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Encyclopedia > Jim Jones
James Warren "Jim" Jones

Photo credit: The Jonestown Institute
Born May 13, 1931(1931-05-13)
Crete, Indiana
Died November 18, 1978 (aged 47)
Jonestown, Guyana
Occupation Leader, Peoples Temple

James Warren "Jim" Jones (May 13, 1931November 18, 1978) was the American founder of the Peoples Temple, which became synonymous with group suicide after the November 18, 1978 mass murder-suicide in their isolated agricultural intentional community called Jonestown, located in Guyana, South America. Over 900 people died from cyanide poisoning or gunshot wounds. To the extent the actions in Jonestown were viewed as a mass suicide, it is one of the largest such mass suicides in history, perhaps the largest in over 1,900 years and the largest mass suicide of United States citizens. At a nearby airstrip, the event also resulted in the first and only murder of a Congressman, Leo Ryan in the line of duty in the history of the United States, along with the murder of two journalists and a defecting Temple member. Several notable people are named Jim Jones, including: Jim Jones (1931-1978): Religious leader of Jonestown fame. ... Image File history File links 01-jones-jim. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Crete is a small town in Greensfork Township, Randolph County, Indiana about 3 miles east of the town of Lynn. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Jonestown (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Mass murder (massacre) is the act of murdering a large number of people, typically at the same time, or over a relatively short period of time. ... Mass suicide occurs when a number of people kill themselves together with one another or for the same reason and is usually connected to a real or perceived persecution. ... An intentional community is a planned residential community designed to promote a much higher degree of social interaction than other communities. ... For other uses, see Jonestown (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Mass suicide occurs when a number of people kill themselves together with one another or for the same reason and is usually connected to a real or perceived persecution. ... Mass suicide occurs when a number of people kill themselves together with one another or for the same reason and is usually connected to a real or perceived persecution. ... A Congressman or Congresswoman (generically, Congressperson) is a politician who is a member of a Congress. ... Leo Joseph Ryan, Jr. ...

Contents

Early life

Jones was born in Crete, Indiana, to James Thurman Jones, a World War I veteran, and Lyneta Putnam.[1] He would later claim part Cherokee descent through his mother. In 2007 interviews with PBS, childhood acquaintances recalled Jones as being a "weird kid" who was "obsessed with religion...obsessed with death"; they further claimed that Jones frequently held funerals for small animals, and heard a story of Jones fatally stabbing a cat.[2]. He graduated from Richmond High School in Richmond, Indiana. In 1951 Jones and his wife Marceline moved to Indianapolis, where Jones enrolled in Butler University attending night school and earned a degree in secondary education in 1961.[3] Crete is a small town in Greensfork Township, Randolph County, Indiana about 3 miles east of the town of Lynn. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This page contains special characters. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Richmond High School is a public high school in Richmond, Indiana, located at 380 Hub Etchison Parkway. ... Richmond (IPA: ) is a city in east central Indiana, which borders Ohio. ...


Founding of the Temple

In 1951, Jones began attending communist meetings and rallies in Indianapolis.[4] Jones became flustered at harassment he received during the McCarthy Hearings,[4] particularly, regarding meetings between Jones and his mother with Paul Robeson.[5] This, among other things, provoked a seminal moment for Jones where he asked himself "how can I demonstrate my Marxism? The thought was, infiltrate the church."[5][4] This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Paul LeRoy Bustill Robeson (April 9, 1898 – January 23, 1976) was a multi-lingual American actor, athlete, bass-baritone concert singer, writer, civil rights activist, fellow traveler, Spingarn Medal winner, and Stalin Peace Prize laureate. ...


