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Encyclopedia > Jim Thorpe
Jim Thorpe
Jim Thorpe's Track & Field picture.
Position(s):
RB, DB
Jersey #(s):
31
Born: May 28, 1888(1888-05-28)
Prague, Oklahoma
Died: March 28, 1953 (aged 64)
Lomita, California
Career Information
Year(s): 19201928
College: Carlisle Indian
Professional Teams
Career Stats
Games     52
Rushing TD     6
Passing TD     4
Stats at NFL.com
Career Highlights and Awards
  • All-Pro selection (1923)
  • NFL 1920s All-Decade Team
Pro Football Hall of Fame
College Football Hall of Fame
Medal record
Olympic Games
Men’s Athletics
Gold 1912 Stockholm Pentathlon
Gold 1912 Stockholm Decathlon

Jacobus Franciscus "Jim" Thorpe (Sac and Fox (Sauk) from Oklahoma: Wa-Tho-Huk) (May 28, 1888March 28, 1953[1]) was an American athlete. Considered one of the most versatile athletes in modern sports, he won Olympic gold medals in the pentathlon and decathlon, played American football collegiately and professionally, and also played professional baseball and basketball. He subsequently lost his Olympic titles when it was found he was paid for playing two seasons of minor league baseball before competing in the games (thus violating the amateur status rules). Jim Thorpe may refer to: Jim Thorpe, the multi-sport athlete Jim Thorpe, Pennsylvania, a town named after him Jim Thorpe (golfer), the professional golfer Jim Thorpe Award Category: ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A diagram showing typical football positions In American football, each team has 11 players on the field at one time. ... P.J. Daniels was a star running back for Georgia Tech from 2002-2005. ... In American football and Canadian football, defensive backs are the players on the defensive team who take positions somewhat back from the line of scrimmage; they are distinguished from the defensive line players, who take positions directly behind the line of scrimmage. ... In team sports, the squad number, jersey number, sweater number, or uniform number is the number worn on a players outfit. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Prague is a city located in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lomita is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... In an organised sports league, a season is the portion of one year in which regulated games of the sport are in session. ... The 1920 NFL season was the first inaugural regular season of the National Football League. ... The 1928 NFL season was the 9th regular season of the National Football League. ... This is a list of athletic conferences of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA). ... Carlisle Indian Industrial School, (1879 - 1918), in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, the first federally supported school for Native Americans to be established off a reservation, was founded in 1879 by Richard Henry Pratt. ... The Canton Bulldogs played in Canton, Ohio in the National Football League from 1920 - 1923 and 1925 - 1926. ... The 1926 NFL season was the 7th regular season of the National Football League. ... Cleveland Tigers played in the National Football League, then called the American Professional Football Association during the 1920 and 1921 seasons. ... The Oorang Indians were a team in the National Football League from La Rue, Ohio (near Marion). ... The 1922 NFL season was the 3rd regular season of what was now called National Football League (the league changed their name from American Professional Football Association on June 24). ... The 1923 NFL season was the 4th regular season of the National Football League. ... Rock Island Independents, based in Rock Island, Illinois, played in the National Football League from 1920 to 1925 and in American Football League 1926 Categories: Stub | Defunct American football teams | Illinois sports ... The 1924 NFL season was the 5th regular season of the National Football League. ... The 1925 NFL season was the 6th regular season of the National Football League. ... This article is about the current National Football League team. ... The 1925 NFL season was the 6th regular season of the National Football League. ... The Arizona Cardinals are a National Football League team based in Tempe, Arizona. ... The 1928 NFL season was the 9th regular season of the National Football League. ... This is a list of all NFL players who have had outstanding performances throughout the 1920s and have been compiled onto this fantasy group. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... A womens 400 m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track in the Helsinki Olympic Stadium in Finland. ... The 1912 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the V Olympiad, were held in 1912 in Stockholm, Sweden. ... The mens pentathlon was a track and field athletics event held as part of the Athletics at the 1912 Summer Olympics programme. ... The 1912 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the V Olympiad, were held in 1912 in Stockholm, Sweden. ... The mens decathlon was a track and field athletics event held as part of the Athletics at the 1912 Summer Olympics programme. ... Fox (known by a variety of different names, including Mesquakie, Meskwaki, Mesquakie-Sauk, Mesquakie-Sauk-Kickapoo, Sac and Fox, and others) is an Algonquian Indian language, spoken by around 1000 Fox, Sauk, and Kickapoo in various locations in the Midwestern United States. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A sport consists of a physical activity or skill carried out with a recreational purpose: for competition, for self-enjoyment, to attain excellence, for the development of a skill, or some combination of these. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Decathlon is an athletic event combining 10 track and field events. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... This article is about the sport. ... This article is about the sport. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Amateur. ...


Thorpe was of mixed Native American and white ancestry. He was raised as a Sac and Fox, and named Wa-Tho-Huk, roughly translated as "Bright Path". He struggled with racism throughout much of his life and his accomplishments were publicized with headlines describing him as a "Redskin" and "Indian athlete". He also played on several All-American Indian teams throughout his career and barnstormed as a professional basketball player with a team composed entirely of Native Americans. This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... The Sac and Fox Nation is the modern political entity encompassing the historical Sac and Fox nations of Native Americans. ... Barnstorming in athletics refers to sports teams that travel to various locations, usually small towns, to stage exhibition matches. ...


Thorpe was named the greatest athlete of the first half of the twentieth century by the Associated Press (AP) in 1950, and ranked third on the AP list of athletes of the century in 1999. After his professional sports career ended, Thorpe lived in abject poverty. He worked several odd jobs, struggled with alcoholism, and lived out the last years of his life in failing health. In 1983, thirty years after his death, his medals were restored. The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...

Contents

Early life

Information about Thorpe's birth, full name, and ethnic background varies widely.[2] What is known is that he was born in Indian Territory, but no birth certificate has been found. Thorpe's birth is generally considered to have taken place on May 28, 1888[1] near the town of Prague, Oklahoma.[3] Jacobus Franciscus Thorpe is the name on his christening (baptismal) certificate. Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ... Mary Elizabeth Winblad (1895-1987) birth certificate A birth certificate is a vital record that documents the birth of a child. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Prague is a city located in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...


His parents were of mixed descent. His father, Hiram Thorpe, had an Irish father and a Sac and Fox Indian mother, while his mother, Charlotte Vieux, had a French father and a Native American mother. Thorpe was raised as a Sac and Fox, and his native name was Wa-Tho-Huk, translated as "A path lighted by a great flash of lightning" or more simply "Bright Path".[2] As was the custom for Sac and Fox, Thorpe was named for something occurring around the time of his birth, in this case the sunlight brightening the path to the cabin where he was born. Thorpe's mother was Catholic and raised the children in the faith, which Thorpe later observed throughout his adult life.[4] The Sac and Fox Nation is the modern political entity encompassing the historical Sac and Fox nations of Native Americans. ...


