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Encyclopedia > Jimmy Carter
James Earl Carter, Jr.
Jimmy Carter

In office
January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981
Vice President Walter Mondale (1977-1981)
Preceded by Gerald Ford
Succeeded by Ronald Reagan

In office
January 12, 1971 – January 14, 1975
Lieutenant Lester Maddox
Preceded by Lester Maddox
Succeeded by George Busbee

Member of the Georgia State Senate from 14th District
In office
1962 – 1966
Constituency Sumter County

Born October 1, 1924 (1924-10-01) (age 83)
Plains, Georgia
Political party Democratic
Spouse Rosalynn Smith Carter
Alma mater United States Naval Academy
Georgia Southwestern College
Georgia Tech
Occupation Politician, mediator, peanut farmer, Naval Officer, author
Religion Baptist
Signature Jimmy Carter's signature

James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. (born October 1, 1924) served as the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981, and the recipient of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize. Prior to becoming president, Carter served two terms in the Georgia Senate and as the 76th Governor of Georgia, from 1971 to 1975.[1] Jimmy Carter is the name of: Jimmy Carter, US President Jimmy Carter (boxer) (1923-1994) See also USS Jimmy Carter (SSN-23) James Carter (disambiguation) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Danish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (910x1201, 108 KB)Official White House Portrait of U.S. President Ronald Reagan. ... 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Reagan redirects here. ... This is a list of Governors of the state of Georgia, including governors of the British colony of Georgia. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lester Garfield Maddox Lester Garfield Maddox (September 30, 1915 – June 25, 2003) was an American Democratic Party politician who was governor of the U.S. state of Georgia from 1967 to 1971. ... Lester Garfield Maddox Lester Garfield Maddox (September 30, 1915 – June 25, 2003) was an American Democratic Party politician who was governor of the U.S. state of Georgia from 1967 to 1971. ... George Dekle Busbee (August 7, 1927–July 16, 2004) was an American politician who served as the governor of the U.S. state of Georgia from 1975 to 1983. ... Seal of the Georgia Senate The Georgia State Senate is the upper house of the Georgia General Assembly (the state legislature of Georgia). ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Sumter County is a county located in the state of Georgia. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Plains is a city located in Sumter County, Georgia. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Eleanor Rosalynn Smith Carter (born August 18, 1927) is the wife of former President Jimmy Carter and was First Lady of the United States from 1977 to 1981. ... For other uses, see Alma mater (disambiguation). ... The United States Naval Academy (USNA) is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps and is in Annapolis, Maryland . ... ... The Georgia Institute of Technology, commonly known as Georgia Tech, is a public, coeducational research university, part of the University System of Georgia, and located in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, with satellite campuses in Savannah, Georgia, Metz, France, Shanghai, China, and Singapore. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Mediator may refer to: A neutral party who assists in negotiations and conflict resolution, the process being known as mediation By analogy, someone who channels contact between mortals and divinity; e. ... This article is about the legume. ... For other uses, see Farmer (disambiguation). ... Navy is also:- shorthand for Navy Blue the nickname of the United States Naval Academy A navy is the branch of the armed forces of a nation that operates primarily on water. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Danish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Seal of the Georgia Senate The Georgia Senate is the upper house of the Georgia General Assembly (the state legislature of Georgia). ... This is a list of Governors of the state of Georgia, including governors of the British colony of Georgia. ...


As president, Carter created two new cabinet-level departments: the Department of Energy and the Department of Education. He established a national energy policy[2] and removed price controls from domestic petroleum production,[3] but was unable to make the U.S. less reliant on foreign oil sources. In foreign affairs, Carter pursued the Camp David Accords, the Panama Canal Treaties and the second round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT). Carter sought to put a stronger emphasis on human rights; he negotiated a peace between Israel and Egypt in 1979. His return of the Panama Canal Zone to Panama was seen as a major concession of U.S. influence in Latin America, and Carter came under heavy criticism for it. The final year of his presidential tenure was marked by several major crises, including the 1979 takeover of the American embassy in Iran and holding of hostages by Iranian students, a failed rescue attempt of the hostages, serious fuel shortages, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. By 1980, Carter's disapproval ratings were significantly higher than his approval, and he was challenged by Ted Kennedy for the Democratic Party nomination in the 1980 election. Carter defeated Kennedy for the nomination, but lost the election to Republican Ronald Reagan. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... The Lyndon Baines Johnson Department of Education Building[1]) , ED headquarters in Washington, DC A construction project to repair and update the building facade at the Department of Education Headquarters building in 2002 resulted in the installation of structures at all of the entrances to protect employees and visitors from... The Energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state and local public entities, which address issues of energy production, distribution and consumption. ... Petro redirects here. ... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Al Sadat. ... Map of Panama, with Panama canal The Torrijos-Carter Treaties (sometimes referred to in the singular as the Torrijos-Carter Treaty), are a pair of treaties signed by the United States and Panama in Washington, D. C. on September 7, 1977, abrogating the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty signed in 1903. ... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The Panama Canal Zone (Spanish: ), was a 553 square mile (1,432 km²) territory inside of Panama, consisting of the Panama Canal and an area generally extending 5 miles (8. ... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ... Belligerents United States Iran Commanders Col. ... Line at a gas station, June 15, 1979. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45... For other persons named Ted Kennedy, see Ted Kennedy (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan, along with third party candidates, the independent John B. Anderson and Libertarian Ed Clark. ... GOP redirects here. ... Reagan redirects here. ...


After leaving office, Carter and his wife Rosalynn founded the Carter Center, an institute to promote global health, democracy and human rights. He has traveled extensively to conduct peace negotiations and establish relief efforts;[4] he is also a key figure in the Habitat for Humanity project.[5] As of 2008, Carter is the second-oldest living president. Carter remains a national figure today,[6] and has been especially vocal on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Eleanor Rosalynn Smith Carter (born August 18, 1927) is the wife of former President Jimmy Carter and was First Lady of the United States from 1977 to 1981. ... The Jimmy Carter Presidential Library The Carter Center is a human rights organization, founded in 1982 and chaired by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Official Habitat for Humanity logo Habitat for Humanity is an international, Christian, non-governmental, non-profit organization devoted to building quality, low-cost, affordable housing. ... This is a chronology of who was the oldest living President of the United States, former or current, at any given time. ... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ...

Contents

Early years

With his dog, Bozo, in 1937, around age 13.
With his dog, Bozo, in 1937, around age 13.
With his mother, Lillian Carter, February 17, 1977
With his mother, Lillian Carter, February 17, 1977

Jimmy Carter descended from a family that had lived in Georgia for several generations. His great-grandfather Private L.B. Walker Carter (1832–1874) served in the Confederate States Army. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bessie Lillian Gordy Carter, better known as Lillian Carter, (August 15, 1898 in Richland, Georgia - October 30, 1983 in Americus, Georgia), was the mother of former President of the United States Jimmy Carter. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... A group of Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government during the American Civil War. ...


Jimmy Carter, the first president born in a hospital,[7] was the oldest of four children of James Earl Carter and Bessie Lillian Gordy. He was born and grew up in the tiny southwest Georgia hamlet of Plains near the larger town of Americus. Carter's father was a prominent business owner in the community and his mother was a registered nurse. He was a gifted student from an early age who always had a fondness for reading. By the time he attended Plains High School, he was also a star in basketball. He was greatly influenced by one of his high school teachers, Julia Coleman (1889-1973). While he was in high school he participated in the Future Farmers of America (Now the National FFA Organization).[8][citation needed] Bessie Lillian Gordy Carter (August 15, 1898 – October 30, 1983) was the mother of former president of the United States, Jimmy Carter. ... Plains is a city located in Sumter County, Georgia. ... Americus is a city located in Sumter County, Georgia. ... A registered nurse (RN), is a health care professional responsible for implementing the practice of nursing through the use of the nursing process (in concert with other health care professionals). ... FFA was originally an acronym for Future Farmers of America, but in 1988 the association, in an effort to broaden its potential membership beyond youth working in modern American agriculture changed the name of the organization from Future Farmers of America to National FFA Organization and simply referred to as...


Carter had three younger siblings: his brother, Billy Carter (1937–1988), his sister Gloria (1926–1990), and his other sister Ruth (1929–1983). Billy and Jimmy Carter William Alton Billy Carter (March 29, 1937 – September 25, 1988), the younger brother of United States President Jimmy Carter, was born in Plains, Georgia. ... Gloria Carter Spann (October 22, 1926 in Plains, Georgia–March 5, 1990 in Americus, Georgia) was the sister of former President of the United States Jimmy Carter. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


He married Rosalynn Smith in 1946. They had four children: John William "Jack" Carter (born 1947); James Earl "Chip" Carter III (born 1950); Donnel Jeffrey "Jeff" Carter, (born 1952) and Amy Lynn Carter (born 1967). Eleanor Rosalynn Smith Carter (born August 18, 1927) is the wife of former President Jimmy Carter and was First Lady of the United States from 1977 to 1981. ... John William Jack Carter, (born July 3, 1947), is the eldest child of former President Jimmy Carter and former First Lady Rosalynn Carter. ... Amy Lynn Carter Wentzel (born October 19, 1967) is the only daughter of U.S. president Jimmy Carter and his wife Rosalynn. ...


Naval career

He attended Georgia Tech and Georgia Southwestern State University before receiving an appointment to the United States Naval Academy where he received a Bachelor of Science degree in 1946 and is the only graduate of the Naval Academy to become President.[9] Carter finished 59th out of his Academy class of 820. Carter served on surface ships and diesel submarines in the Atlantic and Pacific fleets. As a junior officer, he completed qualification for command of a diesel submarine. Georgia Institute of Technology The Georgia Institute of Technology, or Georgia Tech, is located in Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. With over 16,000 students, Georgia Tech is one of four public research universities in the University System of Georgia. ... Georgia Southwestern State University in Americus, Georgia, is a school in the University System of Georgia. ... The United States Naval Academy (USNA) is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps and is in Annapolis, Maryland . ... The Atlantic Fleet of the United States Navy is the part of the Navy responsible for operations in around the Atlantic Ocean. ... The United States Pacific Fleet (USPACFLT) is part of the US Navy. ...


He applied for the U.S. Navy's fledgling nuclear submarine program run by Captain (later Admiral) Hyman G. Rickover. Rickover's demands were legendary, and Carter later said that, next to his parents, Admiral Rickover had the greatest influence on him. USN redirects here. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... Admiral Hyman George Rickover, U.S. Navy, (January 27, 1900 or August 24, 1898 – July 8, 1986) was known as the Father of the Nuclear Navy, which as of July 2007 had produced 200 nuclear-powered submarines, and 23 nuclear-powered aircraft carriers and cruisers, though many of these U...

Jimmy Carter as a Midshipman at the US Naval Academy
Jimmy Carter as a Midshipman at the US Naval Academy

Carter has said that he loved the Navy, and had planned to make it his career. His ultimate goal was to become Chief of Naval Operations. Carter felt the best route for promotion was with submarine duty since he felt that nuclear power would be increasingly used in submarines. During service on the submarine, USS Pomfret, Carter was almost washed overboard.[10] Carter completed an introductory course in nuclear reactor power at Union College starting in March 1953. This followed Carter's first-hand experience as part of a group of American and Canadian servicemen who took part in cleaning up after a nuclear meltdown at Canada's Chalk River Laboratories reactor.[11][12] The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the senior military officer in the United States Navy. ... USS Pomfret (SS-391), a Balao-class submarine, was a ship of the United States Navy named for the pomfret, a fish of the sea-bream family; a powerful and speedy swimmer, capable of operating at great depths. ... This article is about the Union College in New York. ... Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station consisted of two pressurized water reactors manufactured by Babcock & Wilcox each inside its own containment building and connected cooling towers. ... It has been suggested that Chalk river unidentified deposits be merged into this article or section. ...


Upon the death of his father in July 1953, however, Lieutenant Carter immediately resigned his commission and was discharged from the Navy on October 9, 1953.[13][14] This cut short his nuclear power training school, and he was never able to serve on a nuclear submarine, as the first of the fleet was launched January 17, 1955, over a year after his discharge from the Navy.[15] Carter is the first and only Korean War era veteran to be President.[16] Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung...


Farming and teaching

He then took over and expanded his family business in Plains. There he was involved in a farming accident that left him with a permanently bent finger.


From a young age, Carter showed a deep commitment to Christianity, serving as a Sunday School teacher throughout his life. Even as President, Carter prayed several times a day, and professed that Jesus Christ was the driving force in his life. Carter had been greatly influenced by a sermon he had heard as a young man, called, "If you were arrested for being a Christian, would there be enough evidence to convict you?"[17] Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Sunday school, Indians and whites. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Early political career

State Senate

Jimmy Carter started his career by serving on various local boards, governing such entities as the schools, hospital, and library, among others. In the 1960s, he served two terms in the Georgia Senate from the fourteenth district of Georgia. Seal of the Georgia Senate The Georgia Senate is the upper house of the Georgia General Assembly (the state legislature of Georgia). ...


His 1962 election to the state Senate, which followed the end of Georgia's County Unit System (per the Supreme Court case of Gray v. Sanders), was chronicled in his book Turning Point: A Candidate, a State, and a Nation Come of Age. The election involved corruption led by Joe Hurst, the sheriff of Quitman County; system abuses included votes from deceased persons and tallies filled with people who supposedly voted in alphabetical order. It took a challenge of the fraudulent results for Carter to win the election. Carter was reelected in 1964, to serve a second two-year term. The County Unit System was used by the U.S. state of Georgia to determine a victor in its elections. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Gray v. ... Quitman County is a county located in the state of Georgia. ...