Jones' interest in religion began during his childhood, mainly because he found making friends difficult, though initially he vacillated on his church of choice.[6] In 1952, Jones became a student pastor in Sommerset Southside Methodist Church, but left that church because they barred him from integrating African Americans into his congregation.<[4] Around this time, Jones witnessed a faith-healing service at the Seventh Day Baptist Church, observed that it attracted people and their cash and concluded that with financial resources from such healings, he could help accomplish his social goals.[4]


Jones then began his own church, at first naming it the Community Unity Church.[4] In 1955, he renamed the church Wings of Deliverance, and later that year the Peoples Temple Full Gospel Church.[4] In 1959, the church joined the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), and Jones renamed it the Peoples Temple Christian Church Full Gospel.[4] Jones sold pet monkeys door-to-door to raise the money to fund his church.[7]


Jones purported to preach what he called "apostolic socialism."[8] In doing so, the Temple openly preached to established members that "religion is an opiate of the people."[9] Accordingly, "those who remained drugged with the opiate of religion had to be brought to enlightenment -- socialism."[10] In that regard, Jones also openly stated that he "took the church and used the church to bring people to atheism." [11] Jones often mixed those concepts, such as preaching that "If you're born in this church, this socialist revolution, you're not born into sin. If you're born in capitalist America, racist America, fascist America, then you're born in sin. But if you're born in socialism, you're not born in sin."[9] Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the world. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ...


In 1961, Jones helped to integrate churches, restaurants, the telephone company, the police department, a theater, an amusement park, and the Methodist Hospital and became the executive director of the Indianapolis Human Rights Commission.[4]


Jones received considerable criticism in Indiana for his integrationist views.[4] Subsequently, in 1965, Jones left Indiana, moving the Peoples Temple to Redwood Valley, California based, in part, on Jones' belief that it would be a more safe location if nuclear war were to occur.[4] Redwood Valley is a census-designated place located in Mendocino County, California. ...


Jones authored a booklet he would distribute in the Temple titled "The Letter Killeth",[12] pointing out what he felt were the contradictions, absurdities, and atrocities in the Bible, but also stating that the Bible contained great truths. He was particularly fascinated with his ability to manipulate people. Jones perfected his craft and was very skilled in his new found talent. He claimed to be an incarnation of Jesus, Akhenaten, the Buddha, Lenin, and Father Divine and performed supposed miracle healings to attract new converts.[citation needed] Members of Jones' church called him "Father" and believed their movement was the solution to the problems of society; many did not distinguish Jones from the movement. For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... Father Divine (c. ... Psychic surgery is a form of medical fraud, in which the fraudster purports to be performing a paranormal surgical procedure. ...


Unlike most other figures deemed as cult leaders, Jones enjoyed public support and contact with some of the highest level politicians in the United States. For example, in the heat of the 1976 Presidential Campaign, Jones met with Vice Presidential Candidate Walter Mondale on his campaign plane.[13] Likewise, First Lady Rosalynn Carter personally met Jones for a private dinner at the Stanford Court Hotel.[13] Mrs. Carter later called Jones personally.[14] At the 1976 grand opening of the San Francisco Democratic Party Headquarters, Jones packed the audience with Temple members and garnered louder applause when he spoke than Mrs. Carter.[15] Governor Jerry Brown, Lieutenant Govenor Mervyn Dymally and Assemblyman Willie Brown, among others, attended a large testimonial dinner in Jim Jones' honor in September of 1976.[16] At that dinner, Willie Brown referred to Jone as "a combination of Martin King, Angela Davis, Albert Einstein, and Chairman Mao."[17] Both Assemblyman Willie Brown and Governor Jerry Brown attended Temple services.[18][verification needed] After the Peoples Temple participation was instrumental in the Mayoral election victory of George Moscone in 1975, Moscone appointed Jones as the Chairman of the San Francisco Housing Commission.[19] Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ... Eleanor Rosalynn Smith Carter (born August 18, 1927) is the wife of former President Jimmy Carter and was First Lady of the United States from 1977 to 1981. ... For the whistleblower, see Gerald W. Brown. ... Mervyn M. Dymally, Ph. ... The name Willie Brown may refer to the following people: Willie Brown, a Californian politician. ...


