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Encyclopedia > Jizya

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In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. The tax is not supposed to be levied on slaves, women, children, monks, the old, the sick,[1] hermits and the poor,[2] though these provisions were abandoned in some later periods of Muslim history.[3] Non-Muslim citizens who pay the tax are permitted to practice their faith and to enjoy a measure of communal autonomy as well as being entitled to Muslim protection from outside aggression and being exempted from military service amongst numerous other exemptions to levies upon Muslim citizens.[4][5][6] This article is about Islamic religious law. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Taxation from the perspective of people who came under the Muslim rule, was a concrete continuation of the taxes paid to earlier regimes,[7] but now lower under the Muslim rule[4][8][9] and from the point of view of the Muslim conqueror was a material proof of the payer's subjection.[7]

Contents

Definitions

Shakir and Khalifa's English translations of the Qur'an render jizya as "tax", while Pickthal translates it as "tribute". Yusuf Ali prefers to transliterate the term as jizyah. This lawful tax was not meant to be applied to slaves, women, children, monks, the old, the sick, hermits, the poor, and homosexuals. Mohammad Habib Shakir, born Cairo 1866, died Cairo 1939, translated the Quran into English. ... Rashad Khalifa, 1989 Rashad Khalifa (November 19, 1935–January 31, 1990) was an Egyptian-born American biochemist who founded the United Submitters International. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... (Mohammed) Marmaduke William Pickthall, (1875–May 19, 1936), a Western Islamic scholar, noted as a poetic and accurate translator of the Quran into English. ... For other uses, see Tribute (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Transliteration in a narrow sense is a mapping from one script into another script. ...


Commentators disagree on the definition and derivation of the word jizya:

  • Yusuf Ali states "The derived meaning, which became the technical meaning, was a poll-tax levied from those who did not accept Islam, but were willing to live under the protection of Islam, and were thus tacitly willing to submit to the laws enforced by the Muslim State."[10]
  • Monqiz As-Saqqar attributes the word jizya to the root word jaza meaning "compensate" and defines it as "a sum of money given in return for protection".[11]
  • Shaikh Sayed Sabiq, in the Fiqh Alsunna (a commonly used source of fiqh), also states that the underlying root of the word jizya is jaza, and defines it as "A sum of money to be put on anyone who enters the themah (protection and the treaty of the Muslims) from the people of the book".[12]
  • Ibn Al-Mutaraz derives the word from 'idjzã, meaning "substitute" or "sufficiency" because "it suffices as a substitute for the dhimmi's embracement of Islam."[11]
  • Al-Marghinani, in his classical 12th century legal commentary The Hedaya (or al Hidayah), states that jizya means "retribution", and defines it as "a species of punishment, inflicted upon infidels on account of their infidelity, whence it is termed Jizyat"[citation needed]
  • Yusuf al-Qaradawi says the word jizya is derived from the jazaa', meaning "reward", "return", or "compensation", and defines it as "a payment by the non-Muslim according to an agreement signed with the Muslim state".[13]
  • Edward William Lane, in An Arabic-English Lexicon defines jizya as a "tax that is taken from the free non-Muslim subjects of a Muslim government whereby they ratify the compact that assures them protection, as though it were compensation for not being slain".[14]
  • Ibn Rushd explains that jizya is in fact a broader concept than just a head-tax. It also includes monies exacted in times of war from infidel enemies – what is normally understood in English by the word ‘tribute’ – as well as levies (‘ushr) on infidel merchants who are trading in the Dar al-Harb.[15]

In practice, the word is applied to a special type of tax, levied upon the non-Muslim adult males living under an Islamic state. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The term People of the Book (Hebrew עם הספר, Am HaSefer) is used in Judaism where it refers specifically to the Jewish people and the Torah. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... Qazi Halb Burhan-ud-din (Arabic: ) was an Islamic scholar, presumably a Hanafi [1]. // His full name was Sheikh Burhan Al Din Al Farghani Al Marghinani . ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Hidayah is the Arabic word for present or gift. ... This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ... Edward William Lane (1801 - 1876), Arabic scholar, son of a prebendary of Hereford, where he was born, began life as an engraver, but going to Egypt in search of health, devoted himself to the study of Oriental languages and manners, and adopted the dress and habits of the Egyptian man... Averroes (1126 - December 10, 1198) was an Andalusi philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics and medicine. ...


Sources

Qur'an

The imposition of jizya upon non-Muslims is mandated by the Qur'an 9:29: The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold forbidden that which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.[16] Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ...

This is the only Qur'anic verse that enjoins struggle against people of the book.[17] Patricia Crone states that this verse is the only Qur'anic verse which seems to endorse war of aggression, however if read as a continuation of previous verses (Qur'an 9:1-23), it would be concerned against a particular group of "dualists" (musyrikun) who are accused of oath-breaking and aggression (cf. Qur'an 9:30)[18] Patricia Crone, Ph. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Hadith

Jizya is mentioned a number of times in the hadith. Common themes across multiple hadith (and often multiple collections of hadith) include Muhammad ordering his military commanders to fight non-Muslims until they accepted Islam or paid the jizya, Muhammad and a number of caliphs imposing jizya on various peoples, and the eventual abolition of jizya by Jesus' Second Coming. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ...