Campaigns for Governor

Main article: Georgia gubernatorial election, 1966

In 1966, during the end of his career as a state senator, he flirted with the idea of running for the United States House of Representatives. His Republican opponent dropped out and decided to run for Governor of Georgia. Carter did not want to see a Republican Governor of his state, and, in turn, dropped out of the race for Congress and joined the race to become Governor. Carter lost the Democratic primary, but drew enough votes as a third place candidate to force the favorite, Ellis Arnall, into a runoff election, setting off a chain of events which resulted in the election of Lester Maddox. Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Ellis Gibbs Arnall (March 20, 1907 - December 13, 1992) was an American politician who served as the Governor of the U.S. state of Georgia from 1943 to 1947. ... An example of runoff voting. ... Lester Garfield Maddox Lester Garfield Maddox (September 30, 1915 – June 25, 2003) was an American Democratic Party politician who was governor of the U.S. state of Georgia from 1967 to 1971. ...

Main article: Georgia gubernatorial election, 1970

For the next four years, Carter returned to his agriculture business and carefully planned for his next campaign for Governor in 1970, making over 1,800 speeches throughout the state. Georgia gubernatorial election of November 3, 1970 was marked by election of relatively little-known former state Senator Jimmy Carter after a hard battle in the Democratic primary. ...


During his 1970 campaign, he ran an uphill populist campaign in the Democratic primary against former Governor Carl Sanders, labeling his opponent "Cufflinks Carl". Carter was never a segregationist, and refused to join the segregationist White Citizens' Council, prompting a boycott of his peanut warehouse. He also had been one of only two families which voted to admit blacks to the Plains Baptist Church.[18] However, he "said things the segregationists wanted to hear," according to historian E. Stanly Godbold.[19] Also, Carter's campaign aides handed out a photograph of his opponent celebrating with black basketball players.[20][21] Following his close victory over Sanders in the primary, he was elected Governor over Republican Hal Suit. Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Carl Edward Sanders, Sr. ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... It has been suggested that Citizens Councils of America be merged into this article or section. ...


Governor of Georgia

Carter was sworn-in as the 76th Governor of Georgia on January 12, 1971 and held this post for one term, until January 14, 1975. Governors of Georgia were not allowed to succeed themselves at the time. His predecessor as Governor, Lester Maddox, became the Lieutenant Governor. However, Carter and Maddox found little common ground during their four years of service, often publicly feuding with each other.[22][23] is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lester Garfield Maddox Lester Garfield Maddox (September 30, 1915 – June 25, 2003) was an American Democratic Party politician who was governor of the U.S. state of Georgia from 1967 to 1971. ... The Lieutenant Governor of Georgia is a constitutional officer of the state, elected to a 4-year term by popular vote. ...


Civil rights politics

Carter declared in his inaugural speech that the time of racial segregation was over, and that racial discrimination had no place in the future of the state. He was the first statewide office holder in the Deep South to say this in public.[citation needed] Afterwards, Carter appointed many African Americans to statewide boards and offices. He was often called one of the "New Southern Governors" — much more moderate than their predecessors and supportive of racial desegregation and expanding African-Americans' rights. An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...


Abortion

Subsequent to the landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973), Carter later broke with his church and many elected officials and became the first U.S. president to endorse legalized abortion.


State government reforms

Carter made government efficient by merging about 300 state agencies into 30 agencies. One of his aides recalled that Governor Carter "was right there with us, working just as hard, digging just as deep into every little problem. It was his program and he worked on it as hard as anybody, and the final product was distinctly his." He also pushed reforms through the legislature, providing equal state aid to schools in the wealthy and poor areas of Georgia, set up community centers for mentally handicapped children, and increased educational programs for convicts. Carter took pride in a program he introduced for the appointment of judges and state government officials. Under this program, all such appointments were based on merit, rather than political influence.


Vice-Presidential aspirations in 1972

In 1972, as U.S. Senator George McGovern of South Dakota was marching toward the Democratic nomination for President, Carter called a news conference in Atlanta to warn that McGovern was unelectable. Carter criticized McGovern as too liberal on both foreign and domestic policy, yet when McGovern's nomination became a foregone conclusion, Carter lobbied to become his vice-presidential running mate. The remarks attracted little national attention, and after McGovern's huge loss in the general election, Carter's attitude was not held against him[citation needed] within the Democratic Party. The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine George Stanley McGovern, (born July 19, 1922) is a former United States Representative, Senator, and Democratic presidential nominee. ... Official language(s) English Demonym South Dakotan Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th in the US  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Atlanta redirects here. ...


During the 1972 Democratic National Convention he endorsed the candidacy of Senator Henry M. Jackson of Washington.[24] However, Carter received 30 votes at the Democratic National Convention in the chaotic ballot for Vice President. McGovern offered the second spot to Reubin Askew, from next door Florida and one of the "new southern governors," but he declined. The 1972 Democratic National convention nominated Senator George McGovern for President and Senator Thomas Eagleton for vice president. ... Henry Martin Scoop Jackson (May 31, 1912 – September 1, 1983) was a U.S. Congressman and Senator for Washington State from 1941 until his death. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... The 1972 Democratic National convention nominated Senator George McGovern for President and Senator Thomas Eagleton for vice president. ... Reubin ODonovan Askew (born September 11, 1928) is an American politician. ...


Death penalty issues

After the U.S. Supreme Court overturned Georgia's death penalty law in 1972, Governor Carter quickly proposed state legislature to replace the death penalty with life in prison (previously life in prison option didn't exist).[25]


When legislature passed a new death penalty statute, Carter signed new legislation on March 28, 1973[26] to authorize the death penalty for murder, rape and other offenses and to implement trial procedures which would conform to the newly-announced constitutional requirements. In 1976, the Supreme Court upheld Georgia's new death penalty for murder; in the case of Coker v. Georgia, the Supreme Court of the United States the death penalty was unconstitutional as applied to rape. In the words of Justice Lewis Powell, the victim of the rape did not sustain any "serious or lasting injury" (concurring and dissenting opinion). is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Notable people with the name Lewis Powell include: Lewis Powell, one of the conspirators hanged for the assassination of United States President Abraham Lincoln. ...


Despite his earlier support, Carter soon became a death penalty opponent and during Presidential campaigns (like previous nominee George McGovern and two successive nominees, Walter Mondale and Michael Dukakis) this was noted.[27] Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ... Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician, former Governor of Massachusetts, and the Democratic presidential nominee in 1988. ...


Currently Carter is known for his outspoken opposition to the death penalty in all forms and in his Nobel Prize lecture he urges "prohibition of the death penalty."[28]


United States Senate appointment

A longtime Georgia Democratic Senator and then-President pro tempore of the United States Senate Richard Russell, Jr. died in office on January 21, 1971 and Governor Carter, who held office just for nine days, appointed fellow political moderate, state Democratic Party chair David H. Gambrell to fill an unexpired Russell term in the Senate on February 1[29]. Gambrell was defeated in the next Democratic primary by the more conservative Sam Nunn. Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia the current President pro tempore of the United States Senate. ... Richard Brevard Russell, Jr. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... David Henry Gambrell (born December 20, 1929) is a politician from the U.S. state of Georgia. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Samuel Augustus Nunn, Jr. ...


Other information

In 1973, while Governor of Georgia, Carter filed a report on his 1969 UFO sighting with the International UFO Bureau in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.[30][31][32] However, in 2007, Carter stated that he did not remember why he filed the report and that he believes he probably only did it at the request of one of his children. He also stated he does not believe it was an alien spacecraft, but rather believes it was likely some sort of military experiment being conducted from a nearby military base.[33] In October of 1969 at 7:15 p. ... Nickname: Location in Oklahoma County and the state of Oklahoma. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Carter made an appearance as the first guest of the evening on an episode of the game show What's My Line in 1974, signing in as "X", lest his name give away his occupation. After his job was identified on question seven of ten by Soupy Sales, he talked about having brought movie production to the state of Georgia, citing Deliverance, and the then unreleased The Longest Yard, shot at Reidsville Prison.[citation needed] Whats My Line? was a weekly panel game show produced by Mark Goodson and Bill Todman for CBS television. ... Soupy Sales (born Milton Supman on January 8, 1926) is an American comedian and actor. ... This article is about the film. ... This article is about the 1974 film. ...


In 1974, Carter was chairman of the Democratic National Committee's congressional, as well as gubernatorial, campaigns. The Democratic National Committee (DNC) is the principal organization governing the United States Democratic Party on a day to day basis. ...


1976 presidential campaign

When Carter entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries in 1976, he was considered to have little chance against nationally better-known politicians. He had a name recognition of only 2 percent. When he told his family of his intention to run for President, he was asked by his mother, "President of what?" However, Nixon's Watergate scandal was still fresh in the voters' minds, and so his position as an outsider, distant from Washington, D.C., became an asset. The centerpiece of his campaign platform was government reorganization. The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal. ... Name recognition is a concept used in politics to describe number of people who are aware of a politician. ... Watergate redirects here. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


He chose Senator Walter F. Mondale as his running mate. He attacked Washington in his speeches, and offered a religious salve for the nation's wounds, which was necessary following the Watergate scandal.[34] Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ...

The electoral map of the 1976 election
The electoral map of the 1976 election

Carter became the front-runner early on by winning the Iowa caucuses and the New Hampshire primary. He used a two-prong strategy. In the South, which most had tacitly conceded to Alabama's George Wallace, Carter ran as a moderate favorite son. When Wallace proved to be a spent force, Carter swept the region. In the North, Carter appealed largely to conservative Christian and rural voters and had little chance of winning a majority in most states. In a field crowded with liberals, he managed to win several Northern states by building the largest single bloc. Initially dismissed as a regional candidate, Carter proved to be the only Democrat with a truly national strategy, and he eventually clinched the nomination. This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ...


The media discovered and promoted Carter. As Lawrence Shoup noted in his 1980 book The Carter Presidency and Beyond:

"What Carter had that his opponents did not was the acceptance and support of elite sectors of the mass communications media. It was their favorable coverage of Carter and his campaign that gave him an edge, propelling him rocket-like to the top of the opinion polls. This helped Carter win key primary election victories, enabling him to rise from an obscure public figure to President-elect in the short space of 9 months."

Carter was interviewed by Robert Scheer of Playboy magazine for its November 1976 issue, which hit the newsstands a couple of weeks before the election. It was here that in the course of a digression on his religion's view of pride, Carter admitted that "I've looked on a lot of women with lust. I've committed adultery in my heart many times."[35] He remains the only American president to be interviewed by this magazine. Robert Scheer, (born 1936) is an American journalist who writes a nationally syndicated op-ed column for the San Francisco Chronicle from a left perspective. ... For other uses, see Playboy (disambiguation). ...


As late as January 26, 1976, Carter was the first choice of only 4% of Democratic voters, according to a Gallup Poll. Yet "by mid-March 1976 Carter was not only far ahead of the active contenders for the Democratic presidential nomination, he also led President Ford by a few percentage points," according to Shoup. is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Carter began the race with a sizable lead over Ford, who was able to narrow the gap over the course of the campaign, but was unable to prevent Carter from narrowly defeating him on November 2, 1976. Carter won the popular vote by 50.1% to 48.0% for Ford and received 297 electoral votes to Ford's 240. He became the first contender from the Deep South to be elected President since the 1848 election. is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The states in dark red comprise the Deep South. ... Summary President James Polk, having achieved virtually all of his objectives in one term and suffering from declining health that would take his life less than four months after leaving office, chose not to seek re-election. ...


In his inaugural address he said: "We have learned that more is not necessarily better, that even our great nation has its recognized limits, and that we can neither answer all questions nor solve all problems."[34] His first steps in the White House were to reduce the size of the staff by one third, and order cabinet members to drive their own cars.


Presidency (1977–1981)

President Carter - October 1980
President Carter - October 1980

Image File history File links Jimmy Carter Photo by Alan C. Teeple - Oct 1980 - Lakeland Florida File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Jimmy Carter Photo by Alan C. Teeple - Oct 1980 - Lakeland Florida File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Energy crisis

See also: 1979 energy crisis

In 1973, during the Nixon Administration, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) agreed to reduce supplies of oil available to the world market. This sparked an oil crisis and forced oil prices to rise sharply, spurring price inflation throughout the economy, and slowing growth. Significant government borrowing helped keep interest rates high relative to inflation.[citation needed] Line at a gas station, June 15, 1979. ... The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela; since 1965, its international headquarters have been in Vienna, Austria. ...


In 1977 Carter had convinced the Democratic Congress to create the United States Department of Energy. Promoting the department's recommendation to conserve energy, Carter wore sweaters, had solar hot water panels installed on the roof of the White House, had a wood stove in his living quarters, ordered the General Services Administration to turn off hot water in some federal facilities, and requested that Christmas decorations remain dark in 1979 and 1980. Nationwide controls were put on thermostats in government and commercial buildings to prevent people from raising temperatures in the winter (above 65 degrees Fahrenheit) or lowering them in the summer (below 78 degrees Fahrenheit). Carter also donned a cardigan sweater to emphasize the point. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... Solar hot water refers to water heated by solar energy. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ...


Economy: stagflation and the appointment of Volcker

During Carter's administration, the economy suffered double-digit inflation, coupled with very high interest rates, oil shortages, high unemployment and slow economic growth. Productivity growth in the United States had declined to an average annual rate of 1 percent, compared to 3.2 percent of the 1960s. There was also a growing federal budget deficit which increased to 66 billion dollars.


The 1970s are described as a period of stagflation, meaning economic stagnation coupled with price inflation, as well as higher interest rates. Price inflation (a rise in the general level of prices) creates uncertainty in budgeting and planning and makes labor strikes for pay raises more likely. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Stagflation, a portmanteau of the words stagnation and inflation, is a term in general use within modern macroeconomics used to describe a period of out-of-control price inflation combined with slow-to-no output growth, rising unemployment, and eventually recession. ... Economic stagnation, often called simply stagnation is a prolonged period of slow economic growth (traditionally measured in terms of the GDP growth). ...