Together with his twin brother, Charlie, Thorpe went to school in Stroud, Oklahoma at the Sac and Fox Indian Agency School. Charlie died of pneumonia when they were nine years old.[5] Charlie had helped Jim through school. Thorpe did not handle his brother's death very well and ran away from school on several occasions. Hiram Thorpe then sent him to what is now known as Haskell Indian Nations University in Lawrence, Kansas, so that he would not run away again.[6] When his mother died of childbirth complications two years later,[7] Thorpe fell into a depression. After several arguments with his father, he ran away from home to work on a horse ranch.[6] Stroud is a city located in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... A runaway is a minor who has left the home of his or her parent or legal guardian without permission or has been thrown out by his or her parent. ... Haskell Indian Nations University is a four year degree granting university in Lawrence, Kansas which offers free tuition to members of registered Native American tribes in the United States. ... Lawrence is a river city in and the seat of Douglas County, Kansas, United States, 41 miles (66 km) west of Kansas City, along the banks of both the Kansas (Kaw) and Wakarusa Rivers. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ...


In 1904, Thorpe returned to his father and decided to join Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, where he was coached by Glenn Scobey "Pop" Warner, one of the most influential coaches in early American football history.[8] Later that year, Hiram Thorpe died from gangrene poisoning after a hunting accident.[7] Thorpe once again dropped out of school. He resumed farm work for a few years and then returned to Carlisle, where his athletic career commenced.[6] Carlisle Indian Industrial School, (1879 - 1918), in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, the first federally supported school for Native Americans to be established off a reservation, was founded in 1879 by Richard Henry Pratt. ... Coordinates: , Country State County Cumberland Founded 1751 Government  - Mayor Kirk R. Wilson Area  - Borough  5. ... Glenn Scobey Pop Warner in a 1997 USA Postage stamp. ... Gangrene is a complication of necrosis (i. ...


Amateur career

College career

Jim Thorpe in Carlisle Indian Industrial School uniform, about 1909
Jim Thorpe in Carlisle Indian Industrial School uniform, about 1909

Thorpe reportedly began his athletic career at Carlisle in 1907 when he walked past the track and beat the school's high jumpers with an impromptu 5-ft 9-in jump while still wearing plain clothes. [9] His earliest recorded track and field results are indeed from 1907. But track and field were certainly not the only events in which Thorpe engaged at Carlisle—he also participated in football, baseball, lacrosse and even ballroom dancing. Reportedly, Pop Warner was hesitant to allow Thorpe, his star track and field athlete, to compete in a physical game such as football.[10] Thorpe however, convinced Warner to let him run some plays against the school's defense; Warner assumed he would be tackled easily and give up the idea of playing football.[10] Thorpe "ran around past and through them not once, but twice."[10] He then walked over to Warner and said "[n]obody is going to tackle Jim," while flipping him the ball.[10] Image File history File links Jim_Thorpe. ... Image File history File links Jim_Thorpe. ... Carlisle Indian Industrial School, (1879 - 1918), in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, the first federally supported school for Native Americans to be established off a reservation, was founded in 1879 by Richard Henry Pratt. ... This article is about the athletic event. ... Athletics, also known as track and field or track and field athletics, is a collection of sport events. ... Lacrosse is a spring and summer team sport played by two teams of ten players each who use netted sticks (called crosses in French) in order to project a small rubber ball into the opponents goal. ... Ballroom dance is a style of partner dance which originated in the western world and is now enjoyed both socially and competitively around the globe. ... Glenn Scobey Pop Warner in a 1997 USA Postage stamp. ...


He gained nationwide attention for the first time in 1911.[11] As a running back, defensive back, placekicker, and punter for his school's football team, Thorpe scored all of his team's points—four field goals and a touchdown—in an 18-15 upset of Harvard.[10] His team finished the season 11–1. P.J. Daniels was a star running back for Georgia Tech from 2002-2005. ... In American football and Canadian football, defensive backs are the players on the defensive team who take positions somewhat back from the line of scrimmage; they are distinguished from the defensive line players, who take positions directly behind the line of scrimmage. ... An amateur place kicker attempts to kick a field goal Placekicker, or simply Kicker, is the title of the player in American and Canadian football who is responsible for the kicking duties of field goals, extra points, and, in many cases, kickoffs. ... [[Image:|frame|right|Todd Sauerbrun punts the ball for the Carolina Panthers. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ...


The following year, he led Carlisle to the national collegiate championship, scoring 25 touchdowns and 198 points.[8] Carlisle's 1912 record included a 27-6 victory over Army.[3] In that game, Thorpe scored a 92-yard touchdown that was nullified by a penalty incurred by a teammate; Thorpe then scored a 97-yard touchdown on the next play.[12] Texas Longhorn quarterback Vince Young (center top of picture), now with the Tennessee Titans, rushing for a touchdown vs. ... USMA redirects here. ...


During that game, future President Dwight Eisenhower injured his knee while trying to tackle Thorpe. Eisenhower recalled of Thorpe in a 1961 speech, "Here and there, there are some people who are supremely endowed. My memory goes back to Jim Thorpe. He never practiced in his life, and he could do anything better than any other football player I ever saw."[8] Thorpe was given All-American honors in both 1911 and 1912.[3] Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... An All-America team is a sports team composed of star players. ...


Football was—-and would remain—-Thorpe's favorite sport,[13] and he competed only sporadically in track and field. Nevertheless, track and field would become the sport in which Thorpe would gain the most fame.


Olympic career

Thorpe at the 1912 Summer Olympics.
Thorpe at the 1912 Summer Olympics.

For the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden, two new multi-event disciplines were on the program, the pentathlon and the decathlon. A pentathlon based on the ancient Greek event had been organized at the 1906 Summer Olympics, but the 1912 edition would consist of the long jump, the javelin throw, 200-meter dash, the discus throw and the 1500-meter run. Image File history File links Jim_Thorpe_olympic. ... Image File history File links Jim_Thorpe_olympic. ... The 1912 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the V Olympiad, were held in 1912 in Stockholm, Sweden. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Decathlon is an athletic event combining 10 track and field events. ... The 1906 Summer Olympics, also called the 1906 Intercalated Games, were held in Athens, Greece. ... Long jumper at the GE Money Grand Prix in Helsinki, July 2005. ... An athlete throwing the javelin. ... “Discus” redirects here. ...