Jonestown's Formation And Operation

Jim Jones as portrayed in a brochure of the Peoples Temple
Jim Jones as portrayed in a brochure of the Peoples Temple
Main article: Jonestown

In the summer of 1977, Jones and most of the 900 members of the People's Temple moved to Guyana from San Francisco after media pressure built.[20] Jones left one night after an editor at New West magazine read Jones an article to be published by Marshall Kilduff detailing allegations by former Temple members.[20][15] Jones named the settlement Jonestown after himself. Brochure of the Peoples_Temple portraying cult leader Jim Jones as the loving father of the Rainbow Family. Retrieved from the website of the Jonestown Institute This work is copyrighted, and used with permission. ... Brochure of the Peoples_Temple portraying cult leader Jim Jones as the loving father of the Rainbow Family. Retrieved from the website of the Jonestown Institute This work is copyrighted, and used with permission. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Jonestown (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jonestown (disambiguation). ...


Jones purported to establish Jonestown as a benevolent model communist community stating, "I believe we’re the purest communists there are." [21] Jones' wife, Marceline, described Jonestown as "dedicated to live for socialism, total economic and racial and social equality. We are here living communally."[21] Jones wanted to construct a model community to show others and stated that Prime Minister of Guyana Forbes Burnham "couldn’t rave enough about us, uh, the wonderful things we do, the project, the model of socialism."[22] In that regard, like the restrictive emigration policies of the then Soviet Union, Cuba, North Korea and other communist republics, Jones did not permit members to leave Jonestown.[23] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In spite of the allegations, Jones was still widely respected for setting up a racially mixed church which helped the disadvantaged. 68% of Jonestown's residents were black.[24]


Religious scholar Mary McCormick Maaga argued that Jones' authority waned after he moved to the isolated commune, because he was not needed for recruitment and he could not hide his drug addiction from rank and file members.[25]


On April 11, 1978, the Concerned Relatives of Peoples Temple members distributed a packet of documents, including letters and affidavits, that they titled an "Accusation of Human Rights Violations by Rev. James Warren Jones" to the Peoples Temple, members of the press and members of Congress.[26] In June of 1978, escaped Temple member Deborah Layton provided the group with a further affidavit detailing alleged crimes by the Peoples Temple and substandard living conditions in Jonestown. [27]


Visit By Congressman Ryan, Murders and Mass Suicide

Main article: Jonestown

In November 1978, U.S. Congressman Leo Ryan led a fact-finding mission to the Jonestown settlement in Guyana to investigate allegations of human rights abuses by relatives of Temple members in the U.S. Ryan's delegation, which included Don Harris, an NBC network news reporter, along with a cameraman, and a TIME magazine reporter. The group arrived in Jonestown on November 15 and spent three days interviewing residents. Ryan's delegation was originally denied access to the camp, where it was later learned that the residents were practicing songs and dance. The delegation was granted access on November 17. However, it left hurriedly on the morning of Saturday November 18, after an attempt was made on Ryan's life by a man armed with a knife. The attack was thwarted, bringing the visit to an abrupt end. Congressman Ryan and his people succeeded in taking with them fifteen People's Temple members who had expressed a wish to leave. At that time, Jones made no attempt to prevent their departure. However, Peoples Temple survivors reported that a group from Jonestown left shortly afterwards in a truck with the intention of stopping the delegation and members from leaving the country alive. For other uses, see Jonestown (disambiguation). ... Leo Joseph Ryan, Jr. ... A human rights abuse is abuse of people in a way that violates any fundamental human rights. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Surviving delegation members later told police that as they were boarding two planes at the airstrip, the truck with Jones' armed guards arrived and began shooting at them, killing Congressman Ryan and five others. At the same time, one of the supposed defectors, Larry Layton, drew a weapon and began firing on members of the party. An NBC cameraman was able to capture footage of the shooting. When the gunmen departed, six people were dead: Representative Ryan, Don Harris, a reporter from NBC, a cameraman from NBC, a newspaper photographer, and one defector from the Peoples Temple. Surviving the attack were former California State Senator Jackie Speier, a staff member for Ryan; Richard Dwyer, the Deputy Chief of Mission from the U.S. Embassy at Georgetown and allegedly an officer of the Central Intelligence Agency; and Bob Flick, a producer for NBC News. The murder of Congresman Ryan was the first and only murder of a Congressman in the line of duty in the history of the United States.[28] This article is about the television network. ... Californias Capitol, where the State Legislature meets California State Assembly chamber California state Senate chamber The California Legislature is the legislative branch of the state government of California. ... Jackie Speier is a Democratic member of the California State Senate representing San Francisco and San Mateo Counties. ... A Deputy Chief of Mission, or DCM, is the number two diplomat assigned to an Embassy or other diplomatic mission. ... CIA redirects here. ... A Congressman or Congresswoman (generically, Congressperson) is a politician who is a member of a Congress. ...