In the wake of a cabinet shakeup in which Carter asked for the resignations of several cabinet members (see "Malaise speech" below), Carter appointed G. William Miller as Secretary of the Treasury. Miller had been serving as Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board. To replace Miller, and in order to calm down the market, Carter appointed Paul Volcker as Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board.[36] Volcker pursued a tight monetary policy to bring down inflation, which he considered his mandate. He succeeded, but only by first going through an unpleasant phase during which the economy slowed and unemployment rose, prior to any relief from inflation. Chairman Miller, Time, 1978 Millers signature, as used on American currency George William Miller (March 9, 1925 – March 17, 2006) served as the 65th United States Secretary of the Treasury under President Carter from August 6, 1979 to January 20, 1981. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the finance minister of the Federal Government of the United States. ... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central bank of the United States. ... Paul Adolph Volcker (born September 5, 1927 in Cape May, New Jersey), is best-known as the Chairman of the Federal Reserve (The Fed) under United States Presidents Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan (from August 1979 to August 1987). ... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central bank of the United States. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        Monetary policy is the process by which the government, central bank...


Led by Volcker, the Federal Reserve raised the discount rate from 10% when Volcker assumed the chairmanship in August 1979 to 12% within two months.[37] The prime rate hit 21.5% in December 1980, the highest rate in U.S. history under any President.[38] Investments in fixed income (both bonds and pensions being paid to retired people) were becoming less valuable. The high interest rates would lead to a sharp recession in the early 1980s[39] Prime rate is a term applied in many countries to a reference interest rate used by banks. ... The recession of the early 1980s was caused by the combination of 1) tight monetary policy, 2) the Reagan tax cut, 3) increased government spending [citation needed]. The causing aggregate demand to increase, while at the same time constraining the money supply resulted in very high interest rates, which caused...


"Malaise" speech

When the energy market exploded — an occurrence Carter desperately tried to avoid during his term — he was planning on delivering his fifth major speech on energy; however, he felt that the American people were no longer listening. Carter went to Camp David for ten days to meet with governors, mayors, religious leaders, scientists, economists and citizens. He sat on the floor and took notes of their comments and especially wanted to hear criticism. His pollster told him that the American people simply faced a crisis of confidence because of the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the Vietnam War, and Watergate.[40] On July 15, 1979, Carter gave a nationally-televised address in which he identified what he believed to be a "crisis of confidence" among the American people. This came to be known as his "malaise" speech, although the word never appeared in it: Line at a gas station, June 15, 1979. ... Kennedy Assassination redirects here. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Watergate redirects here. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...

I want to talk to you right now about a fundamental threat to American democracy.... I do not refer to the outward strength of America, a nation that is at peace tonight everywhere in the world, with unmatched economic power and military might. ...
The threat is nearly invisible in ordinary ways. It is a crisis of confidence. It is a crisis that strikes at the very heart and soul and spirit of our national will. We can see this crisis in the growing doubt about the meaning of our own lives and in the loss of a unity of purpose for our nation.
...
I'm asking you for your good and for your nation's security to take no unnecessary trips, to use carpools or public transportation whenever you can, to park your car one extra day per week, to obey the speed limit, and to set your thermostats to save fuel.[41]

Carter's speech, written by Hendrik Hertzberg and Gordon Stewart,[42] was well-received by some.[43] The country suffered from the weak economy that was dominated by OPEC-influenced double-digit inflation. Americans, directly affected by the economy, were concerned about the federal government's response to the economic situation[citation needed]. Three days after the speech, Carter asked for the resignations of all of his Cabinet officers, and ultimately accepted five. Carter later admitted in his memoirs that he should simply have asked only those five members for their resignations. By asking the entire Cabinet, it gave the appearance that the White House was falling apart. Hendrik Hertzberg is an American journalist and author. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...


Domestic policies

Jimmy Carter's reorganization efforts separated the Department of Health, Education and Welfare into the Department of Education and the Department of Health and Human Services. Efforts were also made to reduce the number of government departments and employees as Carter had done when he was Governor of Georgia[citation needed]. He signed into law a major Civil Service Reform, the first in over a hundred years. Despite calling for a reform of the tax system in his presidential campaign, once in office he did very little to change it.[44] The United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare (also known as HEW) was a cabinet level department of the United States government from 1953 until 1979. ... The Lyndon Baines Johnson Department of Education Building[1]) , ED headquarters in Washington, DC A construction project to repair and update the building facade at the Department of Education Headquarters building in 2002 resulted in the installation of structures at all of the entrances to protect employees and visitors from... DHHS redirects here. ...

President Carter and Vice President Walter Mondale in front of Presidential helicopter Marine One, January, 1979

On Carter's first day in office, January 20, 1977, he fulfilled a campaign promise by issuing an Executive Order declaring unconditional amnesty for Vietnam War-era draft evaders.[45] [46]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ... Marine One lifting off of the White House south lawn. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... An executive order is an edict issued by a member of the executive branch of a government, usually the head of that branch. ... Their actions were criminal offences and once they had left the country draft dodgers could not return or they would be arrested. ...


Initially, Carter was fairly successful in getting legislation through Congress, but a rift grew between them. A few months after his term started, and thinking he had the support of about 74 Congressmen, Jimmy Carter issued a "hit list" of 19 projects that he claimed were "pork barrel" spending. He said that he would veto any legislation that contained projects on this list.[47] A pork barrel, literally, is a barrel in which pork is kept. ...


This list met with opposition from the leadership of the Democratic Party. Carter had characterized a rivers and harbors bill as "pork barrel" spending. House speaker Tip O'Neill, who supported the President in a lot of matters, thought it was unwise for the President to interfere with matters that had traditionally been the purview of Congress. Carter was then further weakened when he signed into law a bill containing much of the "hit list" projects. A pork barrel, literally, is a barrel in which pork is kept. ... Thomas Phillip ONeill, Jr. ...


Later, Congress refused to pass major provisions of his consumer protection bill and his labor reform package. Carter then vetoed a public works package calling it "inflationary", as it contained what he considered to be wasteful spending. Congressional leaders sensed that public support for his legislation was weak, and took advantage of it. After gutting his consumer protection bill, they transformed his tax plan into nothing more than spending for special interests, after which Carter referred to the congressional tax committees as "ravenous wolves."


Carter signed legislation greatly increasing the payroll tax for Social Security, and appointed record numbers of women, blacks, and Hispanics to government and judiciary jobs. He also initiated a comprehensive urban policy. His Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act created 103 million acres (417,000 km²) of national park land in Alaska. Social Security, in the United States, currently refers to the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ...


Under Carter's watch, the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 was passed, which phased out the Civil Aeronautics Board. He was also somewhat successful in deregulating the trucking, rail, communications, oil and finance industries.[citation needed] President Jimmy Carter signs the Airline Deregulation Act. ... Governments have played an important part in shaping air transportation. ... Deregulation is the process by which governments remove, reduce, or simplify restrictions on business and individuals in order to (in theory) encourage the efficient operation of markets. ...


Carter legalized home-brewing when he signed the congressionally approved bill into law in February 1979. Home-brewing led to a renewal of appreciation for beer styles largely unseen due to the dominance of the large brewing companies and prefaced a leap in the number of U.S. micro-breweries beginning in the late 1980s.[citation needed]


Among Presidents who served at least one full term, Carter is the only one who never made an appointment to the Supreme Court[48]. The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ...


Jimmy Carter was one of the first presidents to address the topic of LGBT rights.[49] He opposed a California ballot measure that would have banned gays and supporters of gay rights from being public school teachers. His administration was the first to meet with a group of gay rights activists, and in recent years he has come out in favor of civil unions and ending the ban on gays in the military.[50] LGBT (also GLBT) is an acronym referring collectively to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender/transsexual people. ... A civil union is one of several terms for a civil status similar to marriage, typically created for the purposes of allowing homosexual couples access to the benefits enjoyed by married heterosexuals (see also same-sex marriage); it can also be used by couples of differing sexes who do not...


Voyager 1 message

Carter's official statement placed on the Voyager 1 spacecraft for its trip outside our solar system on September 5, 1977:[51][52] For the album by The Verve, see Voyager 1 (album). ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...

We cast this message into the cosmos.... Of the 200 billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy, some — perhaps many — may have inhabited planet and space faring civilizations. If one such civilization intercepts Voyager and can understand these recorded contents, here is our message: We are trying to survive our time so we may live into yours. We hope some day, having solved the problems we face, to join a community of galactic civilizations. This record represents our hope and our determination and our goodwill in a vast and awesome universe.

Jimmy Carter, [53][54]

Foreign policies

Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords, a key foreign policy issue of the Carter presidency: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter and Anwar Sadat, 1978.
Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords, a key foreign policy issue of the Carter presidency: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter and Anwar Sadat, 1978.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Jewish-Polish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ...

South Korea

During his first month in office Carter cut the defense budget by $6 billion. One of his first acts was to order the unilateral removal of all nuclear weapons from South Korea and announce his intention to cut back the number of US troops stationed there. Other military men confined intense criticism of the withdrawal to private conversations or testimony before congressional committees, but in 1977 Major General John K. Singlaub, chief of staff of U.S. forces in South Korea, publicly criticized President Carter's decision to lower the U.S. troop level there. On March 21, 1977, Carter relieved him of duty, saying his publicly stated sentiments were "inconsistent with announced national security policy".[55][56] Carter planned to remove all but 14,000 U.S. air force personnel and logistics specialists by 1982, but after cutting only 3,600 troops, he was forced to abandon the effort in 1978.[57] John K. Singlaub was a highly decorated OSS officer and Major-General in the US Army, and a founding member of the Central Intelligence Agency, (CIA). ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


Arab-Israeli Conflict/Camp David Accords

Ceauşescu with Carter, in Bucharest, 1978
Ceauşescu with Carter, in Bucharest, 1978

Carter's Secretary of State Cyrus Vance and National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski paid close attention to the Arab-Israeli conflict. Diplomatic communications between Israel and Egypt increased significantly after the Yom Kippur War and the Carter administration felt that the time was right for comprehensive solution to the conflict. Image File history File links Nicolae_Ceaucescu_1978. ... Image File history File links Nicolae_Ceaucescu_1978. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor, serves as the chief advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. ... Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (Polish: Zbigniew Kazimierz BrzeziÅ„ski, pronounced ) : (born March 28, 1928, Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, and statesman who served as United States National Security Advisor to President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1981. ... Belligerents Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim...


One of Carter's most important accomplishments as President were the Camp David Accords, finalized on September 17, 1978. The accords were a peace agreement between Israel and Egypt negotiated by President Carter, which followed up on earlier negotiations conducted in the Middle East. In these negotiations King Hassan II of Morocco acted as a negotiator between Arab interests and Israel, and Nicolae Ceauşescu of Romania acted as go-between for Israel and the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO, the unofficial representative of the Palestinian people). Once initial negotiations had been completed, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat approached Carter for assistance. Carter then invited Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Sadat to Camp David to continue the negotiations. The Camp David Accords produced two frameworks for peace between Egypt and Israel, and a peace treaty was signed on March 26, 1979. Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Al Sadat. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... King Hassan, pictured late in life. ... Arab States redirects here. ... Nicolae CeauÅŸescu (IPA , in English, sometimes (and erroneously) ) (January 26, 1918–December 25, 1989) was the leader of Romania from 1965 until December 1989, when a revolution and coup removed him from power. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... For the term Palestinian as applied to Jews, see Palestinian Jew. ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... The West Wing, see NSF Thurmont (The West Wing). ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...

Anwar Sadat, Jimmy Carter and Menachem Begin meet on the Aspen Lodge patio of Camp David on September 6, 1978.

The City of Aspen is a Home Rule Municipality that is the most populous city and the county seat of Pitkin County, Colorado, United States. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...

Rapid Deployment Forces

On October 1, 1979, President Carter announced before a television audience the existence of the Rapid Deployment Forces (RDF), a mobile fighting force capable of responding to worldwide trouble spots, without drawing on forces committed to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The RDF was the forerunner of CENTCOM.[citation needed] is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... In 1977, a presidential directive called for a mobile force capable of responding to worldwide contingencies but to be established without diverting forces from NATO or Korea. ... NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ... The United States Central Command (CENTCOM) is a theater-level Unified Combatant Command unit of the U.S. armed forces, established in 1983 under the operational control of the U.S. Secretary of Defense. ...


Human Rights

President Carter initially departed from the long-held policy of containment toward the Soviet Union. In its place Carter promoted a foreign policy that put human rights at the front. This was a break from the policies of several predecessors, in which human rights abuses were often overlooked if they were committed by a nation that was allied with the United States. The Carter Administration ended support to the historically U.S.-backed Somoza regime in Nicaragua and gave aid to the new Sandinista National Liberation Front government that assumed power after Somoza's overthrow. However, Carter ignored a plea from El Salvador's Archbishop Óscar Romero not to send military aid to that country. Romero was later assassinated for his criticism of El Salvador's violation of human rights.[citation needed] This article is about foreign policy. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Anastasio Somoza was the name of two presidents of Nicaragua. ... Sandinista! is also the name of a popular music album by The Clash. ... Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez (August 15, 1917 – March 24, 1980), commonly known as Monseñor Romero, was a bishop of the Roman Catholic Church in El Salvador. ...


Carter continued his predecessors' policies of imposing sanctions on Rhodesia, and, after Bishop Abel Muzorewa was elected Prime Minister, protested the exclusion of Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo from participating in the elections. Strong pressure from the United States and the United Kingdom prompted new elections in what was then called Zimbabwe Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), which saw Robert Mugabe elected as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe; afterwards, sanctions were lifted, and diplomatic recognition was granted. Carter was also known for his criticism of Paraguay's Alfredo Stroessner, Augusto Pinochet (who was forced to grant Chile a constitution providing for a transition back into democracy), the Apartheid government of South Africa, Zaire (although Carter later changed course and supported Zaire, in response to alleged - albeit unproven - Cuban support of anti-Mobutu rebels[58][59]) and other traditional allies. This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Bishop Abel Muzorewa Abel Tendekayi Muzorewa (born 1925 in former Rhodesia), a Methodist bishop and nationalist leader, was prime minister of the short-lived coalition government in what was called Zimbabwe Rhodesia; he held office for only a few months in 1979. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Mugabe redirects here. ... Joshua Mqabuko Nyongolo Nkomo (June 19, 1917 – July 1, 1999) was a Zimbabwean nationalist leader and revolutionary, a member of the Ndebele (or Matebele) ethnic group, and the leader and founder of the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU). ... Zimbabwe Rhodesia was the (largely unrecognised) name of Zimbabwe during 1979, adopted by Rhodesia soon after an Internal Settlement between the white minority Rhodesian Government led by Ian Smith and small, moderate African nationalist parties not involved in the war that had been raging in the country since 1977. ... Alfredo Stroessner Matiauda, whose name is also spelled Strössner or Strößner, (November 3, 1912, Encarnación - August 16, 2006, Brasília) served as President of Paraguay from 1954 to 1989. ... Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990, and was the President of the military junta from 1973 to 1981. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (October 14, 1930 – September 7, 1997), known commonly as Mobutu, or Mobutu Sese Seko, born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) for 32 years (1965–1997), in which he rose to power...