The decathlon was an entirely new event in athletics, although it had been competed in American track meets since the 1880s and a version had been featured on the program of the 1904 St. Louis Olympics. However, the events of the new decathlon were slightly different from the U.S. version. Both events seemed a fit for Thorpe, who was so versatile that he alone had formed Carlisle's team in several track meets.[3] He could run the 100-yard dash in 10 seconds flat, the 220 in 21.8 seconds, the 440 in 51.8 seconds, the 880 in 1:57, the mile in 4:35, the 120-yard high hurdles in 15 seconds, and the 220-yard low hurdles in 24 seconds.[3] He could long jump 23 ft 6 in and high-jump 6 ft 5 in.[3] He could pole vault 11 feet, put the shot 47 ft 9 in, throw the javelin 163 feet, and throw the discus 136 feet.[3] Thorpe entered the U.S. Olympic trials for both the pentathlon and the decathlon. The 1904 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the III Olympiad, were held in St. ... Pole vaulting is an athletic event where a person uses a long, flexible pole (usually made either of fiberglass or carbon fiber) as an aid to leap over a bar. ... Shot put The shot put is an athletics (track and field) event involving putting (throwing in a pushing motion) a heavy metal ball (called the shot) as far as possible. ... An athlete throwing the javelin. ... “Discus” redirects here. ...


He easily won the awards, winning three events, and was named to the pentathlon team, which also included future International Olympic Committee (IOC) president Avery Brundage. There were only a few candidates for the decathlon team, and the trials were cancelled. Thorpe would contest his first—-and, as it turned out, only-—decathlon in the Olympics. Thorpe's Olympic record 8,413 points would stand for nearly two decades.[9] Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... Avery Brundage (September 28, 1887 – May 8, 1975) was an American athlete, sports official, art collector and philanthropist. ...


Thorpe's competition schedule for the Olympics was crowded. Along with the decathlon and pentathlon, he also entered the long-jump and high-jump competitions. The first event scheduled was the pentathlon. Thorpe was the class of the field, winning four events. He placed only third in the javelin, an event he had not competed in before 1912. Although the competition was primarily decided on place points, points were also calculated for the marks achieved in the events.


The same day he won the pentathlon gold, Thorpe qualified for the high-jump final. In that final, he placed fourth and took seventh place in the long jump. Thorpe's final event was the decathlon, where tough competition from local favorite Hugo Wieslander was expected. Thorpe, however, also easily defeated Wieslander, finishing nearly 700 points ahead of him. He placed in the top four of all ten events. Overall, Thorpe won eight of the two competitions' 15 individual events.[8] Karl Hugo Wieslander (born 11 June 1889; Died 24 May 1976) was a Swedish athlete who competed in combined events. ...


As was the custom of the day, the medals were presented to the athletes during the closing ceremonies of the games. Along with the two gold medals, Thorpe also received two challenge prizes, which were donated by King Gustav V of Sweden for the decathlon and Czar Nicholas II of Russia for the pentathlon. Legend has it that, when awarding Thorpe his prize, King Gustav said, "You, sir, are the greatest athlete in the world," to which Thorpe replied, "Thanks, King."[14] (See Sportsperson.) Gustaf V (Oscar Gustaf Adolf) (June 16, 1858 – October 29, 1950) was King of Sweden from 1907 until his death. ... Nicholas II redirects here. ... A sportsperson (British and American English) or athlete (principally American English) is any person who participates regularly in a sport. ...


Thorpe's successes had not gone unnoticed at home, and he was honored with a ticker-tape parade on Broadway.[14] He later remembered: "I heard people yelling my name, and I couldn't realize how one fellow could have so many friends."[14] Ticker-tape parade in New York City in honor of the Apollo 11 astronauts, August 1969 A ticker-tape parade is a parade event, held in a downtown urban setting, allowing the jettison of large amounts of shredded paper products from nearby office buildings onto the parade route, creating a... A view of Broadway in 1909 Broadway, as the name implies, is a wide avenue in New York City. ...


Apart from his track and field appearance, Thorpe also played in one of two exhibition baseball matches held at the 1912 Olympics, which featured two teams made up of U.S. track and field athletes. It was not Thorpe's first try at baseball, as would soon become known to the rest of the world.


Professional career

Declared a professional

In 1913, strict rules regarding amateurism were in force for athletes participating in the Olympics. Athletes who received money prizes for competitions, who were sports teachers, or who had previously competed against professionals, were not considered amateurs and were not allowed to compete in the Olympics. See also: 1912 in sports, other events of 1913, 1914 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Baseball The Brooklyn Dodgers the John McGraws New York Giants to win the World Series Football (Australian Rules) Victorian Football League - Fitzroy wins the 17th VFL Premiership (Fitzroy 7. ...


In late January 1913, U.S. newspapers published stories announcing that Thorpe had played professional baseball. It is not entirely certain which newspaper first published the story; the earliest article found is from the Providence Times, but the Worcester Telegram is usually mentioned as the first.[14] Thorpe had indeed played professional baseball in the Eastern Carolina League for Rocky Mount, North Carolina, in 1909 and 1910, receiving meager pay; reportedly as little as $2 a game and as much as $35 a week.[15] College players, in fact, regularly spent summers playing professionally, but most, as opposed to Thorpe, used aliases.[8] The Worcester Telegram & Gazette (and Sunday Telegram) is Worcester, Massachusettss only daily newspaper. ... The Eastern Carolina League was a minor league baseball affiliation which operated in the Eastern part of North Carolina. ... Nickname: Location of Rocky Mount within North Carolina Coordinates: , Country State Counties Nash, Edgecombe Founded Circa March 22, 1816 Incorporated February 28, 1867 Government  - Mayor Frederick E. Turnage Area  - City 35. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... See also: 1908 in sports, 1910 in sports and the list of years in sports. Baseball The Pittsburgh Pirates defeat the Detroit Tigers, four games to three, in the World Series. ... See also: 1909 in sports, 1911 in sports and the list of years in sports. Football (Australian Rules) Victorian Football League - Collingwood wins the 14th VFL Premiership (Collingwood 9. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


Although the public did not seem to care much about Thorpe's past,[16] the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU), and especially its secretary James E. Sullivan, took the case very seriously.[17] Thorpe wrote a letter to Sullivan, in which he admitted playing professional baseball:[14] - The Amateur Athletic Union, widely known as the AAU, was formed in United States. ... James Edward Sullivan (November 18, 1862 - September 16, 1914) was an American sports official. ...

...I hope I will be partly excused by the fact that I was simply an Indian schoolboy and did not know all about such things. In fact, I did not know that I was doing wrong, because I was doing what I knew several other college men had done, except that they did not use their own names....

His letter did not help. The AAU decided to retroactively withdraw Thorpe's amateur status and asked the IOC to do the same. Later that year, the IOC unanimously decided to strip Thorpe of his Olympic titles, medals and awards and declared him a professional.