Sunan Abu-Dawud

  • Sunan Abu-Dawud Book 13, Number 2955 mentions that Umar ibn al-Khattab levied jizya on non-Muslims in return for providing protection to them.
  • Book 19, Number 2955 has Umar ibn al-Khattab stating that he provided protection for non-Muslims by levying jizya on them, and neither took one-fifth from it, nor took it as booty.
  • Book 19, Number 3031 states that Muhammad captured Ukaydir, the Christian prince of Dumah, and spared his life and made peace with him on the condition that he paid jizya.
  • Book 37, Number 4310 states that Jesus will come again, and at that time will (among other things) abolish jizya, as Allah will "perish all religions except Islam".[19]

Abu Daud, full name Abu Daud Sulayman ibn Ash`ath al-Azadi al-Sijistani, was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and wrote the third of the six canonical hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, Sunan Abi Daud. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Look up booty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ...

Sahih Bukhari

  • Sahih Bukhari Volume 2, Book 24, Number 559 states that the King of Aila wrote to Muhammad that his people agreed to pay the jizya tax in return for being allowed to stay in their place.
  • Volume 3, Book 34, Number 425 states that Jesus will abolish the jizya, as does Volume 4, Book 55, Number 657.
  • Volume 4, Book 53, Number 384 states that Umar did not take the jizya from the "Magian infidels" (Zoroastrians) until he heard testimony that Muhammad had taken the jizya from the Magians of Hajar.
  • Volume 4, Book 53, Number 385 states that Muhammad collected jizya from the people of Bahrain, as do Volume 5, Book 59, Number 351 and Volume 8, Book 76, Number 43.
  • Volume 4, Book 53, Number 386 states that Muhammad commanded Al-Mughira and his army to fight non-Muslims until they worshiped Allah alone or gave jizya.
  • Volume 4, Book 53, Number 404 has Muhammad stating that one day Allah will make the dhimmis "so daring that they will refuse to pay the Jizya they will be supposed to pay".
  • Volume 5, Book 57, Number 50 states, "...I also recommend him concerning Allah's and His Apostle's protectees (i.e. Dhimmis) to fulfill their contracts and to fight for them and not to overburden them with what is beyond their ability..."

The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ...

Sahih Muslim

  • Sahih Muslim Book 1, Numbers 287 and 289 state that the "son of Mary" will "descend as a just judge" and, among other things, abolish the jizya.
  • Book 19, Number 4294 states that Muhammad commanded his military leaders to demand jizya from non-Muslims if they refused to accept Islam, and to fight them if they refused to pay.
  • Book 32, Number 6328 states that Hisham b. Hakim b. Hizam passed by Syrian farmers who had been detained for jizya and made to stand in the sun, and Number 6330 states that he came by some Nabateans who had been detained "in connection with the dues of jizya". In both cases his response was to quote Muhammad as saying "Allah would torment those persons who torment people in the world."
  • Book 42, Number 7065 states that that Muhammad collected jizya from the people of Bahrain.

Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... According to the New Testament, Mary (Judeo-Aramaic מרים Maryām Bitter; Arabic مريم (Maryam); Septuagint Greek Μαριαμ, Mariam, Μαρια, Maria; Geez: ማሪያም, Māryām; Syriac: Mart, Maryam, Madonna), was the mother of Jesus of Nazareth, who at the time of his conception was the betrothed wife of Saint Joseph (cf. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans, a people of ancient Arabia, whose settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the border-land between Syria and Arabia from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ...

Al-Muwatta

  • Al-Muwatta of Malik Book 17, Number 17.24.42 states that Muhammad collected jizya from the "Magians" (Zoroastrians) of Bahrain, Umar ibn al-Khattab from Magians of Persia, and Uthman ibn Affan from the Berbers.
  • Book 17, Number 17.24.44 states that Umar ibn al-Khattab imposed a jizya tax of four dinars on those living where gold was the currency, and forty dirhams on those living where silver was the currency. As well, they had to "provide for the Muslims and receive them as guests for three days".
  • Book 17, Number 17.24.45 states that Umar ibn al-Khattab took a camel branded as jizya (not zakat) and ordered for it to be slaughtered, the meat placed on platters with fruits and delicacies, and distributed to the wives of Muhammad. He then had the remainder prepared and invited the Muhajirun and the Ansar to eat it. Malik stated regarding this "I do not think that livestock should be taken from people who pay the jizya except as jizya."
  • Book 17, Number 17.24.46 states that Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz relieved those who converted to Islam from paying jizya. It also gives the sunnah on those who must pay jizya, principally non-Muslim males who have reached puberty, rather than zakat, as zakat is for the purpose of purifying Muslims, whereas jizya is for the purpose of humbling non-Muslims. It also outlines the additional jizya travelling traders must pay, and the rationale for that.