People's Republic of China

See also Sino-American relations

Carter continued the policy of Richard Nixon to normalize relations with the People's Republic of China by granting them full diplomatic and trade relations, and not with Taiwan (though the two nations continued to trade and the U.S. unofficially recognized Taiwan through the Taiwan Relations Act). In the Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations dated January 1, 1979, the United States transferred diplomatic recognition from Taipei to Beijing. The U.S. reiterated the Shanghai Communiqué's acknowledgment of the Chinese position that there is only one China and that Taiwan is a part of China; Beijing acknowledged that the American people would continue to carry on commercial, cultural, and other unofficial contacts with the people of Taiwan. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In relation to the Three Communique signed between Peoples Republic of China and United States of America, The Taiwan Relations Act is oftened viewed as another cornerstone of US position to China and in addition to the concerted area of China. ... The Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations of January 1, 1979, established a normalization of relations between the United States of America and the Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Panama Canal Treaties

One of the most controversial moves of President Carter's presidency was the final negotiation and signature of the Panama Canal Treaties in September 1977. Those treaties, which essentially would transfer control of the American-built Panama Canal to the nation of Panama, were bitterly opposed by a majority of the American public and by the Republican Party. A common argument against the treaties was that the United States was transferring an American asset of great strategic value to an unstable and corrupt country led by an unelected military dictator (Omar Torrijos). Those that supported the Treaties argued that the Canal was built within Panamanian territory therefore, by controlling it, the United States was in fact occupying part of another country and this agreement was intended to turn back to Panama the sovereignty of its complete territory. After the signature of the Canal treaties, in June 1978, Jimmy Carter visited Panama with his wife and twelve U.S. Senators, amid widespread student disturbances against the Torrijos dictatorship. Carter then began urging the Torrijos regime to soften its policies and move Panama towards gradual republicanism. Map of Panama, with Panama canal The Torrijos-Carter Treaties (sometimes referred to in the singular as the Torrijos-Carter Treaty), are a pair of treaties signed by the United States and Panama in Washington, D. C. on September 7, 1977, abrogating the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty signed in 1903. ... Omar Torrijos (right) with farmers in the Panamanian countryside. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule of law, popular sovereignty and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ...


Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT)

President Jimmy Carter and Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev sign the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II) treaty, June 18, 1979, in Vienna
President Jimmy Carter and Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev sign the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II) treaty, June 18, 1979, in Vienna

A key foreign policy issue Carter worked laboriously on was the SALT II Treaty, which reduced the number of nuclear arms produced and/or maintained by both the United States and the Soviet Union. SALT is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitations Talks, negotiations conducted between the US and the USSR. The work of Gerald Ford and Richard Nixon brought about the SALT I treaty, which had itself reduced the number of nuclear arms produced, but Carter wished to further this reduction. It was his main goal (as was stated in his Inaugural Address) that nuclear weaponry be completely banished from the face of the Earth. President Jimmy Carter and Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev sign the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II) treaty, June 16, 1979, in Washington, D.C. Photo Credit: Bill Fitz-Patrick File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... President Jimmy Carter and Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev sign the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II) treaty, June 16, 1979, in Washington, D.C. Photo Credit: Bill Fitz-Patrick File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Brezhnev redirects here. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ...


Carter and Leonid Brezhnev, the leader of the Soviet Union, reached an agreement to this end in 1979 — the SALT II Treaty, despite opposition in Congress to ratifying it, as many thought it weakened US defenses. Following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan late in 1979 however, Carter withdrew the treaty from consideration by Congress and the treaty was never ratified (though it was signed by both Carter and Brezhnev). Even so, both sides honored the commitments laid out in the negotiations.


Intervention in Afghanistan

The United States secretly began sending aid to anti-Soviet, Afghan Islamist factions on July 3, 1979. In December 1979 the USSR invaded Afghanistan, after the pro-Moscow Afghanistan government, put in power by a 1978 coup, was overthrown. At the time some believed the Soviets were attempting to expand their borders southward in order to gain a foothold in the region. The Soviet Union had long lacked a warm water port, and their movement south seemed to position them for further expansion toward Pakistan in the East, and Iran to the West. American politicians, Republicans and Democrats alike, ignorant of U.S. involvement, feared the Soviets were positioning themselves for a takeover of Middle Eastern oil. Others believed that the Soviet Union was afraid Iran's Islamic Revolution and Afghanistan's Islamization would spread to the millions of Muslims in the USSR. National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski revealed the Carter Administration's involvement in starting the war in a 1998 interview with Le Nouvel Observateur. Brzezinski told Le Nouvel Observateur that the Soviet invasion gave America "the opportunity of giving to the USSR its Vietnam War."Full Text of Interview is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... A warm water port is a port where the water does not freeze (rendering it unusable) in the winter. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (Polish: Zbigniew Kazimierz BrzeziÅ„ski, pronounced ) : (born March 28, 1928, Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, and statesman who served as United States National Security Advisor to President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1981. ...


After the invasion, Carter announced what became known as the Carter Doctrine: that the U.S. would not allow any other outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf. He terminated the Russian Wheat Deal, which was intended to establish trade with USSR and lessen Cold War tensions. The grain exports had been beneficial to people employed in agriculture, and the Carter embargo marked the beginning of hardship for American farmers. He also prohibited Americans from participating in the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, and reinstated registration for the draft for young males. The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Badge, released in the USSR The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, were held in Moscow in the Soviet Union. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Conscript redirects here. ...

Jimmy Carter standing with Zbigniew Brzezinski
Jimmy Carter standing with Zbigniew Brzezinski

Carter and Brzezinski started a $40 billion covert program of training insurgents in Pakistan and Afghanistan as a part of the efforts to foil the Soviets' apparent plans. On the surface as well, Carter's diplomatic policies towards Pakistan in particular changed drastically. The administration had cut off financial aid to the country in early 1979 when religious fundamentalists, encouraged by the prevailing Islamist military dictatorship over Pakistan, burnt down a US Embassy based there. The international stake in Pakistan, however, had greatly increased with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The then-President of Pakistan, General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, was offered 400 million dollars to subsidize the anti-communist Mujahideen in Afghanistan by Carter. General Zia declined the offer as insufficient, famously declaring it to be "peanuts"; and the U.S. was forced to step up aid to Pakistan. President Carter standing with his National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski. ... President Carter standing with his National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski. ... Look up Aid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ... American Embassy in Athens American Embassy in Brussels American Embassy in Budapest American Embassy in Dublin American Consulate General in Kraków American Embassy in London American Embassy in Moscow American Embassy in Oslo American Embassy in Stockholm American Embassy in Vienna American Embassy in Ottawa American Embassy in Bridgetown... The President of Pakistan (Urdū: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mumlikat) is the head of state of Pakistan. ... General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq محمد ضياء الحق (b. ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... Mujahideen (Arabic: ‎, , literally strugglers) is a term for Muslims fighting in a war or involved in any other struggle. ...


Reagan would later expand this program greatly to combat Cold War concerns presented by Russia at the time. In retrospect, this contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Critics of this policy blame Carter and Reagan for the resulting instability of post-Soviet Afghan governments, which led to the rise of Islamic theocracy in the region, and also created many of the current problems with Islamic fundamentalism. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Theocracy (disambiguation). ...


Iran hostage crisis

Main article: Iran hostage crisis
The Iranian Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, meeting with Arthur Atherton, William H. Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Jimmy Carter and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1977
The Iranian Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, meeting with Arthur Atherton, William H. Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Jimmy Carter and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1977

The main conflict between human rights and U.S. interests came in Carter's dealings with the Shah of Iran. The Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, had been a strong ally of America since World War II and was one of the "twin pillars" upon which U.S. strategic policy in the Middle East was built. However, his rule was strongly autocratic, and in 1953 he went along with the plan of the Eisenhower Administration to stage a coup to remove the elected Prime Minster Mohammed Mossadegh. Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ... The Iranian Shah meeting with Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1997. ... The Iranian Shah meeting with Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1997. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, GCB (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution, was the monarch of Iran from September... The Iranian Shah meeting with Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1979. ... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of Persia to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ... His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until 1979. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Coup redirects here. ... Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh Mohammed Mossadegh ( )(Persian: ‎ ​, also Mosaddegh or Mosaddeq) (19 May 1882 - 5 March 1967) was the democratically elected[1] prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ...


On a state visit to Iran, Carter spoke out in favor of the Shah, calling him a leader of supreme wisdom, and a pillar of stability in the volatile Middle East. The speech was apparently never shown on American television.


When the Iranian Revolution broke out in Iran, and the Shah was overthrown, the U.S. did not intervene. The Shah went into permanent exile. Carter initially refused him entry to the United States, even on grounds of medical emergency. This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ...


Despite his initial refusal to admit the Shah into the United States, on October 22, 1979, Carter finally granted him entry and temporary asylum for the duration of his cancer treatment; the Shah left for Panama on December 15, 1979. In response to the Shah's entry into the U.S., Iranian militants seized the American embassy in Tehran, taking 52 Americans hostage.[34] The Iranians demanded: is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ...

  1. the return of the Shah to Iran for trial,
  2. the return of the Shah's wealth to the Iranian people,
  3. an admission of guilt by the United States for its past actions in Iran, plus an apology, and
  4. a promise from the United States not to interfere in Iran's affairs in the future.

Though later that year the Shah left the U.S. and died in Egypt, the hostage crisis continued and dominated the last year of Carter's presidency. The subsequent responses to the crisis—from a "Rose Garden strategy" of staying inside the White House, to the unsuccessful attempt to rescue the hostages by military means—were largely seen as contributing to Carter's defeat in the 1980 election. The tulips are in full bloom in the Rose Garden at the White House, April 20, 2005. ...


After the hostages were taken, President Carter issued, on November 14, 1979, Executive Order 12170 - Blocking Iranian Government property,[60] which was used to freeze the bank accounts of the Iranian government in US banks, totaling about $8 billion US at the time. This was to be used as a bargaining chip for the release of the hostages. is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


In the days before President Ronald Reagan took office, Algerian diplomat Abdulkarim Ghuraib opened fruitful, but demeaning, negotiations between the U.S. and Iran. This resulted in the "Algiers Accords" one day before the end of the Carter's Presidency on January 19, 1981, which entailed Iran's commitment to free the hostages immediately.[61] Additionally, Executive Orders 12277 through 12285 were issued by Carter[62] releasing all assets belonging to the Iranian government and all assets belonging to the Shah found within the United States and the guarantee that the hostages would have no legal claim against the Iranian government that would be heard in U.S. courts. Iran, however, also agreed to place $1 billion of the frozen assets in an escrow account and both Iran and the United States agreed to the creation of a tribunal to adjudicate claims by U.S. Nationals against Iran for compensation for property lost by them or contracts breached by Iran. The tribunal, known as the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal, has awarded over $2 billion dollars to U.S. claimaints and has been described as one of the most important arbitration bodies in the history of International Law. Although the release of the hostages was negotiated and secured under the Carter administration, the hostages were released on January 20, 1981 moments after Ronald Reagan was sworn in as President. Reagan redirects here. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... The Iran-United States Claims Tribunal is an international arbital tribunal established out of an agreement between Iran and the United States, under an understanding known as the Algiers Accords of January 19, 1981. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Reagan redirects here. ...