While Thorpe had played for money, his disqualification was not within the rules in place at the time. In the rulebook for the 1912 Olympics, it was stated that any protests had to be made within 30 days from the closing ceremonies of the games.[12] The first newspaper reports didn't appear until January 1913, about six months after the Stockholm Games had concluded.[12] However, AAU and IOC officials were apparently ignorant of this rule or chose to ignore it. There also is some evidence that Thorpe's amateur status had already been questioned long before the Olympics but that this had been (deliberately) ignored by the AAU until they were confronted with it in 1913.


The only positive side to this affair for Thorpe was that, as soon as the news got out that he had been declared a professional, offers came in from professional clubs.[18]


Declared a rare free agent in the era of the reserve clause, Jim Thorpe had his pick of teams for which to play.[19] He turned down a starting position with the Saint Louis Browns to be a reserve with the New York Giants. One of the immediate benefits of joining the team came that October, when the Giants joined the Chicago White Sox for a world tour.[20] Barnstorming across the United States and then around the world, Thorpe was the unquestioned star of the world tour.[21] Everywhere the teams went, Thorpe brought them publicity and increased the tour's box office receipts. Among the highlights were meetings with the Pope and the last khedive of Egypt and playing before 20,000 in London with King George V in attendance. While in Rome, Thorpe was filmed wrestling with another baseball player on the floor of the Coliseum. Unfortunately, every inch of the film has been lost to time. (For the 1901-02 American League team known as the Baltimore Orioles, see New York Yankees. ... Major league affiliations National League (1883–present) West Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers NY, NY, 3, 4, 11, 24, 27, 30, 36, 42, 44 Name San Francisco Giants (1958–present) New York Giants (1885–1957) New York Gothams (1883–85) Other nicknames The Jints, The Gigantes, The G... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 2, 3, 4, 9, 11, 16, 19, 42, 72 Name Chicago White Sox (1904–present) (Chicago) White Stockings (1901-1903 *From 1900 to 1903, the official name did not contain the city name of Chicago... For the HMS Khedive, see USS Cordova. ... King George V King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Emperor of India His Majesty King George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert) (3 June 1865–20 January 1936) was the last British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, changing the name to the House... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


Baseball, football, and basketball

Thorpe played football for Canton from 1915 through 1920. He also played 52 NFL games.
Thorpe played football for Canton from 1915 through 1920. He also played 52 NFL games.

Thorpe signed with the New York Giants baseball club in 1913 and played sporadically with them as an outfielder for three seasons. After playing in the minors with the Milwaukee Brewers in 1916[22], he returned to the Giants in 1917 but was sold to the Cincinnati Reds early in the season. In the "double no-hitter" between Fred Toney of the Reds and Hippo Vaughn of the Chicago Cubs, Thorpe drove in the winning run in the 10th inning.[23] Late in the season, he was sold back to the Giants. Again, he played sporadically for the Giants in 1918 and was traded to the Boston Braves on May 21, 1919, for Pat Ragan. In his career, he amassed 91 runs scored, 82 runs batted in and a .252 batting average over 289 games.[24] He continued to play baseball with teams in the minor leagues until 1922. Jim Thorpe as a football player This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Jim Thorpe as a football player This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Major league affiliations National League (1883–present) West Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers NY, NY, 3, 4, 11, 24, 27, 30, 36, 42, 44 Name San Francisco Giants (1958–present) New York Giants (1885–1957) New York Gothams (1883–85) Other nicknames The Jints, The Gigantes, The G... See also: 1912 in sports, other events of 1913, 1914 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Baseball The Brooklyn Dodgers the John McGraws New York Giants to win the World Series Football (Australian Rules) Victorian Football League - Fitzroy wins the 17th VFL Premiership (Fitzroy 7. ... Class-Level Triple-A (1946-1952) Double-A (1908-1945) A (1902-1907) Minor League affiliations American Association (1902-1952) Major League affiliations Boston Braves (1947-1952) Chicago White Sox (1946) Chicago Cubs (1939) Cleveland Indians (1936-1938) St. ... See also: 1915 in sports, other events of 1916, 1917 in sports and the list of years in sports. Football ( Australian Rules) Victorian Football League - Fitzroy wins the 20th VFL Premiership (12. ... See also: 1916 in sports, 1918 in sports and the list of years in sports. Football (Australian Rules) Victorian Football League - Collingwood wins the 21st VFL Premiership (Collingwood 9. ... Major league affiliations National League (1890–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 5, 8, 10, 13, 18, 20, 24, 42 Name Cincinnati Reds (1958–present) Cincinnati Redlegs (1953-1958) Cincinnati Reds (1882-1953) Cincinnati Red Stockings (1876-1882) Other nicknames The Redlegs, The Big Red Machine... In baseball and softball, a no-hit game (more commonly known as a no-hitter) refers to a contest in which one of the teams has prevented the other from getting an official hit during the entire length of the game, which must be at least 9 innings by the... Fred Toney (December 11, 1888 - March 11, 1953), of Nashville, Tennessee, was an American right-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball for the Chicago Cubs, Cincinnati Reds, New York Giants and St. ... Jim Hippo Vaughn was a major league baseball pitcher for the Chicago Cubs during the 1910s. ... Major league affiliations National League (1876–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 10, 14, 23, 26, 42 Name Chicago Cubs (1902–present) Chicago Orphans (1898-1901) Chicago Colts (1890-1897) Chicago White Stockings (1870-1871, 1874-1889) (a. ... See also: 1917 in sports, 1919 in sports and the list of years in sports. Football (Australian Rules) Victorian Football League - South Melbourne wins the 22nd VFL Premiership (South Melbourne 9. ... Major league affiliations National League (1876–present) East Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 3, 21, 35, 41, 42, 44 Name Atlanta Braves (1966–present) Milwaukee Braves (1953-1965) Boston Braves (1941-1952) Boston Bees (1936-1940) Boston Braves (1912-1935) Boston Rustlers (1911) Boston Doves (1907-1910) Boston... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1918 in sports, other events of 1919, 1920 in sports and the list of years in sports. Baseball The Black Sox scandal -- Seven members of the Chicago White Sox take bribes to throw the World Series against the Cincinnati Reds The Florida State League is founded with teams... Pat Ragan baseball card Don Carlos Patrick Ragan (November 15, 1885 — September 4, 1956; born in Blanchard, Iowa, died in Los Angeles, California, United States) was a starting pitcher in Major League Baseball. ... In baseball, a run is scored when a player advances safely around all three bases and returns safely to home plate. ... In baseball statistics, a run batted in (RBI) is given to a batter for each run scored as the result of a batters plate appearance. ... Batting average is a statistic in both cricket and baseball measuring the performance of cricket batsmen and baseball hitters, respectively. ... For the organization which many minor leagues belong to, see Minor League Baseball Part of the History of baseball series. ... See also: 1921 in sports, other events of 1922, 1923 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Football (Australian Rules) Victorian Football League - Fitzroy wins the 26th VFL Premiership (Fitzroy 11. ...


