories about Murrieta. In fact, a person with his name appears in The Mask of Zorro, as do characters based on Three-Fingered Jack and Harry (here Harrison) Love. In the film, after Joaquin's death, his brother, Alejandro (Antonio Banderas) becomes the new Zorro, and later kills Captain Love in revenge.
  • Throughout the Mother Lode region of California, there are dozens of saloons, bars, hotels and places where Murrieta is said to have robbed, slept or been.
  • He makes a cameo appearance in the novel by Isabel Allende, Hija de Fortuna (Daughter of Fortune).
  • His story is told in the play, Fulgor y Muerte de Joaquin Murieta, (The Splendor and Death of Joaquin Murrieta), by Pablo Neruda.
  • The Russian rock opera, Zvezda i smert´ Khoakina Mur´ety (The Star and Death of Joaquin Murrieta), by Alexei Rybnikov and Pavel Grushko, based on the play.
  • A tribute song to this Chilean rebel can be heard in Premonicion de la Muerte de Joaquin Murieta, performed by Quilapayún
  • Victor Jara, Chilean singer-songwriter assassinated by the Pinochet regime in Chile, also wrote the songs El Aparecido and Asi Como Hoy Matan Negros paying homage to Joaquin Murieta.
  • The Sons of the San Joaquin included a song called The Ballad of Joaquin Murrieta on their Way Out Yonder album.
  • The Murrieta Bandits semi-pro soccer team in Murrieta, California, its' namesake might originated from the legacy of Joaquin Murrieta, known as a bandit but was a hero who wanted to win a cause.

See also: 1935 in film 1936 1937 in film 1930s in film years in film film // Events January 6 - first Porky Pig animated cartoon September 28 - The Marx Brothers Harpo Marx marries actress Susan Fleming Top grossing films in North America Red River Valley Academy Awards Best Picture: The Great... William Augustus Wellman (February 29, 1896 - December 9, 1975) was an American movie director. ... Zorro (sometimes with the definite article : El Zorro), Spanish for Fox, is the secret identity of Don Diego de la Vega (originally Don Diego Vega), a fictional nobleman and master swordsman living in Spanish-era California. ... The Mask of Zorro (1998) is an American action film directed by Martin Campbell, and stars Antonio Banderas, Anthony Hopkins, Catherine Zeta-Jones and Stuart Wilson. ... José Antonio Domínguez Banderas (born August 10, 1960), better known as Antonio Banderas, is a Spanish film actor. ... Isabel Allende Llona (born August 2, 1942) is a Chilean writer, who is considered one of the most popular novelists in the world today. ... Pablo Neruda (July 12, 1904 – September 23, 1973) was the pen name of the Chilean writer and communist politician Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto. ... Quilapayún Quilapayún are an instrumental and vocal folk musical group from Chile and the most lasting and influential exponents of the Nueva canción (New Song) movement. ... Víctor Lidio Jara Martínez (September 23, 1932 – September 16, 1973) was a Chilean folk singer and activist. ...

See also

Tiburcio Vasquez Tiburcio Vasquez (August 11, 1839–March 19, 1875) was a Mexican bandit who was active in California from as early as 1857 to his last capture in 1874. ... Gregorio Cortez Lira (born June 22, 1875 near Matamoros, Tamaulipas—February 28, 1916) was a Mexican American social bandit who became a hero to other Mexican American Texans and a symbol of the willingness to fight for equal rights. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Joaquin Murrieta (631 words)
Whatever the truth may or may not be, the legend of Joaquin Murrieta is an important part of the history of California.
According to legend, Joaquin Murrieta was born in Mexico and travelled to Saw Mill Flat (some say Shaw Flat), California at the height of the Gold Rush.
Sightings of Joaquin were reported in various places and people who claimed to have known him declared that the head in the bottle was not his.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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