Administration and cabinet

OFFICE NAME TERM
President Jimmy Carter 1977–1981
Vice President Walter Mondale 1977–1981
State Cyrus Vance 1977–1980
  Edmund Muskie 1980–1981
Treasury W. Michael Blumenthal 1977–1979
  G. William Miller 1979–1981
Defense Harold Brown 1977–1981
Justice Griffin Bell 1977–1979
  Benjamin R. Civiletti 1979–1981
Interior Cecil D. Andrus 1977–1981
Commerce Juanita M. Kreps 1977–1979
  Philip M. Klutznick 1979–1981
Labor Ray Marshall 1977–1981
Agriculture Robert Bergland 1977–1981
HEW Joseph A. Califano, Jr. 1977–1979
HHS Patricia R. Harris 1979–1981
Education Shirley M. Hufstedler 1979–1981
HUD Patricia R. Harris 1977–1979
  Moon Landrieu 1979–1981
Transportation Brock Adams 1977–1979
  Neil E. Goldschmidt 1979–1981
Energy James R. Schlesinger 1977–1979
  Charles W. Duncan 1979–1981
Jimmy Carter meets with his first Secretary of State, Cyrus Vance
Official White House portrait of Jimmy Carter


Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Edmund Muskie (March 28, 1914 – March 26, 1996) was an American Democratic politician from Maine. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... W. Michael Blumenthal Blumenthals signature, as used on American currency Werner Michael Blumenthal (born January 3, 1926) served as United States Secretary of the Treasury under President Jimmy Carter from 1977-1979. ... Chairman Miller, Time, 1978 Millers signature, as used on American currency George William Miller (March 9, 1925 – March 17, 2006) served as the 65th United States Secretary of the Treasury under President Carter from August 6, 1979 to January 20, 1981. ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... Harold Brown (born September 19, 1927), American scientist, was U.S. Secretary of Defense from 1977 to 1981 in the cabinet of President Jimmy Carter. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Griffin Boyette Bell (born October 31, 1918) is an American lawyer and former United States Attorney General. ... Benjamin Richard Civiletti (born July 17, 1935) served as the United States Attorney General during the Carter administration, from 1979 to 1981. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Cecil Dale Andrus (born August 25, 1931) is a U.S. Democratic politician from the state of Idaho. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Juanita M. Kreps Juanita Morris Kreps (b. ... Philip Morris Klutznick United States Secretary of Commerce from January 9, 1980 to January 19, 1981. ... Freddie Ray Marshall is the Professor Emeritus of the Audre and Bernard Rapoport Centennial Chair in Economicis and Public Affairs at the University of Texas in Austin, Texas. ... Robert Selmer Bergland was born in Roseau, Minnesota, on July 22, 1928. ... The United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare was the head of the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. ... Joseph A. Califano, Jr. ... The United States Secretary of Health and Human Services is the head of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, concerned with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Categories: 1924 births | 1985 deaths | U.S. Secretaries of Health and Human Services | U.S. Secretaries of Health, Education, and Welfare | People stubs ... Shirley Mount Hufstedler (born August 24, 1925) was United States Secretary of Education under President Jimmy Carter. ... Seal of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development The United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is the head of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, concerned with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Categories: 1924 births | 1985 deaths | U.S. Secretaries of Health and Human Services | U.S. Secretaries of Health, Education, and Welfare | People stubs ... Maurice Edwin Moon Landrieu (born July 23, 1930) is a Democratic politician from Louisiana who served as Mayor of New Orleans from 1970-1978. ... As Secretary of Transportation, Brock Adams supported increasing automobile fuel efficiency and mass transit. ... Neil Edward Goldschmidt (born June 16, 1940) is a former politician and businessman living in the State of Oregon and a member of the Democratic Party. ... James Rodney Schlesinger (born February 15, 1929) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1975 under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... Charles William Duncan, Jr. ... Image File history File links Vance_Carter_1977. ... Image File history File links Vance_Carter_1977. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Other cabinet-level and high posts

Cabinet-level:

Others: Joshua B. Bolten, the current White House Chief of Staff. ... Hamilton Jordan William Hamilton McWhorter Jordan (born September 21, 1944) is best known as Jimmy Carters Chief of Staff. ... Jack Watson, May, 23rd 1977 Jack H. Watson Jr. ... The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is a body within the Executive Office of the President of the United States which is tasked with coordinating United States Federal agencies. ... Thomas Bertram Lance, known as Bert Lance, was director of the Office of Management and the Budget (OMB) during the presidency of Jimmy Carter. ... James T. McIntyre was a director of the United States Office of Management and Budget from September 24, 1977 until January 20, 1981. ... The Office of the United States Trade Representative, or USTR, is an arm of the executive branch of the United States government. ... Robert Schwarz Strauss (born 1918) was a U.S. diplomat and political figure. ... Reubin ODonovan Askew (born September 11, 1928) is an American politician. ... The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency is the head of the United States federal governments Environmental Protection Agency, and is thus responsible for enforcing the nations Clean Air and Clean Water Acts, as well as numerous other environmental statutes. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... United States Ambassador to the United Nations, full title, Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, and Representative of the United States of America in the Security Council of the United Nations (also known as the... Andrew Jackson Young, Jr. ... Donald F. McHenry (October 13, 1936 (unconfirmed)-- ) was the Ambassador and U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations from September 1979 until January 20, 1981. ...

Stansfield Turner (born December 1, 1923 in Highland Park, Illinois, USA) was an Admiral and Director of Central Intelligence. ... The Office of Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was established on January 23rd 1946 with Adm. ... Zbigniew Brzezinski Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (born March 28, 1928) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, and statesman. ... The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor, serves as the chief advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. ...

Personal and family matters during presidency

With Rosalynn Carter and Amy Carter on the south lawn in front of the White House, July 24, 1977

Carter's youngest child Amy lived in the White House while her father served as president. She was the subject of much media attention during this period as young children had not lived in the White House since the early 1960s presidency of John F. Kennedy. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Eleanor Rosalynn Smith Carter (born August 18, 1927) is the wife of former President Jimmy Carter and was First Lady of the United States from 1977 to 1981. ... Amy Lynn Carter Wentzel (born October 19, 1967) is the only daughter of U.S. president Jimmy Carter and his wife Rosalynn. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Amy Lynn Carter Wentzel (born October 19, 1967) is the only daughter of U.S. president Jimmy Carter and his wife Rosalynn. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...

With his brother, Billy Carter, at the commencement ceremonies at Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, February 20, 1979

Carter's brother Billy Carter generated a great deal of notoriety during Carter's presidency for his colorful and often outlandish public behavior.[63] In 1977, Billy Carter endorsed Billy Beer, capitalizing upon his colorful image as a beer-drinking, Southern boy that had developed in the press during President Carter's campaign. Billy Carter's name was occasionally used as a gag answer for a Washington, D.C., trouble-maker on 1970s episodes of The Match Game. Billy Carter once urinated on an airport runway in full view of the press and dignitaries. In late 1978 and early 1979, Billy Carter visited Libya with a contingent from Georgia three times. He eventually registered as a foreign agent of the Libyan government and received a $220,000 loan. This led to a Senate hearing over alleged influence peddling which some in the press dubbed "Billygate". A Senate sub-committee was called To Investigate Activities of Individuals Representing Interests of Foreign Governments (Billy Carter-Libya Investigation). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Billy and Jimmy Carter William Alton Billy Carter (March 29, 1937 – September 25, 1988), the younger brother of United States President Jimmy Carter, was born in Plains, Georgia. ... The Georgia Institute of Technology, commonly known as Georgia Tech, is a public, coeducational research university, part of the University System of Georgia, and located in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, with satellite campuses in Savannah, Georgia, Metz, France, Shanghai, China, and Singapore. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Billy and Jimmy Carter William Alton Billy Carter (March 29, 1937 – September 25, 1988), the younger brother of United States President Jimmy Carter, was born in Plains, Georgia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Match Game was an American television game show where contestants tried to match a panel of six celebrities in answering fill-in-the-blank questions. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States...


On May 5, 1979, Carter was the target of Raymond Lee Harvey, a transient diagnosed with a mental illness, who was found with a starter pistol awaiting the President's Cinco de Mayo speech at the Civic Center Mall in Los Angeles, and claimed to be part of a 4-man assassination attempt.[64] is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Raymond Lee Harvey (1950-) was an a American assassin who on May 5, 1979 tried to assassinate President Jimmy Carter. ... Transient means passing with time. ... A starting pistol or starter pistol is a handgun (typically a specially designed revolver) that is fired to start track and field events. ... Cinco de Mayo (5th of May in English) is primarily a regional and not an obligatory federal holiday in Mexico. ... The Civic Center Mall, located in downtown Hartford, Connecticut, was a three level, enclosed shopping mall and office complex built in 1974 as part of a large downtown urban redevelopment project. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...


1980 election

The electoral map of the 1980 election
The electoral map of the 1980 election

Carter lost the presidency to Ronald Reagan in the 1980 election. The popular vote went 50.7%, or 43.9 million popular votes, for Reagan and 41%, or 35.5 million, for Carter. Independent candidate John B. Anderson won 6.6%, or 5.7 million votes. However, because Carter's support was not concentrated in any geographic region, Reagan won a landslide 91% of the electoral vote, leaving Carter with only six states and the District of Columbia. Reagan carried a total of 489 electoral votes compared to Carter's 49. The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan, along with third party candidates, the independent John B. Anderson and Libertarian Ed Clark. ... Download high resolution version (1182x635, 107 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: U.S. presidential election, 1980 Categories: National Atlas images ... Download high resolution version (1182x635, 107 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: U.S. presidential election, 1980 Categories: National Atlas images ... John Bayard Anderson (born February 15, 1922) is a politician who was previously a member of the Republican Party. ... ...


While Carter kept his promise (all 52 hostages returned home alive), he failed to secure the release of the hostages prior to the election. While Carter ultimately won their release, Iran did not release the hostages until minutes after Reagan took office. In recognition of the fact that Carter was responsible for bringing the hostages home, President Reagan asked Carter to go to West Germany to greet them upon their release.


During his campaign, Carter was mocked for an encounter with a swimming rabbit while fishing on a farm pond on April 20, 1979. The rabbit swimming away from the President Dubbed the killer rabbit attack by the media, the Jimmy Carter rabbit incident involved a swamp rabbit that caught press imagination after trying furiously to board then-U.S. President Jimmy Carters fishing boat on April 20, 1979. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Post-presidency and legacy

Jimmy Carter in 1991 with Gerald Ford, Richard Nixon, George H. W. Bush, and Ronald Reagan at the dedication of the Reagan Presidential Library.
Jimmy Carter in 1991 with Gerald Ford, Richard Nixon, George H. W. Bush, and Ronald Reagan at the dedication of the Reagan Presidential Library.

In 1981, he returned to Georgia to his peanut farm, which he had placed into a blind trust during his presidency to avoid even the appearance of a conflict of interest. Unfortunately, upon returning, Carter found that the trustees had mismanaged the trust, leaving him over one million dollars in debt. He devoted his time to writing several best-selling books (twenty-three books in all), establishing the Carter Center, and to building his presidential library.[34] Image File history File links FordNixonBushReaganCarter. ... Image File history File links FordNixonBushReaganCarter. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Nixon redirects here. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Reagan redirects here. ... A Blind trust is a trust in which the executors or those who have been given power of attorney have full discretion over the assets, and the trust beneficiaries have no knowledge of the holdings of the trust. ...


Jimmy Carter and Walter Mondale are the longest-living post-presidential team in American history. On December 11, 2006, they had been out of office for 25 years and 325 days, surpassing the former record established by President John Adams and Vice President Thomas Jefferson, who both died on July 4, 1826. is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In ten surveys of historians which ranked US presidents, which included over 1000 scholars, the ranking of Carter's presidency ranged from #19 to #34. These rankings are similar to those of Gerald Ford, Carter's predecessor in office.[citation needed] At the time he left office Carter's presidency was viewed by some as a failure, his activities since leaving office, especially his many peacekeeping and humanitarian efforts, have led him to be widely hailed as one of the most successful ex-presidents in U.S. history.[65] Sculptor Gutzon Borglum and Presidents Calvin Coolidge selected Washington, Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Lincoln to appear on Mount Rushmore. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ...


After leaving office, Jimmy Carter has written books and attempted to influence politics in the United States. His popularity as a statesman has risen since he has left office.[66]


Humanitarian work

Carter in Plains, 2008.
Carter in Plains, 2008.

Carter's expressed goal has always been to make government "competent and compassionate." He has been involved in a variety of national and international public policy, conflict resolution, human rights and charitable causes. He established the Carter Center in 1982 in Atlanta to advance human rights and alleviate unnecessary human suffering. The center promotes democracy, mediates and prevents conflicts, and monitors the electoral process in support of free and fair elections. The center also works to improve global health through the control and eradication of diseases such as Guinea worm disease, malaria, trachoma, lymphatic filariasis, and schistosomiasis. A major accomplishment of the Carter Center has been the elimination of 99.5% of cases of Guinea worm disease, a debilitating parasite that has existed since ancient times, from more than 3.5 million cases in 1986 to fewer than 11,000 cases in 2005. Public policy is a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a problem. ... For the episode of the television series The Office, see Conflict Resolution (The Office episode) As you know, wikipedia. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... This article is about charitable organizations. ... The Jimmy Carter Presidential Library The Carter Center is a human rights organization, founded in 1982 and chaired by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter. ... For the Finno-Ugric people, see Votes. ... Dracunculiasis, more commonly known as Guinea Worm Disease (GWD), is a preventable infection caused by the parasite Dracunculus medinensis. ...


He and his wife, Rosalynn, are also well-known for their work as volunteers with Habitat for Humanity, a program that helps low income working people to build and purchase their own homes. Official Habitat for Humanity logo Habitat for Humanity is an international, Christian, non-governmental, non-profit organization devoted to building quality, low-cost, affordable housing. ...


Carter was the third U.S. President, after Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson, to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. In his Nobel Lecture, Carter told the European audience that U.S. actions after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and the 1991 Gulf War, like NATO itself, was a continuation of President Wilson's doctrine of collective security.[67] In addition, President Carter is a recipient of the Albert Schweitzer Prize for Humanitarianism. For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Collective Security is a system aspiring to the maintenance of peace, in which participants agree that any breach of the peace is to be declared to be of concern to all the participating states, and will result in a collective response. ... A recipient is defined as an entity which receives a good or service. ... The Albert Schweitzer Prize for Humanitarianism was established in 1986 by Albert Toepfer, an international grain merchant from Hamburg, Germany, to advance the cause of humanitarianism by recognizing exemplary contributions to humanity and the environment. ...


On June 18, 2007, Carter, accompanied by his wife, arrived in Dublin, Ireland for talks with President Mary McAleese and Taoiseach Bertie Ahern concerning human rights. On June 19, Carter attended and spoke at the annual Human Rights Forum at Croke Park. An agreement between Irish Aid and the Carter Center was also signed on this day. is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Mary Patricia McAleese (Irish: [1]; born 27 June 1951) is the eighth, and current President of Ireland. ... The Taoiseach (IPA: , phonetic: TEE-shock — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach [1], is the head of government or prime minister of the Republic of Ireland . ... Bartholomew Patrick Bertie Ahern (Irish: Parthalán Pádraig Ó hEachthairn, born 12 September 1951) is an Irish politician who served as Taoiseach of Ireland from 26 June 1997 to 7 May 2008. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Croke Park (Irish: Páirc an Chrócaigh) in Dublin, Ireland is the largest sports stadium in Ireland and the principal stadium and headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA), Irelands biggest sporting organisation. ... The Jimmy Carter Presidential Library The Carter Center is a human rights organization, founded in 1982 and chaired by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter. ...