But Thorpe had not abandoned football either. Back in 1915, Thorpe had signed with the Canton Bulldogs. They paid him $250 a game, a tremendous wage at the time.[25] Before Thorpe's signing, Canton was averaging 1,200 fans a game; 8,000 showed up for his debut against Massillon.[25] The team won titles in 1916, 1917, and 1919. Thorpe reportedly ended the 1919 championship game by kicking a wind-assisted 95–yard punt from his team's own 5-yard line, effectively putting the game out of reach.[25] In 1920, the Bulldogs were one of 14 teams to form the American Professional Football Association (APFA), which would become the National Football League (NFL) two years later. Thorpe was nominally the APFA's first president; however, he spent most of the year playing for Canton and a year later was replaced by Joseph Carr.[26] He continued to play for Canton, coaching the team as well. Between 1921 and 1923, Thorpe played for the LaRue, Ohio, (Marion County, Ohio) Oorang Indians, an all-Native American team. Although the team went 3–6 in 1922,[27] and 1–10 in 1923,[28] Thorpe played well and was selected to the Green Bay Press-Gazette's first All-NFL team in 1923 (the Press-Gazette's team would later be formalized by the NFL as the league's official All-NFL team in 1931).[29] See also: 1914 in sports, 1916 in sports and the list of years in sports. Football (Australian Rules) Victorian Football League - Carlton wins the 19th VFL Premiership (Carlton 11. ... The Canton Bulldogs played in Canton, Ohio in the National Football League from 1920 - 1923 and 1925 - 1926. ... See also: 1919 in sports, other events of 1920, 1921 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Baseball (Major League) January 3 - Boston Red Sox owner Harry Frazee sells Babe Ruth to the New York Yankees for $125,000 and a $350,000 loan, beginning the Curse of... For other uses of the abbreviation NFL, see NFL (disambiguation). ... NFL redirects here. ... Joseph F. Carr (October 22, 1880 - May 20, 1939) was an early figure in professional football. ... See also: 1920 in sports, other events of 1921, 1922 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Football (American) Chicago Staleys later the Chicago Bears win the 1921 American Professional Football Association title. ... See also: 1922 in sports, other events of 1923, 1924 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Auto racing First 24 hours of Le Mans won by André Lagache and René Leonard Baseball (Major League) The New York Yankees win their third American League pennant, and win the... La Rue is a village in Marion County, Ohio, United States. ... Marion County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Oorang Indians were a team in the National Football League from La Rue, Ohio (near Marion). ... The Green Bay Press-Gazette is a newspaper that covers most of northeastern Wisconsin, including Green Bay. ...


Thorpe never played on an NFL championship team. He retired from pro football at the age of 41,[5] having played 52 NFL games for six teams from 1920 to 1928. See also: 1927 in sports, other events of 1928, 1929 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Cricket 23 June-26 June, London - West Indies play their first Test match, against England. ...

World Famous Indians letterhead
World Famous Indians letterhead

Thorpe continued to be active in sports. By 1926 he was the primary draw for the "World Famous Indians" in LaRue, which sponsored traveling football, baseball, and basketball teams. A ticket discovered in an old book recently brought to light his career in basketball. "Jim Thorpe and His World-Famous Indians" barnstormed for at least two years (1927–28) in parts of New York, Pennsylvania, and Marion, Ohio. Although pictures of Thorpe in his WFI basketball uniform were printed on postcards and published in newspapers, this period of his life was not well documented, and until 2005 most of Thorpe's biographers were unaware of his basketball career.[30] Image File history File links WFI.jpg‎ This work was previously under Public Domain. ... Image File history File links WFI.jpg‎ This work was previously under Public Domain. ... See also: 1925 in sports, 1927 in sports and the list of years in sports. Cricket May 31 - India, New Zealand and West Indies are elected as Full Members of the Imperial Cricket Conference thus increasing the number of test playing nations to six. ... La Rue is a village in Marion County, Ohio, United States. ... This article is about the sport. ... Marion is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Marion County[4]. The city is located in northern Ohio, approximately 50 miles (80 km) north of Columbus. ... // Athletics Mens 100 metres - Asafa Powell of Jamaica sets a new world record of 9. ...

Later life and death

In 1913, Thorpe married Iva Miller,[3] whom he had met at Carlisle. They had four children: Jim Jr. (who died at age 2), Gale, Charlotte and Grace.[3] Thorpe was a chronic alcoholic in his later years.[31] Miller filed for divorce from Thorpe in 1925, claiming desertion.[32]


In 1926, Thorpe married Freeda V. Kirkpatrick, who was born September 19, 1905, and died March 2, 2007, in Yakima, Washington. She was working for the manager of the baseball team on which he was playing at the time.[33] They had four sons: Carl, William, Richard and John.[3] William, Richard and John "Jack" survived their mother, who had divorced their father in 1941 after 15 years of marriage. After the end of his athletic career, Thorpe struggled to support his family. He found it difficult to work outside sports and never kept a job for an extended period of time. During the Great Depression in particular, Thorpe held various jobs, among others as an extra in several movies, usually playing an Indian chief in Westerns. But he also worked as a construction worker, a bouncer, a security guard, and a ditch digger, and he briefly joined the United States Merchant Marine in 1945.[34][35] is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... In drama, an extra is a performer in a film or TV show who has no role or purpose other than to appear in the background (for example, in an audience or busy street scene). ... Broncho Billy Anderson, from The Great Train Robbery The Western movie is one of the classic American film genres. ... A bouncer at the door of a strip club in San Francisco, USA. A bouncer or doorman is an informal term for security guards employed at venues such as bars, nightclubs or concerts to provide security, check legal age, and refuse entry to a venue based on criteria such as... A security officer guards a construction site in the Peoples Republic of China. ... USMM redirects here. ...


By the 1950s, Thorpe had no money left, and when he was hospitalized for lip cancer in 1950, he was admitted as a charity case.[36] At a press conference announcing the procedure, Thorpe's wife wept and pleaded for help, saying: "[W]e're broke.... Jim has nothing but his name and his memories. He has spent money on his own people and has given it away. He has often been exploited."[36] In early 1953, Thorpe suffered his third heart attack while eating dinner with his third wife, Patricia Askew, in his trailer home in Lomita, California. Artificial respiration briefly revived him, and he was able to speak to those around him but lost consciousness shortly afterward and died on March 28.[3] Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Lomita is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of First Aid Artificial respiration is a technique for providing air for a person who is not breathing on their own, but whose heart is still beating. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Racism

Thorpe's accomplishments occurred during a period of racism and racial inequality in the United States. It has been often suggested that his medals were stripped because of his ethnicity,[37] and although this has never been proven, public outcry at the time largely reflected this view.[38] He also won his gold medals before Native Americans were recognized as citizens; American Indians were granted dual citizenship in 1924, and it was not until the passing of a 1954 Civil Rights Bill, one year after Thorpe's death, that Native Americans were granted the right to vote.[39] The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ...