Later that same day, 913 inhabitants of Jonestown, 276 of them children, died in what has commonly been labeled a mass suicide. However, because there is much ambiguity regarding whether many who participated did so voluntarily or were forced (or even killed outright), some feel that mass murder is a more accurate description. Some followers obeyed Jones' instructions to commit "revolutionary suicide" by drinking cyanide-laced grape flavored Flavor Aid[29][30] (often misidentified as Kool-Aid), along with a sedative. Children were given the drink first and families were told to lie down together. The mass suicide had been practiced in simulated events called "White Nights" on a regular basis. Others died by forced cyanide injection or by being shot. A total of 167 church members escaped the mass killing. This article is about the chemical compound. ... Flavor Aid is a soft drink beverage made by Jel Sert, introduced in 1929. ... Categories: Food and drink stubs | Kraft brands | Beverages ...


No video was taken during the mass suicide, though the FBI did recover a 45 minute audio of the suicide in progress.[31] Jones can be heard saying, "Don't be afraid to die" and, regarding death as "just stepping over into another plane" and that "[death is] a friend."[31] Jones was found dead sitting in a deck chair with a gunshot wound to the head consistent with a self-inflicted gun wound. No conclusive proof exists whether Jones had been murdered or if he had committed suicide. An autopsy of his body showed levels of the barbiturate phenobarbital which would have been lethal to humans who had not developed physiological tolerance. His drug usage (including various LSD and marijuana experimentations) was confirmed by his son, Stephan, and Jones's doctor in San Francisco. This article is about the medical procedure. ... Barbituric acid, the basic structure of all barbiturates Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... Phenobarbital (INN) or phenobarbitone (former BAN) is a barbiturate, first marketed as Luminal by Friedr. ... In physiology, tolerance occurs when an organism builds up a resistance to the effects of a substance after repeated exposure. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ...


Other issues

In MacArthur Park, Los Angeles on December 13, 1973, Jones was arrested and charged with soliciting a man for sex in a movie theater bathroom known for homosexual activity. [32] The man was an undercover Los Angeles Police Department vice officer. Jones is on record as later telling his followers that he was "the only true heterosexual," but at least one account exists of his sexually abusing a male member of his congregation in front of the followers, ostensibly to prove the man's own homosexual tendencies.[32] MacArthur Park looking towards downtown LA MacArthur Park (formerly Westlake Park) is a park in Los Angeles, California, named after General Douglas MacArthur and designated city of Los Angeles Historic Cultural Monument #100. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Solicitation is a crime; it is an inchoate offense that consists of a person inciting, counseling, advising, urging, or commanding another to commit a crime with the specific intent that the person solicited commit the crime. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... Look up Undercover in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... LAPD and L.A.P.D. redirect here. ... A Vice Unit is a department in many police forces that investigates morality crimes. ... Bad Touch redirects here. ...


One of his sources of inspiration was the controversial International Peace Mission movement leader Father Divine.[33] Jones had borrowed the term "revolutionary suicide"[30] from Black Panther leader Huey Newton who had argued "the slow suicide of life in the ghetto" ought to be replaced by revolutionary struggle that would end only in victory (socialism and self determination) or revolutionary suicide (death). The International Peace Mission movement was the religious movement started by Father Divine, an African-American who claimed to be God. ... Father Divine (c. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African American organization founded to promote civil rights and self-defense. ... Huey P. Newton (February 17, 1942 - August 22, 1989) was co-founder and inspirational leader of the Black Panther Party, a militant African-American activist group. ... For other uses, see Ghetto (disambiguation). ...