On July 18, 2007, Carter joined Nelson Mandela in Johannesburg, South Africa to announce his participation in a new humanitarian organization - The Elders. Carter joined a delegations to the Sudan as part of this group, and will accompany fellow Elders Kofi Annan and Mary Robinson on mission to the Middle East in April of 2008. is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Johannesburgs skyline as seen from the observation deck of the Carlton Centre. ... The Global Elders or The Elders is a group of public figures noted as statemen, peace activists, and human rights advocates. ... Kofi Atta Annan GCMG (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... For the poet, see Mary Robinson (poet). ...


The 2007 documentary, "Man from Plains", gives an overview of Carter's humanitarian work. See main article: Palestine Peace Not Apartheid#Man from Plains: Documentary feature film by Jonathan Demme Man from Plains (originally entitled He Comes in Peace) is a 2007 American documentary film written and directed by Jonathan Demme, which chronicles former President Jimmy Carters book tour across America to publicise...


U.S. politics

In 2001, Carter criticized President Bill Clinton's controversial pardon of Marc Rich, calling it "disgraceful" and suggesting that Rich's financial contributions to the Democratic Party was a factor in Clinton's action.[68] William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... For the Breton religious festivals, see Pardon (ceremony). ... Marc Rich (born Marc David Reich on December 18, 1934) is an international commodities trader. ...


In September 2006, Carter was interviewed on the BBC's current affairs program Newsnight, voicing his concern at the increasing influence of the Religious Right on U.S. politics.[69] September 2006 is the ninth month of 2006 and has begun on a Friday. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Newsnight is a British daily news analysis, current affairs and politics programme broadcast between 22:40 and 23:20 on weekdays on BBC Two. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Carter has also criticized the presidency of George W. Bush. In a May 2007 interview with the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, he said, "I think as far as the adverse impact on the nation around the world, this administration has been the worst in history."[70][71] However, two days after the quote was published, Carter told NBC's Today that the "worst in history" comment was "careless or misinterpreted," and that he "wasn't comparing this administration with other administrations back through history, but just with President Nixon's."[72] The day after the "worst in history" comment was published, White House spokesman Tony Fratto said that Carter had become "increasingly irrelevant with these kinds of comments".[73] George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The Arkansas Democrat-Gazette is a daily newspaper published in Little Rock, Arkansas. ... The Today Show, officially known as Today, is an American morning news and talk show airing weekday mornings on NBC. Debuting on January 14, 1952, it was the first of its genre, spawning similar morning news and entertainment television programs across the United States and around the world. ... Salvatore Antonio Tony Fratto (born June 27, 1966), a White House spokesman. ...


In May 2007, Carter described the relationship of Tony Blair, the outgoing British prime minister, to Bush, in the Iraq conflict, as "abominable, loyal, blind, apparently subservient".[74] For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency...


Due to his status as former President, Carter is a superdelegate to the Democratic National Convention. On June 3, 2008, Carter announced his endorsement of Sen. Barack Obama. He has said that Obama should offer the Vice Presidential nomination to "somebody like a [former Georgia Sen.] Sam Nunn" instead of Clinton. Superdelegate is an informal term commonly used for some of the delegates to the Democratic National Convention, the presidential nominating convention of the United States Democratic Party. ... Featured at the Democratic National Convention are speeches by prominent party figures. ... -1... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Samuel Augustus Nunn, Jr. ...


Diplomacy

Former President Carter on the TIME Cover - October 3, 1994 during his mission in Haiti

In 1994, Carter persuaded President Clinton to send him on a mission to North Korea.[75] North Korea had expelled investigators from the International Atomic Energy Agency and was threatening to begin processing spent nuclear fuel. Carter met with North Korean President Kim Il Sung, resulting in the signing of the Agreed Framework, under which North Korea agreed to stop processing nuclear fuel in exchange for a return to normalized relations, oil deliveries and two light water reactors to replace its graphite reactors. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Kim Il-sung (April 15, 1912–July 8, 1994) was a Korean Communist politician and the ruler of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North Korea) from 1948 until his death. ... The Agreed Framework was signed on October 21, 1994 between North Korea and the United States. ...


The Agreed Framework negotiated by Jimmy Carter was widely hailed at the time as a diplomatic achievement, but, in 2005, North Korea announced that it had nuclear weapons and on October 9, 2006 backed up this assertion with the underground detonation of a low-yield nuclear device. Carter's supporters attributed the failure of the agreement to continued sanctions by a Republican-controlled Congress. Their opponents claimed the North Korean government never intended to give up its nuclear weapons program.[76] is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Carter visited Cuba in May 2002 and met with Fidel Castro. He was allowed to address the Cuban public on national television with a speech that he wrote and presented in Spanish. This made Carter the first President of the United States, in or out of office, to visit the island since the Cuban revolution of 1959. He also created an uproar in the US when he was seen socializing and shaking hands with Castro at the funeral of former Canadian prime minister Pierre Trudeau in late 2000. Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... THE CUBAN REVOLUTION The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ...


A popular petition resulted in Venezuela holding a recall election on August 15, 2004, and Carter was there to observe it. European Union observers had declined to participate, saying too many restrictions were put on them by the Chávez administration.[77] A record number of voters turned out to defeat the recall attempt with a 59% "no" vote.[78] The Carter Center "concluded the results were accurate."[79] On the afternoon of August 16, 2004, the day after the vote, Carter and Organization of American States (OAS) Secretary General César Gaviria gave a joint press conference in which they endorsed the preliminary results announced by the National Electoral Council. The monitors' findings "coincided with the partial returns announced today by the National Elections Council" said Carter, while Gaviria added that the OAS electoral observation mission's members had "found no element of fraud in the process". Directing his remarks at opposition figures who made claims of "widespread fraud" in the voting, Carter called on all Venezuelans to "accept the results and work together for the future".[80] However, a Penn, Schoen & Berland Associates (PSB) exit poll had predicted that Chávez would lose by 20%, and when the election results showed him to have won by 20% Schoen commented, "I think it was a massive fraud".[81] US News and World Report offered an analysis of the polls, indicating "very good reason to believe that the (Penn, Schoen & Berland) exit poll had the result right, and that Chávez's election officials — and Carter and the American media — got it wrong". The Schoen exit poll and the government's programming of election machines became the basis of claims of election fraud. Indymedia, citing the Associated Press, reports that PSB used Súmate (pro-recall) volunteers for fieldwork, and its results contradicted five other opposition exit polls.[82] The Venezuelan recall referendum of 15 August 2004 was a referendum to determine whether Hugo Chávez, the current President of Venezuela, should be recalled from office. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (pronounced ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Headquarters Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French, Portuguese, Spanish Membership 35 countries Leaders  -  Secretary General José Miguel Insulza Chile (since 26 May 2005) Establishment  -  Charter first signed 30 April 1948 in effect 1 December 1951  Website http://www. ... According to the Charter of the Organization of American States: The Secretary General shall direct the General Secretariat, be the legal representative thereof, and [...] be responsible to the General Assembly for the proper fulfillment of the obligations and functions of the General Secretariat. ... César Augusto Gaviria Trujillo (born March 31, 1947) is a Colombian politician and a Latin American stateman. ... Penn, Schoen & Berland Associates describes itself as an innovative strategic market research firm with offices in New York, Washington, D.C. and Denver. ...


In March 2004, Carter condemned George W. Bush and Tony Blair for waging an unnecessary war "based upon lies and misinterpretations" in order to oust Saddam Hussein. He claimed that Blair had allowed his better judgment to be swayed by Bush's desire to finish a war that George H. W. Bush (his father) had started.[citation needed] In August 2006, Carter criticized Blair for being "subservient" to the Bush administration and accused Blair of giving unquestioning support to any "radical or ill-advised" policy adopted by Bush.[83] On May 19, 2007, Blair made his final visit to Iraq before stepping down as British Prime Minister in June, and Carter used the occasion to attack Blair once again. Carter told the BBC that Blair was "apparently subservient" to Bush and criticised him for his "blind support" for the Iraq war.[84] Carter described Blair's actions as "abominable" and stated that the British Prime Minister's "almost undeviating support for the ill-advised policies of President Bush in Iraq have been a major tragedy for the world". Carter said he believes that had Blair distanced himself from the Bush administration during the run-up to the invasion of Iraq in 2003, it may have made a crucial difference to American political and public opinion, and consequently the invasion might not have gone ahead. Carter states that "one of the defences of the Bush administration... has been, okay, we must be more correct in our actions than the world thinks because Great Britain is backing us. So I think the combination of Bush and Blair giving their support to this tragedy in Iraq has strengthened the effort and has made the opposition less effective, and prolonged the war and increased the tragedy that has resulted." Carter expressed his hope that Blair's successor Gordon Brown would be "less enthusiastic" about Bush's Iraq policy.[85] is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ...


In June 2005, Carter urged the closing of the Guantanamo Bay Prison in Cuba, which has been the center point for recent claims of prisoner abuse. Detainees upon arrival at Camp X-Ray, January 2002 Guantánamo Bay detainment camp serves as a joint military prison and interrogation center under the leadership of Joint Task Force Guantanamo (JTF-GTMO), has occupied a portion of the United States Navys base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba since 2002. ...


Carter has also in recent years become a frequent critic of Israel's policies in Lebanon, West Bank and Gaza.[86][87] Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ...


Presidents Clinton, George H.W. and George W. Bush are said to have been less than pleased with Carter's "freelance" diplomacy in Korea, Iraq and elsewhere.[88][76] Carter has been particularly critical of the George W. Bush administration. Carter later said that his comments calling administration's foreign policy "the worst in history" had been “careless or misinterpreted.”[89]


In August 2007 Carter offered himself to negotiate with the terrorist group ETA. He also explained in Santander that he also offered to negotiate in 1998 but the offer was rejected by the government of Aznar.[90] For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ... Cantabria Population (2004) 183,799 inhabitants Area 34 km² Altitude 15 metres, at its peak Population density (2004) 5406 people/km² The port city of Santander is the capital of the autonomous community of Cantabria situated on the north coast of Spain between Asturias (to the west) and the Basque... José María Aznar López (born February 25, 1953) was President of the Government (styled Presidente del Gobierno, i. ...


In October 2007, Carter toured Darfur with several African statesmen including Desmond Tutu. Sudanese security prevented him from visiting a Darfuri tribal leader, leading to a heated exchange.[91] Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ...


In April 2008, the London-based Arabic newspaper Al-Hayat reported that Carter will meet with exiled Hamas leader Khaled Mashaal on his visit to Syria. The Carter Center did not confirm nor deny the story. The US State Department considers Hamas a terrorist organization.[92] Within this Mid-East trip, Carter also broke with US policy by laying a wreath on the grave of Yasser Arafat in Ramallah on April 14, 2008.[93] Carter very politely denied on April 23, 2008 that Condoleezza Rice or anyone else in her secretary of state-department had warned him against meeting with Hamas leaders during his April 13, 2008 trip to the Middle East.[94] Ḥamas (; acronym: , or Ḥarakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement) is a democratically-elected Palestinian Sunni Islamist[1] militant organization and political party which currently holds a majority of seats in the legislative council of the Palestinian Authority. ... Khaled Mashal, also known as Khaled Mashaal (b. ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... Arabic رام الله Founded in 16th century Government City (from 1995) Governorate Ramallah & Al-Bireh Population 23,347 (2006) Jurisdiction 16,344 dunams (16. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Ḥamas (; acronym: , or Ḥarakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement) is a democratically-elected Palestinian Sunni Islamist[1] militant organization and political party which currently holds a majority of seats in the legislative council of the Palestinian Authority. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


In May 2008, while arguing that the United States should directly talk to Iran, Carter stated that Israel has 150 nuclear weapons in its arsenal.[95] The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


Following Ecuador's severing of ties with Colombia in March of 2008, Carter brokered a deal for agreement between the countries' respective presidents on the restoration of low-level diplomatic relations announced June 8, 2008.[96][97] is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


Palestine Peace Not Apartheid

See also: Israel and the apartheid analogy

In his book Palestine Peace Not Apartheid, published in November 2006, Carter states that "Israel's continued control and colonization of Palestinian land have been the primary obstacles to a comprehensive peace agreement in the Holy Land."[98] While he recognizes that Arab citizens in Israel proper have equal rights,[99] he declares that Israel's current policies in the Palestinian territories constitute "a system of apartheid, with two peoples occupying the same land, but completely separated from each other, with Israelis totally dominant and suppressing violence by depriving Palestinians of their basic human rights."[98] While some have praised Carter for speaking frankly about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, others have accused him of anti-Israeli bias and of making significant factual errors, omissions and misstatements in the book.[100][101] Angered by Carter's book, Israel refused to provide Carter protection during an April 2008 visit.[102] Palestine Peace Not Apartheid is a New York Times Best Seller written by Jimmy Carter, 39th President of the United States (1977–1981) and winner of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize, and published by Simon and Schuster in November 2006. ... See main article: Palestine Peace Not Apartheid This article attempts to summarize and illustrate selected notable representative critical reaction to and commentary on the book Palestine Peace Not Apartheid (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006) by former president Jimmy Carter, which has been highly controversial. ... Palestine Peace Not Apartheid is a New York Times Best Seller written by Jimmy Carter, 39th President of the United States (1977–1981) and winner of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize, and published by Simon and Schuster in November 2006. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which established the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ...


Accolades

President Carter holding up a model of the submarine that will carry his name
President Carter holding up a model of the submarine that will carry his name
President Carter (right), walks with, from left, George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush and Bill Clinton during the dedication of the William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park in Little Rock, Arkansas, November 18, 2004
President Carter (right), walks with, from left, George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush and Bill Clinton during the dedication of the William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park in Little Rock, Arkansas, November 18, 2004

Carter has received honorary degrees from many American colleges, including Harvard University, Emory University, Bates College and the University of Pennsylvania. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1056x693, 119 KB) Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1056x693, 119 KB) Source: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata FORPRES.jpg‎ Summary White House Photo taken in 2004 http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata FORPRES.jpg‎ Summary White House Photo taken in 2004 http://www. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born June... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... William J. Clinton Presidential Library, Little Rock, AR Clinton Presidential Center The William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park includes the Clinton presidential library and the offices of the Clinton Foundation and the Clinton School of Public Service, established by Bill Clinton, the 42nd President of the United States. ... Little Rock redirects here. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harvard redirects here. ... Emory University is a private university located in the metropolitan area of the city of Atlanta and in western unincorporated DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. ... Bates College is a private liberal arts college, founded in 1855 by abolitionists, located in Lewiston, Maine, in the United States. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ...