While at Carlisle in particular, Thorpe's ethnicity was openly used as a marketing tool. For many, he embodied the racial stereotype of Native Americans as fierce savage warriors.[40] A photograph of Thorpe and the 1911 football team emphasized the purposeful racial split between the competing athletes. The inscription on the football reads, "1911, Indians 18, Harvard 15."[41] Additionally, the school often categorized sporting competitions as conflicts pitting Indians against whites. Newspaper headings such as “Indians Scalp Army 27-6” or “Jim Thorpe on Rampage” characterized the Indian-ness of Carlisle's football team.[40] His first appearance in The New York Times ran with the headline "Indian Thorpe in Olympiad.; Redskin from Carlisle Will Strive for Place on American Team";[11] his accomplishments were described in a similar racial context by other newspapers and sportswriters throughout his life.[42] The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...


Legacy

When Thorpe's third wife, Patricia, heard that the small Pennsylvania town of Mauch Chunk was desperately seeking to attract business, she struck a deal with the town. Mauch Chunk bought Thorpe's remains, erected a monument to him, and renamed the town in his honor (see Jim Thorpe, Pennsylvania), despite the fact that Thorpe had never set foot in the city.[43] Thorpe's monument, featuring the quote from Gustav V, can still be found there.[7] Jim Thorpe is a borough located in Carbon County, Pennsylvania. ... Jim Thorpe is a borough in Carbon County, Pennsylvania, United States. ...


Thorpe also received great acclaim from the press. In 1950, an Associated Press poll of nearly 400 sportswriters and broadcasters voted Thorpe the greatest athlete of the first half of the 20th century.[44] In 1999, the Associated Press placed him third on their list of athletes of the century, behind Babe Ruth and Michael Jordan,[45] and ESPN ranked him seventh on their list of North American athletes of the century.[46] In addition, on May 27, 1999 the United States House of Representatives passed resolution 198 designating Thorpe as "America's athlete of the century".[47] The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... This article is about the baseball player. ... For other persons named Michael Jordan, see Michael Jordan (disambiguation). ... ESPN, formerly an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, is an American cable television network dedicated to broadcasting and producing sports-related programming 24 hours a day. ... North American redirects here. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party...


Thorpe was named the "greatest American football player" of the first half of the century by the Associated Press in 1950,[48] and was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1963. He is often said to be the first player inducted, although the first person inducted was Chicago Bears founder, owner, coach and player George Halas. He is memorialized in the Pro Football Hall of Fame rotunda with the larger-than-life Jim Thorpe statue as well as being a member of the college football, U.S. Olympic, and national track and field halls of fame.[8] In 1986 an award was established in his name by the Jim Thorpe Association. The Jim Thorpe Award is awarded annually to the best defensive back in college football. The Pro Football Hall of Fame is the hall of fame of the National Football League (NFL). ... City Chicago, Illinois Other nicknames Da Bears, The Monsters of the Midway Team colors Navy Blue and Orange Head Coach Lovie Smith Owner Virginia Halas McCaskey Chairman Michael McCaskey General manager Jerry Angelo Fight song Bear Down, Chicago Bears Mascot Staley Da Bear League/Conference affiliations Independent (1919) National Football... George Stanley Halas, Sr. ... The Jim Thorpe Award, named in memory of multi-sport legend Jim Thorpe, has been awarded to the top defensive back in college football since 1986. ... In American football and Canadian football, defensive backs are the players on the defensive team who take positions somewhat back from the line of scrimmage; they are distinguished from the defensive line players, who take positions directly behind the line of scrimmage. ... This article covers college football played in the United States. ...


Thorpe was memorialized in the film Jim Thorpe--All-American (1951) starring Burt Lancaster and directed by Casablanca's Michael Curtiz. Although Thorpe was listed as a consultant in the credits, he did not earn any money for the movie, as he had already sold the film rights to MGM in 1931 (for $1,500).[49] The movie—titled Man of Bronze when released in the UK—-included archival footage of the 1912 and 1932 Olympics as well as a banquet in which Thorpe was honored. Thorpe was seen in some long shots in the film. Burt Lancaster (2 November 1913 – 20 October 1994) was an Academy Award-winning American film actor, noted for his athletic physique, distinct smile (which he called The Grin) and, later, his willingness to play roles that went against his initial tough guy image. ... This article is about the 1942 film. ... Michael Curtiz (December 24, 1886 - April 10, 1962) was an Academy Award-winning Hungarian-American film director. ... MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ...


Reinstated Olympic awards

Over the years, several attempts were made to reinstate Thorpe's Olympic titles.[50] US Olympic officials, such as former teammate Avery Brundage, rebuked several attempts, with Brundage once saying, "Ignorance is no excuse."[51] Most persistent was that of Robert Wheeler and Florence Ridlon. They succeeded in having the AAU and United States Olympic Committee (USOC) overturn their decisions and restore Thorpe's amateur status prior to 1913.[52] The United States Olympic Committee (USOC) is a non-profit organization that serves as the National Olympic Committee (NOC) for the United States and coordinates the relationship between the United States Anti-Doping Agency and the World Anti-Doping Agency and various international sports federations. ...


In 1982, they established the Jim Thorpe Foundation and managed to get support from the US Congress. Armed with this support and evidence from 1912 showing Thorpe's disqualification had occurred outside of the 30-day limit, they finally got attention from the IOC, which had not made any attempts to reinstate Thorpe. Congress in Joint Session. ...


In October 1982, the IOC Executive Committee approved Thorpe's reinstatement.[15] In an unusual ruling, however, they declared that Thorpe was now co-champion with Bie and Wieslander, even though both athletes had always said they considered Thorpe to be the only champion. In a ceremony on January 18, 1983, two of Thorpe's children, Gale and Bill, were presented with commemorative medals;[15] the original medals had both ended up in museums but were stolen and are still missing.[53] is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ...