The Muwatta is a collection of hadith of the Muhammad that form the basis for the jurisprudence of the Maliki school. ... Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Amr al-Asbahi (Arabic مالك بن أنس) (c. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Persia redirects here. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... A 25,000 Iraqi dinar note printed after the fall of Saddam Hussein A hyperinflation banknote of 50 billion dinara (1993) A 5,000 dinar bill of the Republic of Serbian Krajina (1992) The dinar is the currency unit of various countries, most of them Arabic-speaking or once part... Dirham is a unit of currency in several Arabic-speaking nations, including: Islamic Dirham The Moroccan dirham The United Arab Emirates dirham 1/1000 of the Libyan dinar 1/100 of the Qatari riyal 1/10 of the Jordanian dinar The dirham, spelt diram, is 1/100 of the Tajikistani... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (c. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus...

Application

Jizya was applied to every free adult male member of the People of the Book, and/or non-Muslim living in lands under Muslim rule and the funds were collected for the benefit of the Muslim Ummah. There was no amount permanently fixed for the tax, though the payment usually depended on wealth: the Kitab al-Kharaj of Abu Yusuf sets the amounts at 48 dirhams for the richest (e.g. moneychangers), 24 for those of moderate wealth, and 12 for craftsmen and manual laborers.[20] Females, children, the poor, and hermits were exempt. The disabled and elderly were exempt unless they were independently wealthy, as were mendicant monks—those living in productive monasteries had to pay. Though jizya was mandated specifically for other monotheistic faiths (Judaism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism), under the Maliki school of Fiqh jizya was extended to all non-Muslims.[21] Thus some Muslim rulers also collected jizya from Hindus and Sikhs under their rule. The collection of the tax was sometimes the duty of the elders of those communities, but often it was collected directly from individuals, in accordance with specific payment rituals described in the writings of Muslim jurists. The term People of the Book (Hebrew עם הספר, Am HaSefer) is used in Judaism where it refers specifically to the Jewish people and the Torah. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Dirham is a unit of currency in several Arabic-speaking nations, including: Islamic Dirham The Moroccan dirham The United Arab Emirates dirham 1/1000 of the Libyan dinar 1/100 of the Qatari riyal 1/10 of the Jordanian dinar The dirham, spelt diram, is 1/100 of the Tajikistani... The term mendicant refers to begging or otherwise relying on charitable donations, and is most widely used for religious followers or ascetics who rely exclusively on charity to survive. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ...


In return for the tax, those who paid the jizya were permitted to keep their non-Muslim religion. They could not serve in the military or bear arms, but their community was considered to be under the protection of the Muslim state, subject to their meeting certain conditions. Non-Muslims were also exempt from zakat, or mandatory charity paid by Muslims. If someone refused to pay the jizya, he could be imprisoned, according to Abu Yusuf.[22] This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ...


Refusal to pay the jizya tax resulted in warfare until the Islamic rule was accepted. The change from Byzantine and Persian rule to Arab rule lowered taxes and created greater religious freedom, and was welcomed by some Jews and Christians. Nevertheless, taxation was a concern for non-Muslims who were paying a higher tax than the zakat tax paid by Muslims. It was also an important factor persuading many dhimmis to convert to Islam, though during the first century after the Arab conquest of Syria and Palestine conversion to Islam was not encouraged "partly because the jizyah constituted an important source of state revenue".[23] Bernard Lewis, Professor Emeritus of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University, states that the discrimination in the amount of taxation was inherited from the previous Byzantium and Iranian empires.[4][24][25] Scholars differ as to the exact burden imposed by the jizya tax. Documentary evidence, including that found in eleventh-century Cairo Geniza documents, suggest that the burden, at least for the poorer classes, was heavy. As the taxation amount was fixed in gold, it became less burdensome over the centuries.[26] For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... The Cairo Geniza is an accumulation of Jewish manuscripts written from about 870 to as late as 1880 CE, that were found in the geniza of the synagogue of Fustat (Old Cairo), Egypt (built 882), the Busatin cemetery east of Old Cairo, and a number of old documents that were...


So it was vital during the spread of Islam to note, that since the Jizyah was lower than taxes paid by populations during Byzantine and Persian Rule, and since it is equated to Zakat tax paid by muslims, earliest forms of common liabilty citizenships not only encouraged non-muslims to accept muslim rule but was instrumental in the conversions of poorer adherents of other faiths into Islam as they would have become the recipients of the zakat which was the islamic form of Social Welfare. Thus these taxation regulations promoted conversion. This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... ...


In modern times, the jizya and zakat taxes have been replaced by other forms of taxation. One effect worth noting, has emerged in the 19th and 20th century, was that finally church funded charities have emerged mimicking the zakat in the Middle East which has significantly decreased economic-based apostasy. Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ...