Because he had served as a submariner, a submarine was named for him. The USS Jimmy Carter (SSN-23) was named on April 27, 1997,[citation needed] making it one of the very few United States Navy vessels to be named for a person still alive at the time of the naming. In February 2005, both Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter spoke at the commissioning ceremony for this submarine. For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... USS Jimmy Carter (SSN-23), the third and last Seawolf-class submarine, is the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for former President Jimmy Carter, who served in the US Navy as an officer in the Submarine Service as a nuclear engineer. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... USN redirects here. ... This list includes vessels that were named in honor of Americans who were alive at the time. ...


Carter has participated in many ceremonial events such as the opening of his own presidential library and those of Presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and Bill Clinton. He has also participated in many forums, lectures, panels, funerals and other events. Carter delivered a eulogy at the funeral of Coretta Scott King and, most recently, at the funeral of his former political rival, but later his close, personal friend and diplomatic collaborator, Gerald Ford. Whether Carter will be included in the Presidential $1 Coin Program depends on whether he is still alive in 2014. Look up eulogy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Coretta Scott King (April 27, 1927 – January 30, 2006) was the wife of the civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr, author, activist, in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Betty Ford kneels in prayer at the casket of her late husband, Gerald Ford, as he lies in state. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... The Presidential $1 Coin Program is part of an Act of Congress, Pub. ...


Carter intends to be buried in front of his home in Plains, Georgia. In contrast, most Presidents since Herbert Hoover have been buried at their presidential library or presidential museum, with the exception of John F. Kennedy, who is buried at Arlington National Cemetery, Lyndon B. Johnson, who is buried at his own ranch, and Franklin D. Roosevelt, who is buried in the Rose Garden of his home in Hyde Park, New York. Both President Carter and his wife, Rosalynn, were born in Plains. Carter also noted that a funeral in Washington, D.C. with visitation at the Carter Center is being planned as well.[103] Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a mining engineer and author. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... LBJ redirects here. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... FDR redirects here. ... Hyde Park is a town located in the northwest part of Dutchess County, New York, United States, just north of the city of Poughkeepsie. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Among the honors Carter has received are the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1999 and the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002. Others include: The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an...

Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ... An honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum, not to be confused with an honors degree) is an academic degree awarded to an individual as a decoration, rather than as the result of matriculating and studying for several years. ... Morehouse College is a private, four-year, all-male, historically black liberal arts college in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Morris Brown College (MBC) is a four-year, private, coed, liberal arts institution affiliated with the African Methodist Episcopal Church. ... For other universities and colleges named Notre Dame, see Notre Dame. ... Kwansei Gakuin University ), colloquially abbreviated to KG ), is a private non-sectarian and coeducational university located in Nishinomiya, Sanda, and Osaka City, Japan. ... ... New York Law School is a private law school in Lower Manhattan in New York City. ... Bates College is a private liberal arts college, founded in 1855 by abolitionists, located in Lewiston, Maine, in the United States. ... Centre College is an accredited, private, four-year liberal arts college located in Danville, Kentucky, USA, a community of about 15,000 in Boyle County, approximately 35 miles (56. ... Creighton University is a Jesuit, Catholic university located in Omaha, Nebraska, United States of America. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... The Georgia Institute of Technology, commonly known as Georgia Tech, is a public, coeducational research university, part of the University System of Georgia, and located in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, with satellite campuses in Savannah, Georgia, Metz, France, Shanghai, China, and Singapore. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... The Koffler accelerator, one of the best-known buildings on campus. ... The Engineering Faculty Boulevard The Smolarz Auditorium Tel Aviv University (TAU, אוניברסיטת תל אביב, אתא) is one of Israels major universities. ... The University of Haifa (אוניברסיטת חיפה) is a university in Haifa, Israel. ... A Doctor of Humane Letters (Latin: Litterarum humanae doctor; D.H.L.; or L.H.D.) is an honorary degree often conferred to those who have contributed to issues of peace and social justice. ... 2006 NEC CHAMPS BABY! GO CCSU BLUE DEVILS WHOOO!!! Central Connecticut State University is a state university in New Britain, Connecticut. ... Trinity College is a private liberal arts college in Hartford, Connecticut. ... The Silver Buffalo Award is the highest service award of the Boy Scouts of America. ... For the Boy Scouting program within the BSA, see Boy Scouting (Boy Scouts of America). ... The American Arbitration Association (AAA) is one of several arbitration organizations that administers arbitration of disputes brought to it by members of the public. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Ansel Easton Adams (February 20, 1902 – April 22, 1984) was an American photographer, best known for his black-and-white photographs of the American West. ... Albert Schweitzer, M.D., OM, (January 14, 1875 – September 4, 1965) was an Alsatian theologian, musician, philosopher, and physician. ... The Philadelphia Liberty Medal is an annual award administered by the National Constitution Center of the United States to recognize leadership in the pursuit of freedom. ... Exterior of the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania The National Constitution Center is a 160,000 square foot museum that opened on July 4, 2003 in the historic district of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and designed by American architect Henry N. Cobb. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... William Averell Harriman (November 15, 1891 – July 26, 1986) was an American Democratic Party politician, businessman and diplomat. ... James William Fulbright (April 9, 1905 – February 9, 1995) was a United States Senator representing Arkansas from 1945 to 1975. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... The United Nations Prizes in the Field of Human Rights were instituted by a United Nations General Assembly resolution in 1966. ... The Hoover Medal is an American engineering prize. ... The Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album has been awarded since 1959. ... Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced Riverside San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Honorary titles in academia may be conferred on persons in recognition of their regular contributions either on an unpaid basis by a non-employee or by an employeee beyond regular duties. ... The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), (Irish: ) is a Dublin-based private medical institution, situated on St. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Honorary titles in academia may be conferred on persons in recognition of their regular contributions either on an unpaid basis by a non-employee or by an employeee beyond regular duties. ... and of the Mansfield College College name Mansfield College Motto Deus locutus est nobis in Neanderthalus (God hath spoken unto us by [his] Caveman, Hebrews 1:1–2) Named after George and Elizabeth Mansfield Established 1886 Sister college Homerton College, Cambridge Principal Dr Diana Walford JCR president Alex Morris Undergraduates... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Electoral history

Main article: Electoral history of Jimmy Carter

See also

// Polish-American mathematician Antoni Zygmund authors his major work Measure and Integral. ... Line at a gas station, June 15, 1979. ... John William Jack Carter, (born July 3, 1947), is an American businessman and politician who unsuccessfully ran for the United States Senate in Nevadain 2006. ... // Civil rights The assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963 changed the political mood of the country. ... // Changing demographics and the growth of the Sun Belt The most widely discussed demographic phenomenon of the 1970s was the rise of the Sun Belt, the Southwest, Southeast, and especially Florida and California (surpassing New York as the nations most populous state in 1964). ... Nicaragua Betrayed, published in 1980, is the memoir of former Nicaraguan President Anastasio Somoza Debayle (as told to Jack Cox), who had been toppled the previous year by the Soviet-fronting Sandinista insurgency. ... The Jimmy Carter Presidential Library The Carter Center is a human rights organization, founded in 1982 and chaired by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Jimmy Carter".. Georgia Humanities Council, Retrieved on 2007-12-09. 
  2. ^ Biography of Jimmy Carter
  3. ^ Jimmy Carter: Decontrol of Marginal Oil Wells Executive Order 12209
  4. ^ Carter fears Florida vote trouble, BBC
  5. ^ Jimmy Carter and Habitat for Humanity - Habitat for Humanity Int'l
  6. ^ Nichols, John (2007-05-21). Who's Afraid of Jimmy Carter? George Bush. The Nation. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
  7. ^ Jimmy Carter
  8. ^ http://www.ffa.org/documents/about_prominentmembers.pdf
  9. ^ The Class of 1947 had a war-accelerated three-year program. [1].
  10. ^ Hayward, Steven F. (2004). The Real Jimmy Carter: How Our Worst Ex-President Undermines American. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing. ISBN 0895260905. 
  11. ^ Reactor Accidents: The Human Fallout
  12. ^ American Experience | Jimmy Carter | Timeline
  13. ^ [2].
  14. ^ [3].
  15. ^ Atomic Insights Blog: Picking on the Jimmy Carter myth
  16. ^ PBS Interview: Jimmy Carter
  17. ^ Lieutenant James Earle Carter, Jr., USN - Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy, October 19, 1997.
  18. ^ People & Events: James Earl ("Jimmy") Carter Jr. (1924–) - American Experience, PBS, accessed March 18, 2006.
  19. ^ American Experience | Jimmy Carter | Transcript
  20. ^ The Claremont Institute - Malaise Forever
  21. ^ "Jimmy Carter", Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2005, accessed March 18, 2006.
  22. ^ Peter Applebome. "In Georgia Reprise, Maddox on Stump", The New York Times, 14 January 1990. Retrieved on 2008-02-13. 
  23. ^ Race Matters - Lester Maddox, Segregationist and Georgia Governor, Dies at 87
  24. ^ Our Campaigns - US President - D Convention Race - July 10, 1972
  25. ^ Craig Brandon, The Electric Chair: An Unnatural American History, 1999, page 242
  26. ^ Death Penalty Information Center
  27. ^ Democrats shift on death penalty - The Boston Globe
  28. ^ CNN.com - Carter Nobel Peace Prize speech - December 10, 2002
  29. ^ GAMBRELL, David Henry - Biographical Information
  30. ^ Martin, Robert Scott (October 15, 1999). Celebrities Have Close Encounters, Too. Space.com. Retrieved on 2004-04-16.
  31. ^ Horvath, Alex (February 7, 2003). Bolinas man's film says we are not alone. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved on 2007-04-16.
  32. ^ Stenger, Richard (October 22, 2002). Clinton aide slams Pentagon's UFO secrecy. CNN. Retrieved on 2007-04-16.
  33. ^ The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe, July 25, 2007 episode
  34. ^ a b c d American Presidency, Brinkley and Dyer, 2004
  35. ^ "The Playboy Interview: Jimmy Carter." Robert Scheer. Playboy, November 1976, Vol. 23, Iss. 11, pg. 63-86
  36. ^ Erwin C. Hargrove, Jimmy Carter as President: Leadership and the Politics of the Public Good, London, 1988, p 102.
  37. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis - Discount Rates.
  38. ^ http://mortgage-x.com/general/indexes/prime.asp.
  39. ^ "The downturn was precipitated by a rise in interest rates to levels that exceeded the record rates recorded a year earlier." Congressional Budget Office, "The Prospects for Economic Recovery," February 1982.
  40. ^ American Experience | Jimmy Carter | People & Events
  41. ^ Transcript - "Crisis of Confidence" speech, July 15, 1979
  42. ^ C-SPAN interview with Hertzberg
  43. ^ Clymer, Adam (July 18, 1979). "Speech Lifts Carter Rating to 37%; Public Agrees on Confidence Crisis; Responsive Chord Struck Speech Lifts Carter Rating to 37% Big Impact Found Some Would Buy Bonds Big Gain in the South More Encouragement". New York Times: A1. 
  44. ^ Jimmy Carter - MSN Encarta
  45. ^ Executive Orders
  46. ^ Online NewsHour: Remembering Vietnam: Carter's Pardon
  47. ^ Pincus, W., & Writer, W. P. S. (1977, April 1). When a campaign vow crashes into a pork barrel. [i]The Washington Post[/i]
  48. ^ U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Statistics & Lists > Supreme Court Nominations, present-1789
  49. ^ Shilts, Randy, Conduct Unbecoming
  50. ^ Gaywired.com
  51. ^ Voyager hurtles deep into outer space. BBC News (February 18, 1998). Retrieved on 2004-04-16.
  52. ^ Voyage of The Voyagers: First Quarter-Century. Retrieved on 2007-04-16.
  53. ^ Jimmy Carter UFO. Presidential UFO. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  54. ^ Jimmy Carter and the Voyager Spacecraft. Retrieved on 2007-04-16.
  55. ^ [4] Carter / Singlaub (NBC) from the Vanderbilt Television News Archive
  56. ^ [5]Time Magazine - General on the Carpet
  57. ^ Korea: The Case For Disengagement
  58. ^ Crawford Young and Thomas Turner, The Rise and Decline of the Zairian State, p. 389
  59. ^ Jeffrey M. Elliot and Mervyn M. Dymally, Voices of Zaire: Rhetoric or Reality, p. 88
  60. ^ http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/executive-orders/1979.html.
  61. ^ Iranian Hostage Crisis.
  62. ^ http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/executive_orders.php?year=1981.
  63. ^ PBS's American Experience - Billy Carter
  64. ^ Skid Row Plot - TIME
  65. ^ Felsenthal, Carol (03). "Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton: They Genuinely Dislike Each Other". The Huffington Post.
  66. ^ Brinkley, Douglas (Fall 1996). "The rising stock of Jimmy Carter: The 'hands on' legacy of our thirty-ninth President". Diplomatic History 20 (4): 505–530. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1996.tb00285.x. ISSN 0145-2096. 
  67. ^ Text from the Nobel lecture given by The Nobel Peace Prize laureate for 2002, December 10, 2002, transcript from Jimmy Carter Library and Museum
  68. ^ CNN.
  69. ^ BBC
  70. ^ Lockwood, Frank. "Carter pipes up, calls Bush's way 'worst in history'", Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, May 19, 2007
  71. ^ Carter calls Bush administration worst ever
  72. ^ "Carter: Anti-Bush remarks 'careless or misinterpreted'", Associated Press, May 21, 2007. Retrieved May 21, 2007
  73. ^ "'Carter is irrelevant,' Bush administration shoots back", Associated Press, May 20, 2007. Retrieved May 21, 2007
  74. ^ "White House hits back at Carter", BBC News, May 21, 2007. Retrieved May 21, 2007
  75. ^ Marion V. Creekmore. A Moment of Crisis: Jimmy Carter, The Power of a Peacemaker, and North Korea's Nuclear Ambitions (2006)
  76. ^ a b [6].
  77. ^ Jose De Cordoba, and David Luhnow, "Venezuelans Rush to Vote on Chávez: Polarized Nation Decides Whether to Recall President After Years of Political Rifts," Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition), New York City, August 16, 2004, p. A11.
  78. ^ "Venezuelan Audit Confirms Victory," BBC News, BBC, 21 September 2004, accessed 5 November 2005.
  79. ^ Carter Center (2005).Observing the Venezuela Presidential Recall Referendum: Comprehensive Report. Accessed 25 January 2006.
  80. ^ [7].
  81. ^ M. Barone, "Exit polls in Venezuela," U.S. News & World Report August 20, 2004.
  82. ^ UK Indymedia - U.S. Poll Firm in Hot Water in Venezuela
  83. ^ [8].
  84. ^ BBC News accessed January 23, 2008
  85. ^ Carter attacks Blair's Iraq role. BBC News (May 19, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-19.
  86. ^ Douglas G. Brinkley. The Unfinished Presidency: Jimmy Carter's Journey to the Nobel Peace Prize (1999), pp. 99–123
  87. ^ Kenneth W. Stein, "My Problem with Jimmy Carter's Book," Middle East Quarterly 14.2 (Spring 2007).
  88. ^ Marion V. Creekmore, A Moment of Crisis: Jimmy Carter, The Power of a Peacemaker, and North Korea's Nuclear Ambitions (2006).
  89. ^ [9] MSNBC.com.
  90. ^ Jimmy Carter se ofrece de nuevo a mediar entre el Gobierno y ETA 'si lo piden las partes' | elmundo.es
  91. ^ Jimmy Carter blocked from meeting Darfur chief: Mail & Guardian Online
  92. ^ "Jimmy Carter Planning to meet Mashaal" Jerusalem Post April 9, 2008
  93. ^ "Carter lays wreath at Arafat's grave." Associated Press. April 15, 2008.
  94. ^ "Carter: Rice did not advise against Hamas meeting." CNN April 23, 2008.
  95. ^ Jimmy Carter says Israel had 150 nuclear weapons
  96. ^ The Carter Center (2008-06-08). "Ecuador and Colombia Presidents Accept President Carter's Proposal to Renew Diplomatic Relations at the Level of Chargé d'Affaires, Immediately and Without Preconditions". Press release. Retrieved on 2008-06-08.
  97. ^ "Colombia, Ecuador restore ties under deal with Carter", Reuters, Thomson Reuters, 2008-06-08. Retrieved on 2008-06-08. 
  98. ^ a b "Simon & Schuster: Palestine Peace Not Apartheid (Hardcover) - Read an Excerpt,", Simon & Schuster, November 2006, accessed April 9, 2007.
  99. ^ [10], "Jimmy Carter Issues Letter to Jewish Community on Palestine Peace Not Apartheid", Carter Center, December 15, 2006, accessed April 9, 2007
  100. ^ Julie Bosman, "Carter View of Israeli 'Apartheid' Stirs Furor," The New York Times, December 14, 2006, accessed March 29, 2008.
  101. ^ Alan Dershowitz. "The World According to Carter", The New York Sun, 2006-11-22. Retrieved on 2007-09-25. 
  102. ^ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24107417/ Israel refused to guard Carter, sources say]
  103. ^ President Carter Talks of Funeral Plans