References

Notes

  1. ^ a b Magill. pg. 2320
    * Gerasimo and Whiteley. pg. 28
    * World-Class Athlete Jim Thorpe Was Born May 28, 1888, americaslibrary.gov, accessed April 23, 2007.
  2. ^ a b O'Hanlon-Lincoln. pg. 129
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Jim Thorpe Is Dead On West Coast at 64, The New York Times, March 29, 1953, accessed April 23, 2007.
  4. ^ O'Hanlon-Lincoln. pg. 131
  5. ^ a b Jim Thorpe – Fast facts, cgmworldwide.com, accessed April 23, 2007.
  6. ^ a b c Jim Thorpe - Olympic Hero and Native American, olympics30.com, accessed April 23, 2007.
  7. ^ a b c Hoxie. pg. 628
  8. ^ a b c d e f Botelho, Greg. Roller-coaster life of Indian icon, sports' first star, CNN.com, July 14, 2004, accessed April 23, 2007.
  9. ^ a b Encyclopedia of World Biography. Jim Thorpe, Thomson-Gale, June 2005, accessed April 23, 2007. available online at bookrags.com.
  10. ^ a b c d e Jeansonne. pg. 60
  11. ^ a b Indian Thorpe in Olympiad.; Redskin from Carlisle Will Strive for Place on American Team., The New York Times, April 28, 1912, accessed April 2, 2007.
  12. ^ a b c Jim Thorpe, usoc.org, accessed April 26, 2007.
  13. ^ O'Hanlon-Lincoln. pg. 144
    * Jim Thorpe, profootballhalloffame.com, accessed April 23, 2007.
  14. ^ a b c d e Flatter, Ron. Thorpe preceded Deion, Bo, ESPN.com, accessed April 23, 2007.
  15. ^ a b c Anderson, Dave. Jim Thorpe's Family Feud, The New York Times, February 7, 1983, accessed April 23, 2007.
  16. ^ Schaffer and Smith. pg. 50
  17. ^ Schaffer and Smith. pg 40
  18. ^ Rogge, Johnson, and Rendell. pg. 60
  19. ^ Thorpe is to Play Ball with Giants; Famous Indian Athlete Accepts McGraw's Terms Over the Telephone., The New York Times, February 1, 1913, accessed April 2, 2007.
  20. ^ Sox and Giants on World's Tour; Comiskey-McGraw Party Leaves Chicago Oct. 19 and Arrives in New York March 6., The New York Times, , accessed April 23, 2007.
  21. ^ Elfers. pg. 210
  22. ^ Jim Thorpe's Speed Big Hit In A.A., The Janesville Daily Gazette , July 10, 1916, accessed February 19, 2008.
  23. ^ Daley, Arthur. Baseball's 'Ten Greatest Moments', The New York Times, April 17, 1949, accessed April 23, 2007.
  24. ^ Jim Thorpe, baseball-reference.com, accessed April 23, 2007.
  25. ^ a b c Neft, Cohen, and Korch. pg. 18
  26. ^ Neft, Cohen, and Korch. pg. 20
  27. ^ Neft, Cohen, and Korch. pg. 34
  28. ^ Neft, Cohen, and Korch. pg. 40
  29. ^ Neft, Cohen, and Korch. pg. 41
  30. ^ Jim Thorpe Ticket (PDF), pbs.org, accessed April 23, 2007.
  31. ^ Jeansonne. pg 61
  32. ^ List of marriages, divorces, births, and deaths, TIME, April 6, 1925, available online via time.com, accessed May 21, 2007.
  33. ^ Associated Press. "Freeda Thorpe, former wife of Jim Thorpe, dies at 101, Seattle Post-Intelligencer]", March 7, 2007. Retrieved on [[November 23, 2007]]. 
  34. ^ O'Hanlon-Lincoln. pgs. 144–5
  35. ^ Briefs, TIME, February 22, 1943, available online via time.com, accessed May 21, 2007.
  36. ^ a b Associated Press. Thorpe Has Cancerous Growth Removed From Lip in Hospital at Philadelphia, The New York Times, November 10, 1951, accessed April 23, 2007.
  37. ^ Watterson. pg. 151
    * Elfers. pg. 18
  38. ^ Schaffer and Smith. pg. 50
  39. ^ Lincoln and Slagle. pg. 282
  40. ^ a b Bloom quoted in Bird. pg. 97
  41. ^ Jim Thorpe Photo Collection, historicalsociety.com, accessed May 14, 2007.
  42. ^ Demaree, Al. Thorpe, the Indian, Best All-American, Los Angeles Times, November 24, 1926, accessed May 12, 2007.
    * Jim Thorpe Dies of Heart Attack at 64 Chicago Tribune, March 29, 1953, accessed May 12, 2007.
    * Buffalo Courier columnist Billy Kelly quoted in Miller. pg. 66
  43. ^ O'Hanlon-Lincoln. pg. 148
  44. ^ Jim Thorpe encarta.msn.com, accessed April 23, 2007.
  45. ^ Associated Press. Top 100 athletes of the 20th century, USA Today, December 21, 1999, accessed March 15, 2007.
  46. ^ Top N. American athletes of the century, espn.com, accessed March 15, 2007.
  47. ^ Landrum. pg. 17. In 1973, Congress passed public law 93-19, a joint resolution to authorize the President to proclaim April 16, 1973, as "Jim Thorpe Day".
  48. ^ Jim Thorpe Biography, cgmworldwide.com, accessed April 23, 2007.
  49. ^ O'Hanlon-Lincoln. pg. 145
  50. ^ Anderson, Dave. Jim Thorpe's Medals, The New York Times, June 22, 1975, accessed April 23, 2007.
  51. ^ Reuters. Jim Thorpe cruelly treated by authorities, sportsillustrated.cnn.com, August 8, 2004, accessed April 23, 2007.
  52. ^ Wethe, David and Whiteley, Michael. Legends lunches begin this fall with Bob Lilly, Dallas Business Journal, July 19, 2002, accessed April 27, 2007.
  53. ^ O'Hanlon-Lincoln. pg 132

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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... // The Chicago Tribune is a major daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois and owned by the Tribune Company. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Buffalo Courier-Express was a morning newspaper in Buffalo, New York. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Sources

  • Bird. Elizabeth S. Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the Indian in American Popular Culture, Boulder: Westview Press. 1996 ISBN 0813326672
  • Bloom, John. There is a Madness in the Air: The 1926 Haskell Homecoming and Popular Representations of Sports in Federal and Indian Boarding Schools, ed. in Bird. Boulder: Westview Press. 1996
  • Elfers, James E. The Tour to End All Tours, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 2003 ISBN 0803267487
  • Gerasimo, Luisa and Whiteley, Sandra. The Teacher's Calendar of Famous Birthdays. McGraw-Hill, 2003 ISBN 0071412301
  • Hoxie, Frederick E. Encyclopedia of North American Indians New York: Houghton Mifflin Books, 1996 ISBN 0395669219
  • Jeansonne, Glen. A Time of Paradox: America Since 1890. Rowman & Littlefield, 2006 ISBN 0742533778
  • Landrum, Dr. Gene. Empowerment: The Competitive Edge in Sports, Business & Life, Brendan Kelly Publishing Incorporated, 2006 ISBN 1895997240
  • Lincoln, Kenneth and Slagle, Al Logan. The Good Red Road: Passages into Native America, University of Nebraska Press, 1997 ISBN 0803279744
  • Magill, Frank Northen. Great Lives from History. New York: Salem Press, 1987 ISBN 0893565296
  • Miller, Jeffrey J. Buffalo's Forgotten Champions, Xlibris Corporation, 2004 ISBN 1413450059
  • Neft, David S., Cohen, Richard M., and Korch, Rick. The Complete History of Professional Football from 1892 to the Present. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994 ISBN 0312114354
  • O'Hanlon-Lincoln, Ceane. Chronicles: A Vivid Collection of Fayette County, Pennsylvania Histories, Mechling Bookbindery. 2006 ISBN 0976056348
  • Rogge, M. Jacque, Johnson, Michael, and Rendell, Matt. The Olympics: Athens to Athens 1896–2004, Sterling Publishing. 2004 ISBN 0297843826
  • Schaffer, Kay and Smith, Sidonie. The Olympics at the Millennium: Power, Politics and the Games, Rutger University Press, 2000 ISBN 0813528208
  • Watterson, John Sayle. College Football: history, spectacle, controversy, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000 ISBN 080187114X

University of Nebraska Press at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln, Nebraska, is a major publisher of original and reprint editions of significant works about the West. ... The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ...