Family

Jones married Marceline, a nurse, with whom he had two sons, one biological and one adopted. Their biological son, Stephan Gandhi Jones, did not take part in the mass suicide because he was away, playing with the Peoples Temple basketball team in a game against the Guyanese national team. Jones' adopted son, Jim Jones Jr., was African American; he was also playing with the basketball team at the time of the mass suicide.[30] Jones and his wife were the first white couple in Indiana to adopt an African American child.[34] This article is about the sport. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...


Jones claimed to be the biological father of John Victor Stoen, who was the legal son of Grace Stoen and her husband Timothy Stoen.[citation needed] The custody dispute over Stoen had great symbolic value for the Peoples Temple and intensified the conflict with its opponents who consisted of, among others, a group called the "Concerned Relatives."[citation needed]


Jim Jones' son, Stephan, is a businessman and family man who is married with three daughters. He appeared in the documentary Jonestown: Paradise Lost which aired on the History Channel and Discovery Channel. He stated he will not watch the documentary and that he does not mourn his father, only his mother Marceline.[35] Jim Jr., who lost his wife and unborn child at Jonestown, returned to San Francisco. He remarried and has three sons from this marriage.[30] The History Channel is a cable television channel, dedicated to the presentation of historical events and persons, often with frequent observations and explanations by noted historians as well as reenactors and witnesses to events, if possible. ... Discovery Channel is a cable and satellite TV channel founded by John Hendricks which is distributed by Discovery Communications. ...


References

  1. ^ Martindale, Rob. Ancestry of Jim Jones. Wargs.com.
  2. ^ American Experience [1]
  3. ^ Knoll, James. Mass Suicide & the Jonestown Tragedy: Literature Summary. Jonestown Institute, San Diego State University. October 2007.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Wessinger, Catherine. How the Millennium Comes Violently: From Jonestown to Heaven's Gate. Seven Bridges Press, 2000. ISBN 978-1889119243.
  5. ^ a b Jones, Jim. "Transcript of Recovered FBI tape Q 134." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.]
  6. ^ Kilduff, Marshall and Javers, Ron. The Suicide Cult. Bantam Books, 1978. p. 10.
  7. ^ Lattin, Don. "How spiritual journey ended in destruction." San Francisco Chronicle. 18 November 2003.
  8. ^ Jones, Jim. Transcript of Recovered FBI tape Q 1023
  9. ^ a b Jim Jones, "Transcript of Recovered FBI tape Q 1053." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  10. ^ Layton, Deborah. (1998) Seductive Poison. Anchor, 1999. ISBN 0-3854-8984-6. p. 53.
  11. ^ Jim Jones, "Transcript of Recovered FBI tape Q 757." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  12. ^ Jones, Jim. "The Letter Killeth." Original material reprint. Department of Religious Studies. San Diego State University.
  13. ^ a b Reiterman, Tim, Tom Reiterman, and John Jacobs. Raven: The Untold Story of Reverend Jim Jones and His People. Dutton, 1982. ISBN 0-525-24136-1. p. 302-4.
  14. ^ Jones, Jim. "Transcript of Recovered FBI tape Q 799." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  15. ^ a b Kilduff, Marshall and Phil Tracy. "Inside Peoples Temple." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University. August 1, 1977.
  16. ^ Layton, Deborah. (1998) Seductive Poison. Anchor, 1999. ISBN 0-3854-8984-6. p. 105.
  17. ^ Kinsolving, Kathleen and Tom. "Madman in Our Midst: Jim Jones and the California Cover Up." RickRoss.com. 1998.
  18. ^ FBI Interivew with Edith Parks
  19. ^ Jonestown: The Life and Death of Peoples Temple. PBS.org.
  20. ^ a b Layton, Deborah. (1998) Seductive Poison. Anchor, 1999. ISBN 0-3854-8984-6. p. 113.
  21. ^ a b Jones, Jim. "Transcript of Recovered FBI tape Q 50." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  22. ^ Jones, Jim. "Transcript of Recovered FBI tape Q 833." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  23. ^ Reiterman, Tim, Tom Reiterman, and John Jacobs. Raven: The Untold Story of Reverend Jim Jones and His People. Dutton, 1982. ISBN 0-525-24136-1. p. 451.
  24. ^ Moore, Rebecca. "The Demographics of Jonestown. Jonestown Institute, San Diego State University, adapted from Moore, Rebecca, Anthony Pinn and Mary Sawyer. "Demographics and the Black Religious Culture of Peoples Temple." in Peoples Temple and Black Religion in America. Bloomington: Indiana Press University, 2005. 57-80
  25. ^ McCormick Maaga, Mary. Hearing the voices of Jonestown. Syracuse University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8156-0515-3.
  26. ^ "Accusation of Human Rights Violations by Rev. James Warren Jones." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University. April 11, 1978.
  27. ^ "Affidavit of Deborah Layton Blakey." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  28. ^ Brazil, Jeff. "Jonestown's Horror Fades but Mystery Remain." Los Angeles Times. December 16, 1999.
  29. ^ "Jonestown Report." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  30. ^ a b c d Fish, Jon and Chris Connelly (2007-10-05). Outside the Lines: Grandson of Jonestown founder is making a name for himself. ESPN.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
  31. ^ a b Jim Jones, "Transcript of Recovered FBI tape Q 42." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  32. ^ a b Wise, David. "Sex in Peoples Temple." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  33. ^ "FAQ: Who was the leader of Peoples Temple?" Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  34. ^ "Race and the Peoples Temple." PBS.org.
  35. ^ Brownstein, Bill. "The son who survived Jonestown." The Gazette. Canada. 9 March 2007.