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See also

United States Navy Portal

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References

Further information: List of books by Jimmy Carter
  • Allen, Gary. Jimmy Carter, Jimmy Carter, '76 Press, 1976.
  • Berggren, D. Jason and Rae, Nicol C. "Jimmy Carter and George W. Bush: Faith, Foreign Policy, and an Evangelical Presidential Style." Presidential Studies Quarterly 2006 36(4): 606-632. Issn: 0360-4918 Fulltext: in Swetswise and Ingenta
  • Busch, Andrew E. Reagan's Victory: The Presidential Election of 1980 and the Rise of the Right, (2005) online review by Michael Barone
  • Califano, Joseph A., Jr. Governing America: An insider's report from the White House and the Cabinet. 1981
  • Freedman, Robert. "The Religious Right and the Carter Administration." Historical Journal 2005 48(1): 231-260. Issn: 0018-246x Fulltext: in Swetswise
  • Jordan, Hamilton. Crisis: The Last Year of the Carter Presidency. 1982
  • Lance, Bert. The Truth of the Matter: My Life in and out of Politics. 1991
  • New York Times article TOPICS; Thermostatic Legacy, January 1, 1981, Thursday (NYT); Editorial Desk Late City Final Edition, Section 1, Page 18, Column 1
  • Harris, David [13] (2004). The Crisis: the President, the Prophet, and the Shah—1979 and the Coming of Militant Islam. Little, Brown. 
  • Regarding the failed Iranian mission to rescue the American hostages
  • Bourne, Peter G. (1997). Jimmy Carter: A Comprehensive Biography From Plains to Post-Presidency. New York: Scribner. ISBN 0-684-19543-7. 
  • Clymer, Kenton. "Jimmy Carter, Human Rights, and Cambodia." Diplomatic History 2003 27(2): 245-278. Issn: 0145-2096 Fulltext: in Swetswise, Ingenta and Ebsco
  • Dumbrell, John (1995). The Carter Presidency: A Re-evaluation, 2nd ed., Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-4693-9. 
  • Fink, Gary M.; and Hugh Davis Graham (eds.) (1998). The Carter Presidency: Policy Choices in the Post-New Deal Era. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0895-8. 
  • Flint, Andrew R.; and Joy Porter (March 2005). "Jimmy Carter: The re-emergence of faith-based politics and the abortion rights issue". Presidential Studies Quarterly 35 (1): 28–51. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5705.2004.00234.x. 
  • Gillon, Steven M. (1992). The Democrats' Dilemma: Walter F. Mondale and the Liberal Legacy. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-07630-4. 
  • Glad, Betty (1980). Jimmy Carter: In Search of the Great White House. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-07527-3. 
  • Hahn, Dan F. (1992). "The rhetoric of Jimmy Carter, 1976–1980", in in Theodore Windt and Beth Ingold: Essays in Presidential Rhetoric, 3rd ed., Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, pp. 331–365. ISBN 0-8403-7568-9. 
  • Hargrove, Erwin C. (1988). Jimmy Carter as President: Leadership and the Politics of the Public Good. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 0-8071-1499-5. 
  • Jones, Charles O. (1988). The Trusteeship Presidency: Jimmy Carter and the United States Congress. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 0-8071-1426-X. 
  • Jorden, William J. (1984). Panama Odyssey. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-76469-3. 
  • Kaufman, Burton I. (1993). The Presidency of James Earl Carter, Jr. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0572-X. 
  • Kucharsky, David (1976). The Man From Plains: The Mind and Spirit of Jimmy Carter. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-064891-0. 
  • Morgan, Iwan. "Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton, and the New Democratic Economics." Historical Journal 2004 47(4): 1015-1039. Issn: 0018-246x Fulltext: in Swetswise
  • Ribuffo, Leo P. (1989). "God and Jimmy Carter", in in M. L. Bradbury and James B. Gilbert: Transforming Faith: The Sacred and Secular in Modern American History. New York: Greenwood Press, pp. 141–159. ISBN 0-313-25707-8. 
  • Ribuffo, Leo P. (1997). "'Malaise' revisited: Jimmy Carter and the crisis of confidence", in in John Patrick Diggins (ed.): The Liberal Persuasion: Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. and the Challenge of the American Past. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 164–185. ISBN 0-691-04829-0. 
  • Rosenbaum, Herbert D.; and Alexej Ugrinsky (eds.) (1994). The Presidency and Domestic Policies of Jimmy Carter. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, pp. 83–116. ISBN 0-313-28845-3. 
  • Schram, Martin (1977). Running for President, 1976: The Carter Campaign. New York: Stein and Day. ISBN 0-8128-2245-5. 
  • Schmitz, David F. and Walker, Vanessa. "Jimmy Carter and the Foreign Policy of Human Rights: the Development of a Post-cold War Foreign Policy." Diplomatic History 2004 28(1): 113-143. Issn: 0145-2096 Fulltext: in Swetswise, Ingenta and Ebsco
  • Strong, Robert A. (Fall 1986). "Recapturing leadership: The Carter administration and the crisis of confidence". Presidential Studies Quarterly 16 (3): 636–650. ISSN 0360-4918. 
  • Strong, Robert A. (2000). Working in the World: Jimmy Carter and the Making of American Foreign Policy. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 0-8071-2445-1. 
  • White, Theodore H. (1982). America in Search of Itself: The Making of the President, 1956–1980. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-039007-7. 
  • Witcover, Jules (1977). Marathon: The Pursuit of the Presidency, 1972–1976. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-45461-3. 

This is a list of books authored by Jimmy Carter the 39th President of the United States (1977–1981). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... David Harris was a prominent anti-Vietnam War protestor, president of the Associated Students of Stanford University, and later, the leader of many anti-draft groups. ... Dr. Peter Bourne is a physician, anthropologist, biographer, author and international civil servant with experience in several senior government positions. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Theodore White on a book cover Theodore Harold White (May 6, 1915 – May 9, 1986) was an American political journalist, historian, and novelist, best known for his acclaimed accounts of the 1960, 1964, 1968, and 1972 presidential elections. ...

External links

Find more information on Jimmy Carter in Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions
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Learning resources
  • Extensive essay on Jimmy Carter and shorter essays on each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the Miller Center of Public Affairs
  • Full audio of Carter speeches via the Miller Center of Public Affairs (UVa)
  • Extensive collection of Oral History Transcripts on the Carter Administration from the Miller Center of Public Affairs (UVa)
  • Jimmy Carter Library and Museum
  • The Carter Center: Advancing Human Rights and Alleviating Suffering
  • PBS American Experience Video Biography of Jimmy Carter
  • Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter Partnership Foundation
  • Text and Audio of Carter's Crisis of Confidence (Malaise) Speech
  • Text and Notes to Carter's Undelivered Energy Speech
  • Simon & Schuster Audio homepage for Jimmy Carter
  • Interpretive essay in New Georgia Encyclopedia
  • Website about Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

Biographical pages

  • Educational Background
  • Biography, via whitehouse.gov
  • Biography, via Britannica.com - Jimmy Carter
  • Biography via ourgeorgiahistory.com
  • Biography, via geocities.com
  • Navy Years, via submarinehistory.com

Other links

  • Interview about the SALT II negotiations for the WGBH series
  • War and Peace in the Nuclear Age
  • Inaugural Address of Jimmy Carter via re-quest.net
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica, Jimmy Carter
  • State of the Union Addresses: 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981 (written message) at UCSB's American Presidency Project
  • Audio recordings of Carter's speeches, via Michigan State University
  • Nobel lecture, Oslo, Norway (December 10, 2002)
    • Nobel Prize for Carter
  • About the malaise speech, via PBS
    • The malaise speech text, via PBS
  • The 1980 October Surprise
  • "The U.S. President was here" — about Carterpuri, a village in Haryana, India named after President Carter
  • Instruments of Statecraft: U.S. Guerrilla Warfare, Counterinsurgency, and Counterterrorism, 1940–1990 Chap. 3 The Carter Years
  • Carter's hand written UFO sighting report of 1969
  • More information about the "killer rabbit" incident
  • Works by Jimmy Carter at Project Gutenberg
  • Jimmy Carter at the Internet Movie Database
  • Jimmy Carter's thoughts on Earth Day 2006
  • Carter shares insight on peace in Mideast
  • Interview with Jimmy Carter (August 2006)
  • Interview with Jimmy Carter on Current Campaign (April 2007)
  • Interview with Jimmy Carter (April 2007) on Speaking of Faith with Krista Tippett
  • Interview with Jimmy Carter on The Skeptic's Guide to the Universe about his UFO sighting (July 2007)
Political offices
Preceded by
Lester Maddox
Governor of Georgia
1971 – 1975
Succeeded by
George Busbee
Preceded by
Gerald Ford
President of the United States
January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981
Succeeded by
Ronald Reagan
Party political offices
Preceded by
George McGovern
Democratic Party Presidential Nominee
1976, 1980
Succeeded by
Walter Mondale
Order of precedence in the United States of America
Preceded by
John G. Roberts
Chief Justice of the United States
United States order of precedence
Former President of the United States
Succeeded by
George H. W. Bush
Former President of the United States
Persondata
NAME Carter, Jimmy
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Carter, James Earl, Jr.
SHORT DESCRIPTION President of the United States
DATE OF BIRTH October 1, 1924 (1924-10-01) (age 83)
PLACE OF BIRTH Plains, Georgia, United States
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Plains is a city located in Sumter County, Georgia. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Jimmy Carter - MSN Encarta (1313 words)
Carter had served one term as governor of Georgia and was considered an outsider to traditional party politics.
Carter won his first elective office, a seat on the local school board, in 1960, and two years later he moved up to the state senate after proving that his opponent in the Democratic primary had broken voting laws.
Carter accused Sanders of being a “Humphrey Democrat.” He was referring to former vice president Hubert H. Humphrey, a Democrat from Minnesota who supported such liberal causes as civil rights for fls, an unpopular cause among many whites, especially in the South.
Jimmy Carter - definition of Jimmy Carter in Encyclopedia (2765 words)
Carter was born the oldest of four children in the town of Plains, Georgia, to James Earl Carter and Bessie Lillian Gordy.
Carter served on submarines in the Atlantic and Pacific fleets, and was later selected by Admiral Hyman Rickover for the U.S. Navy's nuclear submarine program.
Carter served as governor of the state of Georgia from 1971 to 1975.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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