Islamic legal commentary

  • Al-Mawardi (the famous Shafi’i jurist of Baghdad), stated in al-Ahkam as-Sultaniyyah (The Laws of Islamic Governance) that jizya is paid by the enemy in return for peace, and if the payment of jizya ceases, then jihad is resumed.[27] In this context, Jizya is similar to protection money, or could even be viewed as extortion.
  • The Shia jurist, Grand Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi states in Tafsir Nemooneh that the main philosophy of jizya is that it is only a financial aid to those Muslims who are in the charge of safeguarding the security of the state and Dhimmi's lives and properties on their behalf[28]
  • Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi's Chapter Introductions to the Quran states that Muslims were enjoined to tolerate the "misguidance" of non-Muslims "only to the extent that they might have the freedom to remain misguided if they chose to be so provided that they paid Jizyah as a sign of their subjugation to the Islamic State."[29]
  • Malik, in Al-Muwatta (Book 17, Number 17.24.45), protests the practice of summarily appropriating livestock from dhimmis; he states that livestock should only be taken as jizya. In Book 17, Number 17.24.46, he states that the sunnah is that jizya is only taken from male dhimmis and Zoroastrians who have reached puberty. Jizya is imposed on non-Muslim "People of the Book" to humble them; also, they do not have to pay zakat, which is paid by Muslims as mandatory charity. If the non-believers remain in one country, they pay no other property taxes; however, if they do business in multiple Muslim countries, then they have to pay ten percent of the value of the traded goods each time they move to another country. The reason given is that jizya is imposed on the condition (which they have agreed to) that they will stay in one country and avail of the security thus availed them by their submission; if they do business in multiple countries, then this is outside the stipulated agreements and conditions for jizya, and therefore they must pay ten percent each time. Malik also states that this was the practice in his city. Finally, in Book 21, Number 21.19.49a Malik states that when one collects jizya from a people who surrendered peacefully, then they are allowed to keep their land and property. However, if they are overcome in battle and forced to give jizya, then their land and property become booty for Muslims.
  • Al-Zamakhshari, a Mu'tazili author of one of the standard commentaries on the Qur'an,[30] said that "the Jizyah shall be taken from them with belittlement and humiliation. The dhimmi shall come in person, walking not riding. When he pays, he shall stand, while the tax collector sits. The collector shall seize him by the scruff of the neck, shake him, and say "Pay the Jizyah!" and when he pays it he shall be slapped on the nape of the neck."[30]
  • Abu Yusuf, an eighth century Hanafi jurist states in his Kitab al-Kharaj that "The wali [governor of a province] is not allowed to exempt any Christian, Jew, Magian, Sabean, or Samaritan from paying the tax, and no one can obtain a partial reduction. It is illegal for one to be exempted and another not, because their lives and possessions are spared only on account of the payment of the jizya.[31] He also cautions that "[n]o one of the ahl al-dhimma should be beaten in order to exact payment of the jizya, nor made to stand in the hot sun, nor should hateful things be inflicted upon their bodies, or anything of that sort. Rather, they should be treated with leniency. [. . .] It is proper, O Commander of the Faithful--may Allah be your support--that you treat leniently those people who have a contract of protection from your Prophet and cousin, Muhammad--may Allah bless him and grant him peace. You should look after them, so that they are not oppressed, mistreated, or taxed beyond their means."[32]
  • Javed Ahmed Ghamidi writes in Mizan that certain directives of the Qur’an were specific only to Muhammad against peoples of his times, besides other directives, the campaign involved asking the polytheists of Arabia for submission to Islam as a condition for exoneration and the others for jizya and submission to the political authority of the Muslims for exemption from death punishment and for military protection as the dhimmis of the Muslims.[33][34]

Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib al-Mawardi (d. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... A protection racket is an extortion scheme whereby a powerful organization coerces individuals or businesses to pay protection money which allegedly serves to purchase the organizations protection services against various external threats, whereas the actual threat comes from the organization itself. ... Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person either obtains money, property or services from another through coercion or intimidation or threatens one with physical harm unless they are paid money or property. ... It has been suggested that Introduction of Islam (book) be merged into this article or section. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Amr al-Asbahi (Arabic مالك بن أنس) (c. ... The Muwatta is a collection of hadith of the Muhammad that form the basis for the jurisprudence of the Maliki school. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... The term People of the Book (Hebrew עם הספר, Am HaSefer) is used in Judaism where it refers specifically to the Jewish people and the Torah. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Look up booty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Zamakhshari [Abu-1 Qasim Mahmud ibn Umar uz-Zamakhshari] (1070 (?)-1143) was a Persian learned man of medieval times. ... Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Islam. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... Yaqub ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari, better known as Abu Yusuf (Arabic:أبو يوسف) (d. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Javed Ahmed Ghamidi (Urdu: جاوید احمد غامدی) (b. ... Not to be confused with Tafsir al-Mizan (a quranic tafsir). ... The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al KarÄ«m or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... A Dhimmi, or Zimmi (Arabic ذمّي), as defined in classical Islamic legal and political literature, is a person living in a Muslim state who is a member of an officially tolerated non-Muslim religion. ...

History

Early Islam and the Rashidun Caliphate

Jizya was levied in the time of Muhammad on vassal tribes under Muslim protection, including Jews in Khaybar, Christians in Najran, and Zoroastrians in Bahrain. William Montgomery Watt traces its origin to a pre-Islamic practice among the Arabian nomads wherein a powerful tribe would agree to protect its weaker neighbors in exchange for a tribute, which would be refunded if the protection proved ineffectual.[35] Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Ruins of a Jewish Fortress at Khaybar Khaybar (خيبر) is the name of an oasis some 95 miles to the north of Medina (ancient Yathrib), Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Najran is a province of Saudi Arabia, located in the south of the country along the border with Yemen. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ...