Further reading

  • The Best of the Athletic Boys: The White Man's Impact on Jim Thorpe, by Jack Newcombe, 1975. ISBN 0385061862
  • Jim Thorpe, the Legend Remembered, by Rosemary Kissinger Updyke, 1997 ISBN 1565545397
  • In the Matter of Jacobus Franciscus Thorpe, published in The 1912 Olympic Games - Results for All Competitors in All Events, with Commentary by Bill Mallon and Ture Widlund, 2002. ISBN 0786410477
  • The Complete Book of the Summer Olympics (Sydney 2000 Edition) by David Wallechinsky, 2000. ISBN 1585670464
  • Jim Thorpe: The World's Greatest Athlete by Robert W. Wheeler, 2003 ISBN 0806117451

External links

American football Portal 
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Jim Thorpe
Preceded by
None
President of the National Football League
1920
Succeeded by
Joseph Carr
Persondata
NAME Thorpe, Jim
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Thorpe, Jacobus Franciscus; Wa-Tho-Huk; Bright Path
SHORT DESCRIPTION athlete
DATE OF BIRTH May 28, 1888
PLACE OF BIRTH Prague, Oklahoma
DATE OF DEATH March 28, 1953
PLACE OF DEATH Lomita, California

This is the complete list of mens Olympic medalists in athletics from 1896 to 2004. ... Tom Kiely (born 25 August 1869) is a Irish athlete who competed mainly in the All rounder event. ... Hjalmer Mellander (born 14 December 1880) is a Swedish athlete who competed mainly in the Pentathlon. ... Ferdinand Bie (born 16 February 1888) is a Norwegian athlete who competed mainly in the Pentathlon. ... Eero Reino Lehtonen (April 21, 1898 – November 9, 1959) was a Finnish pentathlete. ... Karl Hugo Wieslander (born 11 June 1889; Died 24 May 1976) was a Swedish athlete who competed in combined events. ... Helge Løvland (1890? - 1984) was a Norwegian track athlete. ... Harold Marion Osborn (April 13, 1899 – April 5, 1975) was a U.S. track athlete. ... Paavo Yrjölä (1902 - 1980) was a Finnish track athlete. ... James Bausch (born 29 March 1906 - 1974) is a American athlete who competed mainly in the Decathlon. ... Glenn Morris (1912 - 1973) was a U.S. track athlete. ... Robert Bruce Mathias (November 17, 1930 - September 2, 2006) was an American decathlete, two-time Olympic gold medalist, and United States Congressman. ... Milton Gray Campbell (b. ... Rafer Lewis Johnson (born August 18, 1935) is a former American decathlete. ... Willi Holdorf (born 17 February 1940) is a German athlete who competed mainly in the Decathlon. ... William Anthony Toomey (born January 10, 1939) was the 1968 Olympic Decathlon Champion (United States). ... Nikolai Viktorovich Avilov (born 1948) was a Ukrainian Soviet track athlete. ... William Bruce Jenner (born October 28, 1949 in Mount Kisco, New York) is a U.S. track athlete, known principally for winning the decathlon in the 1976 Summer Olympics. ... Francis Morgan Thompson, CBE (born July 30, 1958 in Worcester Park), known commonly as Daley Thompson, is a former English decathlete and arguably the greatest the world had ever seen. ... Christian Schenk (born February 9, 1965 in Rostock, East Germany) won the gold medal in the decathlon in the 1988 Summer Olympics, held in Seoul, South Korea. ... Robert Zmelík (born April 18, 1969) is a Czech track athlete who won a gold medal in Olympic decathlon in 1992. ... Daniel Dion (Dan) OBrien (born July 18, 1966 in Portland, Oregon) is an American decathlete. ... Erki Nool (born June 25, 1970 in Võru, Estonia) is an Estonian decathlete and politician. ... Roman Šebrle IPA: (born November 26, 1974) is an athlete from the Czech Republic. ... The Pro Football Hall of Fame is the hall of fame of the National Football League (NFL). ... This is a list of inductees into the Pro Football Hall of Fame. ... Samuel Adrian Baugh (born March 17, 1914) is a retired American football player born in Temple, Texas, the second son of James and Lucy Baugh. ... Bert Bell (1895-1959) was co-founder (with Lud Wray) of the Frankford Yellowjackets in 1924 (whose name was changed to the Philadelphia Eagles in 1933), and commissioner of the National Football League from 1946 until his death. ... Joseph F. Carr (October 22, 1880 - May 20, 1939) was an early figure in professional football. ... Harold (Red) Edward Grange (June 13, 1903 – January 28, 1991), was a professional and college American football player. ... George Stanley Halas, Sr. ... Melvin Jack Hein (born August 22, 1909, in Redding, California, USA; died January 31, 1992, at age of 82) was a professional football player for the New York Giants. ... Wilbur Pete Henry (October 31, 1897 - February 7, 1952) was a professional American football player and coach in the National Football League. ... Robert Calvin Hubbard (October 31, 1900 - October 17, 1977) was an American professional football player and later an umpire in Major League Baseball, and is a member of three major sports halls of fame. ... Donald Montgomery Hutson (January 31, 1913 - June 24, 1997) was the first star wide receiver in NFL history. ... Earl Louis Curly Lambeau (April 9, 1898 - June 1, 1965) was the founder, a player and the first coach of the Green Bay Packers professional football team. ... Timothy James Mara (July 29, 1887 – February 16, 1959) was the founder and administrator for the New York Giants. ... George Preston Marshall (1896 – 1969) was the long-time owner and president of the Washington Redskins of the National Football League (NFL). ... For the Emmerdale character, see John McNally (Emmerdale). ... Bronislau Bronko Nagurski (November 3, 1908 - January 7, 1990) was an American football player. ... Ernest Nevers (1903 - 1976) was a U.S. football player. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Prague is a city located in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lomita is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


 
 

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