American Experience (sometimes abbreviated AmEx) is a television program airing on the PBS network in the United States. ... Seductive Poison: A Jonestown Survivors Story of Life and Death in the Peoples Temple is a first-hand account of the incidents surrounding Peoples Temple, written by survivor Deborah Layton. ... Seductive Poison: A Jonestown Survivors Story of Life and Death in the Peoples Temple is a first-hand account of the incidents surrounding Peoples Temple, written by survivor Deborah Layton. ... Seductive Poison: A Jonestown Survivors Story of Life and Death in the Peoples Temple is a first-hand account of the incidents surrounding Peoples Temple, written by survivor Deborah Layton. ... Crouse College, a 19th-century Romanesque building which houses the universitys visual arts and music programs Syracuse University (SU) is a private research university located in Syracuse, New York, United States the geographic center of the state, about 250 miles northwest of New York City. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... ESPN.com is the official website of ESPN and a division of ESPN Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Klineman, George and Sherman Butler. The Cult That Died. G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1980. ISBN 0-399-12540-X.
  • Layton, Deborah. Seductive Poison. Anchor Books, 1999. ISBN 0-385-48984-6.
  • Naipaul, Shiva. Black & White. Hamish Hamilton, London, 1980. ISBN 0-241-10337-1.

A survivor/defector of Jonestown who, in a sworn affidavit wrote that during one of the white nights [mass suicide rehearsals], people were told that they would die, and were forced to drink unsweetened Flavor Aid that they thought contained poison. ... Shiva Naipaul (25 February 1945 – 13 August 1985), born Shivadhar Srivinasa Naipaul in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, was a Trinidadian and British novelist and journalist. ...