Muhammad himself sent a letter to the Christians and Jews of Elath requiring the imposition of jizya: Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-ʿAqabah; Standard Hebrew עקבה) is a coastal town in the far south of Jordan. ...

I have no intention of fighting you before writing to you. Thou hast to accept Islam, or pay the tax, and obey God and his Messenger and the messengers of his Messenger, and do them honour and dress them in fine clothing, not in the raiment of raiders; therefore clothe Zayd in fine robes, for if you satisfy my envoys, you will satisfy me. Surely the tax is known to you. Therefore if you wish to be secure on land and on sea, obey God and his Messenger and you will be free of all payments that you owed the Arab [tribes] or non-Arabs, apart from the payment to God [which is] the payment of his Messenger. But be careful lest thou do not satisfy them, for then I shall not accept anything from you, but I shall fight you . . . . Come then, before a calamity befalls you...[36]

Under Caliph Umar the Zoroastrian Persians were given People of the Book status, and jizya was levied on them. Christian Arab tribes in the north of the Arabian Peninsula refused to pay jizya, but agreed to pay double the amount, and calling it sadaqa, a word meaning "alms" or "charity". According to Yusuf al-Qaradawi the name change was done for the benefit of the Christian tribesmen, "out of consideration for their feelings".[37]Fred Donner, however, in The Early Islamic Conquests, states that the difference between sadaqa and jizya is that the former was levied on nomads, whereas the latter was levied on settled non-Muslims. Donner sees sadaqa as being indicative of the lower status of nomadic tribes, so much so that that Christian tribesmen preferred to pay the jizya. Jabala b. al-Ayham of the B. Ghassan is reported asked Umar "Will you levy sadaqa from me as you would from the [ordinary] bedouin (al-'arab)?" Umar acceded to collecting jizya from him instead, as he did from other Christians.[38] For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... The term People of the Book (Hebrew עם הספר, Am HaSefer) is used in Judaism where it refers specifically to the Jewish people and the Torah. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Arabia redirects here. ... This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... language|Arabic]]:الغساسنة) were [[Arab Christian|Arab it is assumed that the Ghassanids adopted the religion of Christianity from the native Aramaeans and Romans. ...


Sir Thomas Arnold, an early 20th century orientalist, gives an example of a Christian Arab tribe which avoided paying the jizya altogether by fighting alongside Muslim armies "such was the case with the tribe of al-Jurajimah, a Christian tribe in the neighbourhood of Antioch, who made peace with the Muslims, promising to be their allies and fight on their side in battle, on condition that they should not be called upon to pay jizya and should receive their proper share of the booty".[39] Orientalism is the study of Near and Far Eastern societies and cultures, by Westerners. ...


In his message to the people of Al-Hirah, Khalid bin Walid is recorded as saying (in reference to the jizya), "When a person is too old to work or suffers a handicap, or when he falls into poverty, he is free from the dues of the poll tax; his sustenance is provided by the Muslim Exchequer."[40] A letter attributed to Khalid bin Walid said that "This is a letter of Khalid ibn al-Waleed to Saluba ibn Nastuna and his people; I agreed with you on al-jezyah and protection. As long as we protect you we have the right in al-jezyah, otherwise we have none.”[41] A manuscript from the 15th century describing the constructing of Al-Khornaq castle In Al-Hira,The Lakhmids capital city Al HÄ«ra (Arabic,الحيرة) was an ancient city located south of al-Kufah in south-central Iraq. ... Khalid bin Walid (AKA:Syaifullah/Sword of Allah);(584 - 642) was a Muslim Arab soldier and general. ...


According to Muslim accounts of Umar, in his time some payers of the jizya were compensated if they had not been cared for properly. The accounts vary, but describe his meeting an old Jew begging, and assisting him; according to one version:

Umar said to him, "Old man! We have not done justice to you. In your youth we realized Jizyah from you and have left you to fend for yourself in your old age". Holding him by the hand, he led him to his own house, and preparing food with his own hands fed him and issued orders to the treasurer of the Bait-al-mal that that old man and all others like him, should be regularly doled out a daily allowance which should suffice for them and their dependents.[42]

Mughal India

In India, Islamic rulers imposed jizya starting in the 11th century. It was abolished by Akbar. However, Aurangzeb, the last prominent Mughal Emperor, levied jizya on his mostly Hindu subjects in 1679.[43]The imposition of jizya, after it had not been collected by previous emperors for 117 years, created enormous opposition and sectarian strife which started the decline of the Mughal Empire. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages)[1] is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Events January 24 - King Charles II of England disbands Parliament August 7 - The brigantine Le Griffon, which was commissioned by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes. ... Flag Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857...


Nineteenth century

In Persia, jizya was paid by Zoroastrian minority until 1884, when it was removed by pressure on the Qajar government from the Persian Zoroastrian Amelioration Fund.[44] Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ...


In 1894 jizya was still being collected in Morocco; an Italian Jew described his experience there: 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

The kadi Uwida and the kadi Mawlay Mustafa had mounted their tent today near the Mellah [Jewish ghetto] gate and had summoned the Jews in order to collect from them the poll tax [jizya] which they are obliged to pay the sultan. They had me summoned also. I first inquired whether those who were European-protected subjects had to pay this tax. Having learned that a great many of them had already paid it, I wished to do likewise. After having remitted the amount of the tax to the two officials, I received from the kadi’s guard two blows in the back of the neck. Addressing the kadi and the kaid, I said” ‘Know that I am an Italian protected subject.’ Whereupon the kadi said to his guard: ‘Remove the kerchief covering his head and strike him strongly; he can then go and complain wherever he wants.’ The guards hastily obeyed and struck me once again more violently. This public mistreatment of a European-protected subject demonstrates to all the Arabs that they can, with impunity, mistreat the Jews.[45][46] Mellah is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in Morocco, an analogue of the European ghetto. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ...

The jizya was eliminated in Algeria and Tunisia in the 19th century, but continued to be collected in Morocco until the first decade of the 20th century.[47]


Criticism

Criticism of jizya has typically focused not only on its specific application to non-Muslims, but also its humiliating nature. It has been described as a demonstration of "constitutional inferiority and humiliation".[48] According to Khaled Abou Al-Fadl: Dr. Khaled Abou El Fadl (born 1963 in Kuwait) is a controversial professor of law at the UCLA School of Law where he teaches Islamic law, immigration, human rights, international and national security law. ...

[Jizya] is conducive to an arrogance that can easily descend into a lack of respect or concern for the well-being or dignity of non-Muslims. When this arrogant orientation is coupled with textual sources that exhort Muslims to fight against unbelievers (kuffar), it can produce a radical belligerency.[49] This article is about an Islamic term. ...

Orientalist S.D. Goitein writes: Orientalism is the study of Near and Far Eastern societies and cultures, by Westerners. ... Shelomo Dov Goitein (April 3, 1900 — February 6, 1985) was an Arabist, historian, Jewish ethnographer, famous for his expositions of Jewish life in the Islamic Middle Ages, based on the analysis of thousands of Geniza documents, in particular, for his monumental 5-volume work A Mediterranean Society. ...

It was, of course, evident that the tax represented a discrimination and was intended, according to the Koran's own words, to emphasize the inferior status of the non-believers. It seemed, however, that from the economic point of view, it did not constitute a heavy imposition, since it was on a sliding scale, approximately one, two, and four dinars, and thus adjusted to the financial capacity of the taxpayer. This impression proved to be entirely fallacious, for it did not take into consideration the immense extent of poverty and privation experienced by the masses, and in particular their way of living from hand to mouth, their persistent lack of cash, which turned the "season of the tax" into one of horror, dread, and misery. The provisions of ancient Islamic law which exempted the indigent, the invalids and the old, were no longer observed in the Geniza period and had been discarded by the Shāfi‘ī School of Law, which prevailed in Egypt, also in theory.[50] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Shāfi‘ī madhab () is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ...