External links

Crouse College, a 19th-century Romanesque building which houses the universitys visual arts and music programs Syracuse University (SU) is a private research university located in Syracuse, New York, United States the geographic center of the state, about 250 miles northwest of New York City. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Father Divine (c. ... The Wings of Deliverance was a religious group founded by James Warren Jones on April 4, 1955. ... The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), often abbreviated as the Disciples of Christ or Christian Church, is a denomination of Christian Restorationism that grew out of the Restoration Movement founded by Thomas Campbell and Alexander Campbell of Pennsylvania and West Virginia (then Virginia) and Barton W. Stone of Kentucky. ... For other uses, see Jonestown (disambiguation). ... Mark Lane is the author of the book Rush to Judgment. ... A survivor/defector of Jonestown who, in a sworn affidavit wrote that during one of the white nights [mass suicide rehearsals], people were told that they would die, and were forced to drink unsweetened Flavor Aid that they thought contained poison. ... Flavor Aid is a soft drink beverage made by Jel Sert, introduced in 1929. ... John Richard Burke (1924 - 1993), United States Ambassador, previously Ambassador to Guyana during the Jonestown Massacre. ... Houses in Jonestown Jonestown was the communal settlement made in northwestern Guyana by the Peoples Temple, a cult from California. ... Cult Awareness Network - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For the whistleblower, see Gerald W. Brown. ... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ... Mayor Moscone George Richard Moscone (November 24, 1929 – November 27, 1978) was the mayor of San Francisco, California from January 1976 until his assassination in November 1978. ... Willie Lewis Brown, Jr. ... Leo Joseph Ryan, Jr. ... Jackie Speier is a Democratic member of the California State Senate representing San Francisco and San Mateo Counties. ... Charles I. Krause (1911-2002) was an American labor union organizer and local executive. ... For other uses, see Bob Brown (disambiguation). ... Cover page of the book Jonestown Carnage: A CIA Crime The Jonestown Carnage: a CIA Crime is a book published by Progress Publishers, USSR. S.F.Alinin, B.G.Antonov and A.N.Itskov jointly authored the book in Russian, which was later translated into English by Nadeshda Burova and... Seductive Poison: A Jonestown Survivors Story of Life and Death in the Peoples Temple is a first-hand account of the incidents surrounding Peoples Temple, written by survivor Deborah Layton. ... Leo Joseph Ryan, Jr. ... The Leo J. Ryan Award was established by the Leo J. Ryan Education Foundation in honor of Congressman Leo J. Ryan; the only United States Congressman to be killed in the line of duty. ... Leo J. Ryan Memorial Park is a recreational city park, located in Foster City, California and run by the city government and local citizens. ... The Leo J. Ryan Memorial Federal Building, also known as the Leo J. Ryan Memorial Federal Archives and Records Center, is a United States government office facility which opened in 1973, and is located in San Bruno, California. ... USA/From Where We Stand: Readings in Contemporary American Problems is a non-fiction book published by Fearon Publishers in 1970. ... USA/From Where We Stand: Readings in Contemporary American Problems is a non-fiction book published by Fearon Publishers in 1966. ... The Hughes-Ryan Act was an amendment to the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, that forces the President of the United States to report all covert Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) operations to a Congressional committee within a set time limit. ... Congressional Gold Medal presented to Navajo Code talkers in 2000 The Congressional Gold Medal should not be confused with the Medal of Honor (commonly called the Congressional Medal of Honor), which is also awarded by Congress, but only to military members as the highest military decoration of the United States. ... This is a list of recipients of the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest civilian honor bestowed by the United States legislature. ... Pat Nixon Patricia Ryan Nixon (March 16, 1912 - June 22, 1993) was the wife of Richard Nixon and First Lady of the United States. ... Jackie Speier is a Democratic member of the California State Senate representing San Francisco and San Mateo Counties. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jim Jones: Biography and Much More from Answers.com (2015 words)
Jim Jones was born in Crete, Indiana, near Lynn, Indiana and was the son of James and Lynetta Thurman Jones.
Jones is on record as later telling his followers that he was "the only true heterosexual", but at least one account exists of his sexually abusing a member of his congregation in front of the followers, ostensibly to prove the man's own homosexual tendencies.
Jones had borrowed the term "revolutionary suicide" from Black Panther leader Huey Newton who had argued the slow suicide of life in the ghetto ought to be replaced by revolutionary struggle that would end only in victory (socialism and self determination) or revolutionary suicide (death).
Jonestown, Guyana Mass Suicide, Massacre, & Jim Jones Cult (3125 words)
Jim Jones was a follower of Sayville’s Father Divine and spent a lot of time with him at his home.
Jones was vastly impressed both by his spell-binding preaching techniques and by the total control he still exerted on his congregation (which consisted mainly of elderly fl women).
The Reverendo Jim Jones of the Guyana compound.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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