See also

Devshirmeh (Turkish devşirme) refers to the system used by the Ottoman sultans to tax newly conquered states, and build a loyal slave army and class of administrators: the Janissaries. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... Gabr (also gabrak, gawr, gaur, gyaur, gabre) is a New Persian term originally used to denote a Zoroastrian. ... In Islamic law, kharaj is a tax on land, specifically agricultural land. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Minority religion is the religion held by a minority of the population of a country, state, or region. ... Second class citizen is an informal term used to describe a person who is discriminated against or generally treated unequally within a state or other political jurisdiction. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jizye (Hungarian: harács) was a tax imposed on non-Muslim men in Ottoman Hungary (1526 to 1699). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Shahid Alam, Articulating Group Differences: A Variety of Autocentrisms, Journal of Science and Society, 2003
  2. ^ Ali (1990), pg. 507
  3. ^ " The provisions of ancient Islamic law which exempted the indigent, the invalids and the old, were no longer observed in the Geniza period and had been discarded by the Shāfi‘ī School of Law, which prevailed in Egypt, also in theory." Goiten, S.D. "Evidence on the Muslim Poll Tax from Non-Muslim Sources", Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 1963, Vol. 6, pp. 278-279.
  4. ^ a b c John Louis Esposito, Islam the Straight Path, Oxford University Press, Jan 15, 1998, p. 34.
  5. ^ Lewis (1984), pp. 10, 20
  6. ^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (1991). The Holy Quran. Medina: King Fahd Holy Qur-an Printing Complex, pg. 507
  7. ^ a b Cl. Cahen in Encyclopedia of Islam, Jizya article
  8. ^ Lewis 1984 p.18
  9. ^ Lewis (2002) p.57
  10. ^ Ali (1991), p. 507
  11. ^ a b Jizya in Islam, Load-Islam
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ [2]
  14. ^ An Arab-English Lexicon, E.W. Lane
  15. ^ Ibn Rushd (2002). Vol. 2, p.464.
  16. ^ Sura 9:29, translation of Yusuf Ali (Universalunity.net Parallel Translation of the Qur'an)
  17. ^ "Ethics and the Qur’an,” in Encyclopedia of the Qur’an, vol. 2, ed. Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Leiden: Brill, p. 73.
  18. ^ Patricia Crone, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, War article, p.456
  19. ^ [3]
  20. ^ Abu Yusuf, Kitab al-Kharaj, quoted in Stillman (1979), pp. 159–160
  21. ^ Seed, Patricia. Ceremonies of Possession in Europe's Conquest of the New World, 1492-1640, Cambridge University Press, Oct 27, 1995, pp. 79-80.
  22. ^ Stillman (1979), p. 160.
  23. ^ Cleveland, William L. A History of the Modern Middle East, Westview Press, Nov 1, 1999, p. 15.
  24. ^ Lewis (2002) p.57
  25. ^ Lewis (1984), pp. 14–15 , p.26
  26. ^ Lewis 1984, p.26
  27. ^ http://www.secularislam.org/articles/bostom.htm]
  28. ^ Tafsir Nemooneh, Grand Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi, on verse 9:29
  29. ^ Maududi, Sayyid Abul Ala. The Meaning of the Qur'an, "Chapter 9: Tauba", A. A. Kamal (Editor).
  30. ^ a b Lewis, Bernard. The Jews of Islam, Princeton University Press, Jun 1, 1987, pp. 14-15.
  31. ^ Le Livre de l’impôt foncier (Kitâb el-Kharâdj). Translated into French and annotated by Edmond Fagnan. Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1921. English translation from Bat Ye’or The decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam, p. 322.
  32. ^ 'Abu Yusuf, Kitab al-Kharaj, quoted in Stillman (1979)., pp. 160–161.
  33. ^ Javed Ahmed Ghamidi, Mizan, Chapter:The Islamic Law of Jihad, Dar ul-Ishraq, 2001. OCLC: 52901690 [4]
  34. ^ Misplaced Directives, Renaissance, Al-Mawrid Institute, Vol. 12, No. 3, March 2002.[5]
  35. ^ William Montgomery Watt (1980), pp. 49–50.
  36. ^ Gil, Moshe. A History of Palestine: 634-1099, Cambridge University Press, 1997, p. 28.
  37. ^ [6]
  38. ^ Donner, Fred McGraw. The Early Islamic Conquests, Princeton University Press, 1981, p. 251.
  39. ^ [7]
  40. ^ [8]
  41. ^ [9]
  42. ^ [10]
  43. ^ [11]
  44. ^ "The Zoroastrians who remained in Persia (modern Iran) after the Arab–Muslim conquest (7th century AD) had a long history as outcasts. Although they purchased some toleration by paying the jizya (poll tax), not abolished until 1882, they were treated as an inferior race, had to wear distinctive garb, and were not allowed to ride horses or bear arms." Gabars, Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 29 May 2007.
  45. ^ Bostom, Andrew. "The Legacy of Jihad in Historical Palestine (Part I)", The American Thinker, November 19, 2005.
  46. ^ Bat Yeor. Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2002, pp. 70-71.
  47. ^ "Though in Tunisia and Algeria the jizya/kharaj practice was eliminated during the 19th century, Moroccan Jewry still paid these taxes as late as the first decade of the twentieth century." Michael M. Laskier, North African Jewry in the Twentieth Century: Jews of Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria, NYU Press, 1994, p. 12.
  48. ^ The Jizyah Tax: Equality And Dignity Under Islamic Law? by Walter Short, debate.org.uk
  49. ^ Abou Al-Fadl, Khaled. The Place of Tolerance in Islam, Beacon Press, 2002, p. 13.
  50. ^ Goiten, S.D. "Evidence on the Muslim Poll Tax from Non-Muslim Sources", Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 1963, Vol. 6, pp. 278-279.

The Shāfi‘ī madhab () is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ... Shelomo Dov Goitein (April 3, 1900 — February 6, 1985) was an Arabist, historian, Jewish ethnographer, famous for his expositions of Jewish life in the Islamic Middle Ages, based on the analysis of thousands of Geniza documents, in particular, for his monumental 5-volume work A Mediterranean Society. ... A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... The Encyclopedia of Islam (EI) is a scholarly encyclopedia covering all aspects of Islamic civilization and history. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... N. Stillman Norman Arthur Stillman is the Schusterman-Josey Professor and Chair of Judaic History at the University of Oklahoma. ... It has been suggested that Introduction of Islam (book) be merged into this article or section. ... The Meaning of the Quran (Arabic: Tafhim al-Quran) is a book in six volumes written by the Sunni Islamic scholar Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi (1903-1979). ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... Javed Ahmed Ghamidi (Urdu: جاوید احمد غامدی) (b. ... Al-Mawrid is an Islamic research institute in Lahore, Pakistan. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... Moshe Gil (b. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Bat Yeor is the pseudonym of an Egyptian_born British researcher; it means daughter of the Nile in Hebrew. ... Dr. Khaled Abou El Fadl (born 1963 in Kuwait) is a controversial professor of law at the UCLA School of Law where he teaches Islamic law, immigration, human rights, international and national security law. ... Shelomo Dov Goitein (April 3, 1900 — February 6, 1985) was an Arabist, historian, Jewish ethnographer, famous for his expositions of Jewish life in the Islamic Middle Ages, based on the analysis of thousands of Geniza documents, in particular, for his monumental 5-volume work A Mediterranean Society. ... A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ...

References

  • Abou Al-Fadl, Khaled. The Place of Tolerance in Islam, Beacon Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8070-0229-1
  • Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (1991). The Holy Quran. Medina: King Fahd Holy Qur-an Printing Complex. 
  • Bat Ye'or. The Decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam. From Jihad to Dhimmitude. Seventh-Twentieth Century (Madison/Teaneck, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press/Associated University Presses, 1996)
  • Bat Yeor. Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2002. ISBN 0838639437
  • Bostom, Andrew. "The Legacy of Jihad in Historical Palestine (Part I)", The American Thinker, November 19, 2005.
  • Cleveland, William L. A History of the Modern Middle East, Westview Press, Nov 1, 1999. ISBN 0-8133-3489-6
  • Donner, Fred McGraw. The Early Islamic Conquests, Princeton University Press, 1981.
  • Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 29 May 2007.
  • John Louis Esposito. Islam the Straight Path, Oxford University Press, Jan 15, 1998. ISBN 0-19-511233-4
  • Gil, Moshe. A History of Palestine: 634-1099, Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-521-59984-9
  • Goiten, S.D. "Evidence on the Muslim Poll Tax from Non-Muslim Sources", Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 1963, Vol. 6.
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  • Ibn Warraq. Why I Am Not A Muslim, Prometheus Books (hardcover), 1995. ISBN 0-87975-984-4
  • Laskier, Michael M. North African Jewry in the Twentieth Century: Jews of Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria, NYU Press, 1994. ISBN 0814751296
  • Lewis, Bernard. The Jews of Islam, Princeton University Press, Jun 1, 1987. ISBN 0-691-00807-8
  • Maududi, Sayyid Abul Ala. The Meaning of the Qur'an, A. A. Kamal (Editor). ISBN 1-56744-134-3
  • Seed, Patricia. Ceremonies of Possession in Europe's Conquest of the New World, 1492-1640, Cambridge University Press, Oct 27, 1995, ISBN 0-521-49757-4
  • Stillman, Norman: The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book (Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society of America, 1979).
  • Watt, William Montgomery, Islamic Political Thought: The Basic Concepts (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1980).

Dr. Khaled Abou El Fadl (born 1963 in Kuwait) is a controversial professor of law at the UCLA School of Law where he teaches Islamic law, immigration, human rights, international and national security law. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Bat Yeor (Hebrew: בת יאור) (meaning daughter of the Nile in Hebrew; a pseudonym of Gisèle Littman, née Orebi) is a controversial British writer specializing in the history of non-Muslims in the Middle East, and in particular the history of Christian and Jewish dhimmis living under Islamic governments. ... Bat Yeor is the pseudonym of an Egyptian_born British researcher; it means daughter of the Nile in Hebrew. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... Moshe Gil (b. ... Shelomo Dov Goitein (April 3, 1900 — February 6, 1985) was an Arabist, historian, Jewish ethnographer, famous for his expositions of Jewish life in the Islamic Middle Ages, based on the analysis of thousands of Geniza documents, in particular, for his monumental 5-volume work A Mediterranean Society. ... A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ... Averroes (1126 - December 10, 1198) was an Andalusi philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics and medicine. ... Ibn Warraq is the pen name of an author of several books on Islam. ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... It has been suggested that Introduction of Islam (book) be merged into this article or section. ... The Meaning of the Quran (Arabic: Tafhim al-Quran) is a book in six volumes written by the Sunni Islamic scholar Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi (1903-1979). ... N. Stillman Norman Arthur Stillman is the Schusterman-Josey Professor and Chair of Judaic History at the University of Oklahoma. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ...

External links

  • Jizya - Encyclopædia Britannica
  • The Fair Logic of Jizyah - Jasser Auda

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jizya - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3176 words)
The imposition of jizya upon non-Muslims is mandated by Sura 9.29 of the Qur'an.
Jizya is imposed on non-Muslim "People of the Book" to humble them; also, they do not have to pay zakat, which is paid by Muslims as mandatory charity.
Jizya was levied in the time of Muhammad on vassal tribes under Muslim protection, including Jews in Khaybar, Christians in Najran, and Zoroastrians in Bahrain.
Talk:Jizya - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (9195 words)
The word jizya in the Qur'an does not specifically mean a monetary tax, but the term was later applied to a monetary tax.
"'Jizya' is derived from the root "Jaza" or "compensate".
The article says that the imposition of jizya was mandated by the sura, when in fact it was the word jizya that was derived from the sura, not the actual practical definition of a monetary tax.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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